CS2201 DATA STRUCTURES Two Mark Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai

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CS2201 DATA STRUCTURES UNIT –I

LINEAR STRUCTURES

1. What are the main objectives of Data structure?

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problems can be solved by using these entities and operations. operations on these concrete representation.

2. Need of a Data structure?

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memory. manner.

3. Define data structure with example.

s to determine what classes of abstract

within the mathematical

A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored but also their relationship to each other.

e.g.: Arrays, Records etc.

e.g of complex data structure

Stacks, Queues, Linked list, Trees, Graphs.

4. Define abstract data type and list its advantages.

ADT is a set of operations.

An abstract data type is a data declaration packaged together with the operations that are meaning full on the data type.

Abstract Data Type

1. Declaration of data

2. Declaration of operations.

Advantages:

1. Easy to debug small routines than large ones.

2. Easy for several people to work on a modular program simultaneously.

3. A modular program places certain dependencies in only one routine, making changes easier.

5. What are the two basic types of Data structures?

1. Primitive Data structure

Eg., int,char,float

2. Non Primitive Data Structure i. Linear Data structure

Eg., Lists Stacks Queues ii. Non linear Data structure

Eg., Trees Graphs

6. List out the different ways to implement the list?

1. Array Based Implementation

2. Linked list Implementation i. Singly linked list

ii. Doubly linked list

iii. Cursor based linked list

7. Define singly linked list with neat diagram.

A singly linked list is a collection of nodes each node is a structure it consisting of an element and a pointer to a structure containing its successor, which is called a next pointer.

The last cell’s next pointer points to NULL specified by zero.

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8. Write the routine for insertion operation of singly linked list.

Void Insert (ElementType X, List L, Position P)

{ Position TmpCell; TmpCell=malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); if(TmpCell==NULL)

FatalError(“Out of space!!!”); TmpCell->Element =X; TmpCell->Next=P->Next;

P->Next=TmpCell;

}

9. List out the advantages and disadvantages of singly linked list.

Advantages:

1. Easy insertion and deletion.

2. Less time consumption. Disadvantages:

1. Data not present in a linear manner.

2. Insertion and deletion from the front of the list is difficult without the use of header

node.

10. Define doubly linked- linked list with neat diagram.

Doubly linked list is a collection of nodes where each node is a structure containing the following fields

1. Pointer to the previous node.

2. Data.

3. Pointer to the next node.

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11. Define circularly linked list with neat diagram.

Circularly linked list is a collection of nodes , where each node is a structure containing the element and a pointer to a structure containing its successor.

The pointer field of the last node points to the address of the first node. Thus the linked list becomes circular.

12. Define stack ADT with example.

A stack is a list with a restriction that insertions and deletions can be performed in only one position namely the end of the list called the top.

e.g.: undo statement in text editor. Pile of bills in a hotel.

13. State the operations on stack. Define them and give the diagrammatic representation. Push

Pop

Top

Push: Push is performed by inserting at the top of stack.

Pop: pop deletes the most recently inserted element.

Top: top operation examines the element at the top of the stack and returns its value.

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14. Write the routine for push operation.

Void Push(ElementType X,Stack S) Stack S

Pop(S) Push(X,S) Top(S)

{

PtrToNode TmpCell; TmpCell=malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); If(TmpCell==NULL)

FatalError(“out of space!!!”);

else{

TmpCell->Element=x; TmpCell->Next=s->Next; S->Next=TmpCell;

}}

15. What is the purpose of top and pop?

Top operation examines the element in the top of the list and returns its value. Pop operation deletes the element at the top of the stack and decrements the top of the stack pointer by one.

16. State the disadvantages of linked list implementation of stack.

1. Calls to malloc and free functions are expensive.

2. Using pointers is expensive.

17. State the applications of stack.

1. Balancing parentheses.

2. Postfix Expression.

i. Infix to postfix conversion

3. Function calls.

18. Convert into postfix and evaluate the following expression.

(a+b*c)/d

a=2 b=4 c=6 d=2

Ans: Post fix: abc*+d/ Evaluation:

2 4 6 * +2/

=13

19. Define queue with examples.

Queue is a list in which insertion is done at one end called the rear and deletion is performed at another called front. e.g: Ticket counter.

Phone calls waiting in a queue for the operator to receive.

20. List the operations of queue.

Two operations

1. Enqueue-inserts an element at the end of the list called the rear.

2. Dequeue-delets and returns the element at the start of the list called as the front.

21. Write the routines for dequeue operation in queue.

Void Dequeue(Queue Q)

{ If(IsEmpty(Q)) Error(“Empty Queue”); Else

Q->front++;

}

22. List the Applications of queue?

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23. Define priority queue with diagram and give the operations.

Priority queue is a data structure that allows at least the following two operations.

1. Insert-inserts an element at the end of the list called the rear.

2. DeleteMin-Finds, returns and removes the minimum element in the priority Queue.

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Operations: Insert DeleteMin

24. Give the applications of priority queues.

There are three applications of priority queues

1. External sorting.

2. Greedy algorithm implementation.

3. Discrete even simulation.

4. Operating systems.

EC 1007 TELEVISION & VIDEO ENGINEERING Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai

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PART B

1. Describe how the flicker is solved by interlaced scanning?

2. Explain the structure and the generation of video output from a vidicon camera.

3. Give the constructional details of a monochrome picture tube and explain the beam landing

4. Explain in detail the silicon diode array vidicon camera tube.

5. Write notes on composite video signal.

6. Draw Block Diagram of RF Tuner and explain how incoming signals from different sections are translated to common picture IF and sound IF frequencies.

7. Describe briefly the factors that influenced the choice of picture IF =38.9 and sound IF =33.4MHz in the 625 line system.

8. Explain how composite video signal is detected ?How is the polarity of video output signal decided?

9. Draw block diagram of a monochrome TV receiver and briefly explain the

operation of TV receiver.

10. Explain briefly the operation of IF subsystem.

11.Explain in detail the NTSC color receiver system.

12. Explain working of a pAL system.

13.Describe with necessary diagrams the encoding of color difference signal.

14.Describe the generation of Y signal and color difference signals.

Find the value for cyan.

Y=0.30R+0.59G+0.11B.

15.Explain in detail about SECAM system.

.16.Explain the working of U and V demodulators. .

17.Describe with a circuit Burst phase discriminator.

18.Write the need and working of Automatic Gain control Circuit.

19.Write Short notes on color killer circuit.

20.Briefly explain PAL-D system.

21.Briefly explain satellite based TV broadcast system.

22.Write short notes on Video disc system.

23.Write short notes on High definition Television.

24. Briefly explain CATV system.

25. Briefly explain Digital TV transmission and reception

EC 1007 TELEVISION & VIDEO ENGINEERING Two Mark Questions And Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai

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Electronics &Communication Engineering

Subject code: EC 1007

Subject: Television and Video Engineering

(For seventh semester ECE )

2 Mark Questions and Answers

UNIT -I

1. Mention the major function of the camera tube?

The major function of the camera tube is to convert an optical image into electrical

signals.

2. Define visual acuity?

Visual acuity can be defined as the ability of human eye to resolve finer details in a picture

3. What do you refer by persistence of eye?

The persistence of eye refers to the storage capability of the human eye

4.Define luminous intensity?

It is the measure of light intensity responsible for stimulating visual sensation.

5.Define aspect ratio?

Aspect ratio can be defined as the ratio of width to height of the picture frame. For television, it is standardized as 4:3.

6.Define luminous flux?

Luminous flux can be defined as the radiated luminous power or power of visible light expressed interms of its effect on the average or normal human eye.

7.Define luminance?

Luminance can be defined as the quantity of light intensity emitted per square centimeter of an illuminated area.

8.What do you understand by illuminance?

Illuminance is the average luminous flux incident on to a surface.

9.what do you mean by resolving power or resolution?

It is the ability of the image reproducing system to represent the fine structure of an object.

10.Mention some important characteristics of human eye?

Visual acuity, persistence of vision, brightness and colour sensation are some of the important characteristics of human eye.

11.What are rods and cones?

The retina of the human eye consists of light sensitive cellular structures of two kinds namely rods and cones. The rods sense primarily the brightness levels including very faint impressions. The cones are mainly responsible for colour perception. There are

65 lakhs cones and about 10 crores rods connected to the brain through 8 lakhs optic nerve fibres.

12.Give the relationship between eye parameters?

The eye parameters are related by the following equation:

Where,

B=constant / c2 a02

c- the constant ratio

b-the scene brightness

0 - the minimum resolvable angle

13.Why is scanning necessary in television system?

Scanning is the important process carried out in a television system inorder to obtain continuous frames and provides motion of picture. The scene is scanned both in the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously in a rabid rate. As a result sufficient number of complete picture of frames per second is obtained to give the illusion of continuous motion.

14.What do you understand by flicker?

The result of 24 pictures per second in motion pictures and that of scanning 25 frames per second in television pictures is enough to make an illusion of continuity. But, they are not rapid enough to permit the brightness of one picture or frame to blend smoothly in the next through the time when the screen is blanked between successive

frames. This develops in a definite flicker of light that is very irritating to the observer when the screen is made alternately bright and dark.

15.How will you solve the flickering problem?

The flickering problem is solved in motion pictures by showing each picture twice. Hence 48 views of the scene are shown per second although they are still the same

24 pictures frames per second. As a result of the increased

blanking rate, flicker is removed. In TV, Interlaced scaning is used to avoid flicker

16.What do you mean by interlaced scanning?

When the scanning beam reaches the bottom o f the picture frame, it quickly returns to the top to scan those lines that were missed in the previous

scanning. Hence the total number of lines are divided into two groups called

fields. Each field is scanned alternately. This way of scanning is called interlaced scanning.

17.Define vertical resolution?

The capability of resolving picture details in the vertical direction is called vertical resolution.

18.What is horizontal resolution?

The ability of the system to resolve maximum number of picture elements along the scanning lines determines horizontal resolution.

19.List the contents of a composite video signal?

Composite video signal consists of a camera signal, blanking pulses and synchronizing pulses.

20.What do you mean by pedestal?

The difference between the black level and blanking level is known as the pedestal.


UNIT -II

1.Define peak-white level?

The peak-white level is defined as the level of the video signal when the picture detail being transmitted corresponds to the maximum whiteness to be

handled

2.Define pedestal height?

Pedestal height is the distance between the pedestal level and the average value axis of the video signal.

3.What is the main function of the blanking pulses?

The composite video signal consist of blanking pulses to make the retrace lines invisible by increasing the signal amplitude little above the black level of 75percent during the time scanning the circuits develop retrace.

4.What are per the post equalizing pulses?

To rectify the drawback which occurs on account of half-line discrepancy five narrow pulses are added on either side of the vertical sync pulse. These are called pre- equalising and post-equalising pulses .

5. Differentiate monochrome and colour camera tube.

In black and white camera only one pickup tube is needed but three such tubes or its equivalent is necessary in color cameras to develop separate signals for red ,green and blue information present in the scene.

6. Why do we prefer horizontal polarization for television receiving antenna?

We prefer horizontal polarization for television receiver antenna because it results in more signal strength, less reflection and reduced ghost images.

7.Where can you employ indoor receiver antennas?

In strong signal areas it is sometimes feasible to use indoor antennas provided the receiver is sufficiently sensitive.

8.A yagi antenna with a large number of directors is commonly used with success in fringe areas for stations in the vhf band.

9.What do you understand by diplexer?

The outputs of both the video and the audio transmitter are combined by the diplexer circuit and given to a common broadcast transmitting antenna.

10. If two stations are operating at the same carrier frequency and located nearby then they will interface with each other. This is called co-cannel interference and it is common in fringe areas.

11 It is the interference due to stations located nearby and allocated as adjacent channels.

12.Define guard band?

Guard band can be defined as a small frequency band introduced between two consecutive channels inorder to reduce interference .

13. Ghost interference arises as a result of discrete reflections of the signal from the surface of hills, bridges, buildings, towers etc.

14.Mention the requirements of high level modulation?

In high level modulation, the video signal has to be modulated by the picture carrier in the final power amplifier which has a high power level. Grid bias modulation is employed.

15.What do you understand by ground waves?

Vertically polarized electromagnetic waves are radiated at zero or small angles with ground. They are guided by the conducting surface of the ground along which they are propagated. Such waves are known as ground or surface waves. As the ground waves travel along the surface of the earth, their attenuation is proportional to frequency. The attenuation is reasonably low below

1500KHz.Therefore, all medium wave broadcast and long wave telegraph and telephone communication is carried out by ground wave propagation.

16.What are sky waves?

In ground wave propagation ,frequencies above 1600 KHz does not serve any useful purpose as the signal gets very much attenuated within a short distance of its transmission .Therefore ,most radio communication in short wave bands upto 30MHz is carried out by sky waves.When these waves are transmitted high up in the sky ,

they travel in the straight line until the ionosphere is reached. This region begins about 120Km above the surface of the earth. The region consists of large concentrations of charge gaseous ions, free electrons and neutral molecules. The ions and free electrons cause to band all passing electromagnetic waves.

17.Describe briefly about space wave propagation.

Propagation of radio waves above about 40MHz is not possible through either sky wave or surface wave propagation .Therefore ,the only alternative for

transmission in the VHF and UHF bands, despite large attenuation is by radio waves which travel in a straight line from transmitter to receiver. This called space wave propagation.

18.Why is AM preferred over FM broadcasting the picture signal?

If FM is adopted for picture transmission ,the changing beat frequency between the multiple paths delayed with respect to each other would develop a bar interference in the image with a shimmering effect as the bars continuously changes as the beat frequency changes therefore ,no study picture is produced.Apart from that ,circuit complexity and BW requirements are much less in AM than FM.Hence AM is preferred to FM for broadcasting the picture signal.

19.What is Dipole array?

Dipole antenna is used for band I&III transmitters. It consists of diploe pnels mounted on the four sides at the top of the antenna tower.Each panel has an array of full wave dipoles mounted in front of reflectors. To get an unidirectional pattern ,the four panels mounted on the four sides of the tower are so fed that the current in each lags behind the previous by 90 degree . This is done by changing

the field cable length by /4 to the two alternate panels and by reversal of polarity of the current.


UNIT-III

1. Define Image rejection ratio.

Image rejection ratio is defined as the output due to desired station divided by output due to image signal.

2. What do you refer by Yagi uda Antenna?

This is a widely used antenna for television receivers .Generally ,for locations within 40 to 60Km from the transmitter is the folded dipole with one reflector and one director. This is commonly called Yagi antenna or Yagi-Uda antenna.

3. Name the essential parts of TV transmitter.

 

The essential parts of TV tranmitter includes a video processing unit . A visual modulator which is a diode bridge modulator, phase compensator or delay equalizer and frequency converter.

4. What is the main purpose of using VHF tuner?

The purpose tuner unit is to amplify both picture and sound signals picked up the antenna and to convert the carrier frequencies and their associated side bands into intermediate frequencies.

5. Name the essential components of RF section.

RF tuner section consists of RF amplifier ,mixer and local oscillator and is normally mounted on a separate subchasis,called the front end.

6. What are the major tasks to be done by detector?

The video detector is designed to recover composite video signal and to transform the sound signal to another lower carrier frequency.

7. Why is video amplifier required?

The amplitude of the composite video signal at the output of video detector is not enough to drive the picture tube directly . Therefore further amplification is required. This is done by video amplifier.

8. What are Sync pulses?

The Synchronizing pulses called 'Sync' are part of the composite video signal as the top 25% of the signal amplitude. The sync pulses include horizontal ,vertical and equalizing pulses. Sync separator separates these signals from the video signal.

9. Define frequency Distortion.

The inequality in gain at different frequency components of the received signal is called frequency distortion.

10. List out the advantages of IF sections.

The main function of this section is to amplify modulated IF signal over its entire bandwidth with an input of about 0.5mV signal from the mixer to deliver about

4V into the video detector.

IF section is used to equalize amplitudes of sideband components ,because of vestigial side band transmission.

IF section is used to reject the signals from adjacent channels.

11. What is meant by high level modulation.

In high level modulation modulation occurs in the output circuit of the final amplifier.

12. What do you understand by Hue?

Hue or tint can be defined as the predominant spectral colour of the received light. The colour of any object is distinguished by its hue or tint.

13. Define Brightness.

Brightness can be defined as theamount of light intensity as perceived by the eye regardless of the colour.

14. What do you mean by saturation?

Saturation refers to the spectral purity of the colour light.It indicates the degree by which the colour is diluted by white.

15. List any three requirements to be satisfied for compatibility in television systems. a. It should has the same bandwidth as the corresponding monochrome

signal.

b. The colour signal should have the same brightness information as that of monochrome signal.

c. The location and spacing of the picture and sound carrier frequencies

should remain the same.

16. What is additive mixing?

All light sensations to the eye are splitted in to three main colour groups namely red,blue and green. The optic nerve system integratesthe different colour impressions in accordance with the curve to perceive the actual colour of the object.

17. State grassman's law.

The brightness impression produced by the three primaries that constitute the single light. This property of the eye of generating a response which depends on the algebraic sum of the blue ,red and green inputs is called grassman's law.

18. Explain the significance of generating colour difference signals.

Colour difference signals are generated to avoid the separate transmission of R,G,B signals.

19. Why is (G-y) not suitable for transmission?

The proportion of G is large in luminance signal,hence magnitude of (G- Y) is relatively small so it requires amplifiers at the receiving end. It affect the signal to noise ratio at the transmitting end.

20. What is gamma correction.

A colour camera is used develop three voltages proportional to red,green and blue colour contents of the picture.These voltages are represented as R,G,B.a correction is applied to these voltages to compensate for any nonlinearity of the system and that of the picture tube.This is called gamma correction.i.e. the camera tube output voltage amplitudes are normalized to I V p-p level.

21. What do you mean by colour burst?

In PAL system the two carrier components are suppressed i n the balanced quadrature modulator it is necessary to regenerate at the receiver for demodulation

.For this ,8 to 10 cycles of the colour subcarrier oscillator output at the encoder are

transmitted along with other sync pulses. This sample of the colour subcarrier called colour burst,is placed at the back porch of each horizontal blanking pulse pedestal.

22. What is swinging burst?

The PAL burst phase actually swings 45 about the -U axis from line to line and indicates the same sign as that of the V signal;thus the switching mode information is the swinging burst.this is known as swinging burst.

23. Merits of SECAM system.

SECAM system has several advantages because of frequency modulation of the subcarrier and transmission of one line at a time. SECAM receivers are immune to phase distortion.

Both the luminance and chrominance signals are not present at the same time

,there is no possibility of cross talk between the colour difference signals. Ther is no need for the use of QAM at the transmitter and synchronous detectors at the receiver.

The receiver does not need Automatic tuning control and Automatic color

control

24. Demerits of SECAM system.

In SECAM system luminance is represented by the amplitude of voltage but hue and saturation are represented by deviation of the subcarrier.when a composite signal involving luminance and chrominance is faded out in studio operation,it is the luminance signal that is readily attenuated and not6 the chrominance.This makes the color more saturated during fade to black.


UNIT- IV

1. Limitations of the NTSC system.

The NTSC system is sensitive to transmission path differences which introduces phase errors that result in colour changes in the picture. At the transmitter,phase changes in the chroma signal take place when change over between programmes of local and television network systems takes place and when video tape recorders are switched on .The phase angle is also affected by the level of the signal while passing through various circuits .In addition cross talk between demodulator outputs at the receiver causes colour distortion.

. Mention some features of PAL system.

a. The weighted (B-Y) and (R-Y) signals are modulated without being given a phase shift of 33 as is done in the NTSC system.

b. On modulation both the color difference signals are allowed the same bandwidth of about 1.3MHz.

c. The color subcarrier frequency is chosen to be 4.43MHz.

d. The weighted color difference signals are quadrature modulated with the subcarrier.

3. Write notes on NTSC system.

NTSC system is compatible with 525 line American system.In order to maintain compatibility two new colour difference signals are generated and they are represented as I and Q. Since eye is capable of resolving finer details in the regions around I,it is allowed to have a maximum bandwidth of 1.5MHz.The bandwidth of Q signal is restricted to 0.5MHz.

4. What is the difference between NTSC,PAL and SECAM?

The difference between the SECAM system on one hand and NTSC and PAL on the other is that the later transmit and receive two chrominance signals simultaneously while in the SECAM system only one of the two color difference signal is transmitted at a time.

5. What do you mean by high frequency preemphasis?

In SECAM system, the chrominance signals are pre-emphasized before modulation. After modulating the carrier with the pre-emphasized and weighted color difference signals, another form of preemphasis is carried out on the signals. This takes the form of increasing amplitude of the sub carrier as its deviation increases. Such a preemphasis is called high frequency preemphasis.

6. What is the use of line identification pulses?

In SECAM system ,the switching of Dr and Db signals line by line takes place during the line sync pulse period.The sequence of switching continues without interruption from one field to the next and is maintained through the field blanking interval.However it is necessary for the receiver to be able to deduce as to which line is being transmitted.Such an identification of the proper sequence of color lines in each field is accomplished by identification pulses.

7. Write notes on luminance channel.

The video amplifier in the luminance channel is Dc coupled and has the same bandwidth as in the monochrome receiver. It is followed by a delay line to compensate for the additional delay the color signal suffers because of limited bandpass of the chrominance amplifier .This ensures time coincidence of the luminance and chrominance signals. The channel also includes a notch filter which attenuates the subcarrier by about 10db.This helps to suppress the

appearance of any dot structure on the screen along with the color picture.

8. What is the use of chrominance bandpass amplifier?

The chroma bandpass amplifier selects the chrominance signal and rejects other unwanted components of the composite signal.

9. What do you mean by automatic color control?

The ACC circuit is similar to the AGC circuit used for automatic gain control of RF and IF stages of the receiver.It develops a dc control voltage that is proportional to the amplitude of the color burst.

10. Write short notes on color killer circuit.

When a monochrome transmission is received there is no input to the color killer and no positive voltage is developed . Therefore no input is given to the second chroma amplifier from the color killer circuit ,it blocks the second chroma amplifier.Thus it prevents the color noise on black and white picture.

11. Merits of PAL system.

The problem of differential phase errors has been successfully overcome in the PAL system.

12. Demerits of PAL system.

The use of phase alteration by line technique and associated control circuitry together with the need of a delay line in the receiver makes the PAL system more complicated and expensive.The receiver cost is higher for the PAL colour system.

13. What do you mean by automatic frequency tuning?

AFT is used to improve the stability of the oscillator circuit ,some drift does occur on account of ambient temperature changes ,component aging ,power supply voltage fluctuation and so on. The fine tuning control is adjusted to get a sharp picture.

14. Write short notes on burst seperator.

The burst seperator circuit has the function of extracting 8 to 10 cycles of reference color burst which are transmitted on the back porch of every horizontal pulse

.the circuit is tuned to the subcarrier frequency and is keyed on during the flyback time by pulses derived from the horizontal output stage.

15. What is the use of color subcarrier oscillator?

The function of subcarrier oscillator is to generate a carrier wave output at 3.57MHz and feed it to the demodulators.The subcarrier frequency is maintained at its correct value and phase by the APC circuit.

16. How the phase error is cancelled in the PAL system.

In PAL system phase shift error is cancelled by reversing the phase angle of v signal on alternate lines.

17. Give the abbreviation for NTSC, SECAM ,and PAL.

NTSC -National Television systems committee

SECAM -Sequential -a-Memoire

PAL - Phase Alteration by Line

18. What do you understand by PAL -D Colour system.

The use of eye as the averaging mechanism for the correct hue is the basic concept of simple 'PAL' system. Beyond a certain limit , the human eye see the effect of colour changes on alternate lines hence the system needs modification. Considerable improvement found in the system of a delay line is used to do the averaging first and then present the color to the eye.This is called PAL-D or delay line PAL method and is most commonly employe in PAL receivers.

19. Write short notes on colour subcarrier frequency of PAL D system.

The color sub carrier frequency of 4.43MHz is produced with a crystal controlled oscillator .To accomplish minimum raster disturbance through the color subcarrier it is important to maintain correct frequency relationship between the scanning frequencies and subcarrier frequency .Therefore ,it is usual to count down from the subcarrier frequency to twice the line frequency pulses .

20. write short notes on AGC circuit.

AGC circuit is used to control the gain of RF and IF amplifiers .The change in gain is achieved by shifting the operating point of transistors used in the amplifiers.The operating point is changed by a bias voltage that is developed in the AGC circuit.

21. What do you mean by Peak AGC system?

The system based on sampling the sync tip levels is known as "peak" AGC system.The Peak AGC system is also called as non-keyed AGC sytem.

22. What are the two types of AGC control?

Forward AGC control

Reverse AGC control


UNIT -V

1. What is Forward AGC control?

In any transistor amplifier ,gain is varied by shifting the operating point either towards collector current cutoff or saturation. This actually varies beta of the transistor and

hence the stage gain changes.When gain is changed by shifting the operating point towards current cutoff ,then it is called "Reverse AGC".

2. What is forward AGC?

In any transistor amplifier ,gain is varied by shifting the operating point either towards collector current cutoff or saturation. This actually varies beta of the

transistor and hence the stage gain changes.When gain is changed by shifting the operating point towards collector current saturation ,then it is called "Forward AGC".

3. List the draw backs of nonkeyed AGC.

The AGC voltage developed across the peak rectifier load tends to increase during vertical sync pulse periods because the video signal amplitude remains almost at the peak value every time vertical sync pulses occur. This results in a 50Hz ripple over the

negative AGC voltage and reduces gain of the receiver during these intervals.The reduced

gain results in weak vertical sync pulse which in turn can put the vertical deflection oscillator out of synchronism causing rolling of the picture.

4. Merits of Keyed AGC system.

AGC voltage developed is a true representation of the peak of fixedsync level and thus corresponds to the actual incoming signal strength.

Noise effects are minimized because conduction is restricted to a small

fraction of the total line period.

5. Write short notes on CATV.

CATV stands for community antenna television systems. The CATV system is a cable system distributes good quality television signal to a very large number of receivers throughout an entire community. Generally this system gives increased TV programmes to subscribers who pay a fee for this service. A cable system may have many more active VHF and UHF channels than a receiver tuner can directly select.

.

6. What do you understand by satellite TV?

Satellite TV is a TV from space. Broadcasters from earth transmit their programmes to specified satellites. Then, the transmissions are returned to receiving equipment on the ground. Therefore, the better the receiving equipment ,the higher the quality of the reception.

7. List some of the applications of satellite TV?

The shear range of programmes currently available on satellite channel is very much impressive such as 24-hour music videos, news, and feature films. A variety of general entertainment programmes, sports ,children's programmes , foreign language broadcasts and cultural programmes are all available for the keyboard dish owner. Some of these come through subscription channels and others by free to watch channels which are sponsored by advertising.

8. State the merits of satellite TV.

The picture quality from satellite systems is surprisingly good and compares well with conventional land based TV transmissions. In addition unlike terrestrial broadcasts it is free from the spectrum of picture ghosting.

9. Mention the limitations of satellite TV.

The limitation of the satellite TV is varying picture and audio quality .By adopting de-emphasis circuits we can avoid the variations.

10. Give the applications of video tape recorders.

Smaller and lower priced video tape recorders using ½ inch tape are available for closed type circuit TV or for use in the home. They can record and playback programs on a television receiver in color and monochrome. In addition to that small portable cameras are provided for a complete television system with the recorder. These portable systems are also employed for taping television programs from a remote are also employed for taping television programs from a remote location for away from the TV broadcast studio.

11. List some merits of high definition television.

Improvement in both vertical and horizontal resolution of the reproduced picyure by approximately 2:1 over existing standards.

Much improved colour rendition

Higher aspect ratio of atleast 5:3

Stereophonic sound

12. What do you mean by Longitudinal video recording?

A method in which video signals are recorded on atleast several tracks along the length of the tape.

13. What do you mean by Quadruplex (Transverse) scan recording?

In transverse scan recording ,four recording heads are spaced 90 apart and are mounted on a rotating drum and the tape moves past it,transversely.Each head comes in contact with the tape as the previous one leaves it.

14. What do you mean by helical scan recording ?

In helical scan recording ,the two recording heads 'look at ' the tape surface as it is drawn past them through two tiny rectangular slits mounted on opposite sides of the drum.The heads thus trace out diagonal tracks across the tape,one track per head.

15.

16.

What are two types of video disc system? Laser or optical disc system

Capacitance disc system

List the fundamental components of DVD player. A

drive motor to spin the disc.

A laser and lens system to focus in on the bumps and read them.

Tracking mechanism that can move the laser assembly so that the lasers beam can follow the spiral track.

Electronic circuitry

17. What are the advantages of DVD players over VCR's.

The quality of picture and sound in a DVD is better than on a video tape,and DVD's maintain their high quality over time,because there is no physical contact with the disc as it revolves.

18. List 4 merits of digital TV receivers.

o Reduced Ghosts

o Reduction of 50Hz flicker

o High resolution pictures

o Slow motion action

EC2021-Medical Electronics Two Marks Questions With Answers

Anna University, Chennai

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EC2021-Medical Electronics Year/semester:III/VI Department:ECE

Two Marks Q & A

1.Define cell.

A cell is the basic living unit of the body.

2.The entire body contains above 100 trillion cells.

3.) What is a tissue?

A group of cells of the same type is called tissue.

4. How energy is released for cell function?

In all cells, oxygen combines with carbohydrate, fat or protein to release the energy required for cell function.

5. Discuss briefly about cell.

Each cell consists of a centrally located nucleus (cell core) surrounded by the cytoplasm (cell body). The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane.

6. About 75 percent of cell is water.

7. The principle fluid medium of the cell is water.

8. What is protoplasm?

Different substances that make up the cell are collectively called protoplasm. It consists of water, electrolytes, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

9. The mitochondria organelles are called power houses of the cell.

10. What is DNA?

DNA is nothing but deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) similar to that found in the nucleus. DNA is the basic substance of the nucleus that controls replication of the cell.

11. The structure which is present inside the nucleus is called nucleolus.

12. What is ECF?

Extra cellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid which lies outside the cell membrane.

13. What is ICF?

Intra cellular fluid (ICF) is the fluid which lies inside the cell membrane.

14What is active transport?

When a cell membrane moves molecules or ions uphill against a concentration gradient, then the process is known as active transport.

15. What is passive transport?

The transport of the substances through the cell membrane occurs by diffusion is called passive transport.

16. Define membrane potential.

The diffusion and drift processes give rise to membrane potential. The various ions seek a balance between the inside and outside of the cell by diffusion and drift.

17. Give the approximate value of the resting potential for living cell.

The approximate value of the resting potential for living cell is – 70mV.

18. What is the range of resting potential?

The resting potential ranges from -60 to -100nV.

19. List the characteristics of resting potential.

· The value of the resting potential is maintained as a constant until some kind of disturbance occurs.

· It is strongly depending on the temperature.

· Since the permabilities of the different cell types vary, the corresponding resting potentials vary.

20. When the cell is said to be polarized?

When the cell is in resting state, then it is said to be polarized.

21. Define depolarization.

The process of changing from the resting potential state to the action potential state is called depolarization.

22. State all-or nothing law.

Regardless of the method of excitation of cells or the intensity of the stimulus, which is assumed to greater than the threshold of stimulus. The action potential is always- the same for any given cell. This is known as all- or nothing law.

23. Define absolute refractory period.

Absolute refractory period is the time duration of the cell non response to further stimuli. It is about 1 millisecond in nerve cell.

24. Define relative refractory period.

Following the absolute refractory period there is a brief period of time during which another action potential can be triggered but a much stronger stimulation is required. This period is called relative refractory period.

25. Define conduction velocity.

The rate at which an action potential moves down a fiber of a nerve cell or is propagated from cell to cell is called the propagation rate or conduction velocity.

26.Give the range of nerve conduction speed.

The conduction velocity varies in nerves depending on the type and diameter of the fiber and is from 20 n/s to 140 m/s. But in heart muscle, it is very slower ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 m/s.

27. Define depolarization and repolarization.

When the cell fires however, the outside of the cell becomes momentarily negative with respect to the interior. A short time later, the cell regains the normal state in which the inside is again negative with respect to outside. The discharging and recharging of the cell is known as depolarization and repolarization.

28. A long is called axon.

29. The nerve cell with its dendrites and fiber is called neuron.

30. A connection between two excitable cells, in the form of a contact surface between two neurons is called synapse.

31. Discuss briefly about organ.

The organ of the body is composed of various tissues. The organ contains tissue that furnishes some mechanical strength and specialized tissue that gives a particular function. There are five sense organs of the body. They are eye, nose, ear, tongue and skin.

32. The skeleton consists of 206 bones.

33. The skeletal bone are completely enclosed by a membrane called periosteum.

34. At the top of the skeleton cranium skull is placed.

35. Define inspiration and expiration.

Breathing IN is called inspiration, and breathing OUT is called expiation.

36. The central nervous system is made up of brain and spinal cord.

37. The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerves and group of neurons outside the brain and spinal cord.

38. Bio signal amplifier should be at least a differential amplifier.

39. List the conditions satisfied by a bio-signal amplifier.

· The gain and the frequency response should be more than 100 db. So as to amplify the bio-signal property to drive the recorder.

· It should have 10 W frequency response from d.c. to required frequency of the particular bio-signal.

· The gain and the frequency response should be uniform throughout the required bandwidth.

· The output impedance of the amplifier should be very small.

· The common mode rejection ratio(CNRR) should be at least a differential amplifier.

40. For what purpose isolation amplifier is used?

Isolation amplifier is used to increase the input impedance of the monitoring system in order to isolate the patient from the biomedical instrument.

41.Define noise figure.

The amount of degradation of the signal can be defined in terms of the noise figure. (nj) as defined as

Noise figure = signal to noise ratio at the input signal to the output signal.

42. For what purpose line driving amplifier is used?

Whenever a transducer has high impedance and its output voltage is so low and if want to couple this transducer output to a load having low impedance, we can use line driving amplifier.

43. Define CMRR.

The ability of the differential amplifier circuit to ignore common mode inputs like

50 HZ interference from mains is known as common mode rejection ratio. (CNRR).thus CMRR = amplification of the differential voltage amplification of the common mode voltage.

44. Define early receptor potential. (AU –June 06)

When light falls on the retina, the absorption of photons by photo pigments localized in the outer segment of the retina’s photoreceptors is taking place. This causes the change in the membrane potential. This in turn results in the development of action potential that is transmitted down the optic nerve. The first part “A”of the response to a brief flash light is due to early receptor potentials.

45. Define Later receptor potential (LRP).

The second component “B” with a delay of 1 to 5 milliseconds is due to the Later

receptor potential (LRP).

46. Define Electrooculogram.

A record of corneal- retinal potentials associated with eye movements is called electrooculogram.

47.Define Electroretinography(ERG).

The recording and interpreting the electrical activity of eye is called electrorectinography.

48. What is BRONCHOSPIROMETER?

A bronchospirometer is a dual Spirometer that measures the volumes and capacities of each lung individually. The air-input device is a double luman tube that divides for entry into the airway to each lung, and thus provides isolation for differential measurement. The main function of the bronchospirometer is preoperative evaluation of oxygen consumption of each lung.

49. Define pattern recognition.

Pattern recognition is the detection of specific waveforms by some means. Human beings are often more efficient at recognizing specific waveforms in the bio- signals than electronic analyzers designed for this purpose.

50. List the factors to be considered for designing medical instrument.

Accuracy, frequency response, hysteresis, isolation, linearity, sensitivity, signal- to- noise ratio, simplicity, stability and precision.

51. Define signal processor.

Signal processor is an important part of the instrument system which amplifies, modifies or changes the electrical output of the transducer in a suitable manner to run the recording or display ratio, simplicity, stability and precision.

52. What are electrodes?

Electrodes are devices which are employed to pick up the electrical signals of the body.

53. For what purpose electrode paste is used?

The dry outer skin of the body is highly non-conductive, and will not establish a good electrical contact with an electrode. The skin should therefore be washed thoroughly and rubbed briskly to remove some of the outer cells. This area should then be coated with an electrode paste. The purpose of the electrode paste is to make the skin electrically conductive.

54. List the types of electrodes.

There are three types of electrodes. They are

· Microelectrodes

· Depth electrodes

· Needle electrodes.

55. Discuss about microelectrodes.

Microelectrodes are used to measure the bioelectric potential near or within a single cell. These are also called as intracellular electrodes. They are divided into metallic and non-metallic electrodes.

56.For what purpose depth and needle electrodes are used?

Depth and needle electrodes are used to measure the bioelectric potential of the highly localized extra cellular regions in brain or bioelectrical potentials from a specific group of muscles.

.57. List the uses of surface electrodes.

Surface electrodes are used to measure the potentials available from the surface of the skin and are used to sense the potentials from heart, brain and nerves.

58. List the types of surface electrodes.

· Metal plate electrode

· Suction cup electrode

· Adhesive tape electrode

· Multipoint electrode

· Floating electrode.

59. Define electro pointing.

Electrically etching the tip of a fine tungsten or stainless steel wire to a fine point is known as electrpointing.

60. What is the major advantage of floating type skin surface electrodes?

Floating type skin surface electrodes eliminate movement artifact by avoiding any direct contact of the metal with skin.

61.Give the uses of silver-silver chloride electrode.

Silver-Silver chloride electrodes are used in bio-medical instrumentation.

62. Define half-cell potential.

Half cell potential is defined as the voltage developed at an electrode- electrolyte interface. It is also called as electrode potential.

63.Define electrocardiogram (ECG)

The electrocardiogram is a graphic recording or display of the time variant voltage display produced by myocardium during cardiac cycle.

64.Electrocardiography (ECG) deals with the study of electrical activity of heart muscles.

65.What is arrhythmia?

Arrhythmia is the disturbances in the heart rhythm.

66.What does the ECG reflect?

The ECG reflects the rhythmic electrical depolarization and repolarization of the myocardium (heart muscle) associated with contractions of the atria and ventricles.

67.Draw typical ECG waveform.

The EKG complex. P=P wave,

PR=PR interval, QRS=QRS complex, QT=QT interval, ST=ST segment,

clip_image002T=T wave

68.List the types of electrodes systems for ECG lead configurations.

· Bipolar limb leads or standard leads

· Augmented unipolar limb leads

· Chest leads 9or) pericardial leads.

· Frank lead system (or) corrected orthogonal leads. Among these four systems, the first three are widely used.

69. How the leads taken in bipolar limb leads?

In standard leads, the potentials are tapped from 4 locations of our body. They are (i) right arm (ii) let arm (iii) right leg (iv)left leg. Usually the right leg electrode is acting as ground reference electrode.

70. List the colour codes used for identifying ECG potentials.

White –right arm Black – left arm Green – right leg Red – Left leg. Brown- chest.

71. the graphic record of the heart sounds is called Phonogram.

72. Define phonocardiograph.

Phonocardiogram is an instrument used to measure the heart sounds. The basic aim of phonocardiograph is to pick up the different heart sounds, filter out the heart sounds and to display them or record them.

73.Define heart sounds.

Heart sounds are acoustic phenomena resulting from the vibrations of cardiac structures.

74.List the classifications of heart sounds.

Heart sounds are classified into four group on the basis of their mechanism of origin. They are

· Valve closure sounds

· Ventricular filling sounds

· Valve opening sounds

· Extra cardiac sounds.

75. Acoustic events of the heart can be divided into two categories as heart sounds and murmurs.

76. How the heart sounds and murmurs characterized?

Heart sounds and murmurs are usually characterized by three physical properties. They are

· Frequency

· Amplitude

· Quality

77.List the three augmented lead connections.

The three augmented lead connections are

· Augmented voltage right arm (aVR)

· Augmented voltage left arm (VL)

· Augmented voltage foot (aVF).

78. Were we are using frank lead system?

The corrected orthogonal leads system (or) frank lead system is used in vector cardiography.

79. How many lead selections are required for electrocardiograms?

Twelve lead selections are required to record the electrocardiogram. i.e. 3 standard bipolar leads, 3 augmented leads and 6 chest leads.

80. List the practical considerations for ECG recording.

Artifacts, wandering of base line, solid base line, frequency response.

81.Define heart murmurs.

Heart murmurs are sounds related to non-laminar flow of blood in the heart and great vessels.

82.Give the origin of heart sounds.

There are four basic separate heart sounds that occur during the sequence of one complete cycle.

First heart sound: it is produced by the sudden closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves associated with myocardial contraction.

Second heart sound : it is due to the vibration set up by the closure of semilunar valves. i.e. the closure of arotic and pulmonary valves.

Third heart sound : It arises as the ventricles relax and the internal pressure drops below the pressure in the atrium.

Fourth heart sound : it is also called an atrial sound. It is caused by an accelerated flow

of blood into ventricles or due to atrial contraction.

83.List the conditions that causes turbulence in blood flow.

· Local obstructions to the blood flow

· Abrupt changes n the diameter of the blood stream.

· Pathologic communications in the cardio vascular system.

· Ruptured cardiac structures

· Valve insuffiency

84. For what purpose condenser microscope is used in ECG recording set up?

The condenser microscope is used for conversion of the heart sounds into electrical signals.

85.List the special applications of phonocardiogram.

· Fetal phonocardiogram

· Esophagear phonocardiogram.

· Tracheal phonocardiogram.

86.Define echocardiography.

Echocardiography is also a useful technique for diagnosis of heart diseases. Echocardiogram displays the time verses motion information about the intra cardiac structures on slow speeds.

87.What is vectrocardiography?

In the case of electrocardiography, only the voltage is generated by the electrical activity of the heart is recorded. But in vectrocardiography, the cardiac vector is displayed along with its magnitude and spatial orentaion.

88. What is EEG?

The abbreviation of electroencephalograph is called EEG. It deals with the recording and study of electrical activity of the brain.

89. How EEG is recorded?

By means of electrode attracted to the skull of a patient the brain waves can be picked up and recorded.

90. What are brain waves?

The brain waves are the summation of neural depolarization in the brain due to stimuli from the five senses as well as from the thought process.

91. What are graded potentials?

Graded potentials are variations around the average value of the resting potential. Thus the EEG potentials originate with in the dendrite.

92 Define inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP).

If the transmitter substance in inhibitory, the membrane potential of the receptor neuron increases in a negative direction. So that it is less likely to discharge, this induced potential change is called inhibitory post synaptic potential.

93. Define excitory post synaptic potential(EPSP).

If the transmitter substance is excitatory, the receptor membrane potential increases in a positive direction. So that the receptor neuron is more likely to discharge and produces a spike potential. This induced change is called excitory post synaptic potential(EPSP).

94.What are Evoked potentials?

Evoked potentials are the potentials developed in the brain as the responses to external stimuli like light, sound etc. the external stimuli is detected by the sense organs, which cause changes in the electrical activity of the brain. Nowadays the term event related potential has been used instead of evoked potential.

95. List the parts of the brain.

The brain consists of three parts, such as cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem..

96. Give the classifications of the brain waves.

Brain waves are classified into our types. They are

· Alpha wave

· Beta wave

· Theta wave

· Delta wave

97. How many electrodes are used in modern EEG unit?

12 electrodes are used in modern EEG unit.

98. How the EEG can be recorded?

EEG may be recorded by picking up voltage difference between an active electrode on the scalp with respect to a reference electrode on the ear lobe or other part of the body. This type o recording is called monopolar recording.

99.What are brain tumors?

The tumor displaces, the cortex, and if it is large enough, the electrical activity will be absent in that part of hemisphere, since no electric potentials originate in the tumor itself. Thus a extinguished or damped EEG over a certain part of cortex can thus be due to brain tumor.

100. Define Epilepsy.

Epilepsy is a system for brain damage. This may be due to defects in the birth delivery or head injury during accident or boxing. It may also be due to brain tumor.

101. In what way EEG helps physicians?

EEG helps physicians to diagnose the level of consciousness, sleep disorders brain death, brain tumors, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis.

102.What is EMG?

EMG- electromyography is the science of recording and interpreting the electrical

activity of muscle’s action potentials.

103.How EMG is recorded?

EMG is usually recorded by using surface electrodes or more often needle electrodes may be disposable adhesive types or the ones which can be used repeatedly.

104. List the diseases which affect the steady potential of the eye.

· The effects of certain drugs on the eye movement system can be determined.

· The state of semicircular canalizes analyzed by EOG.

· Diagnosis of the neurological disorders may be possible.

· The level of anesthesia can be indicated by characteristic eye movements.

105. Discuss about the electrodes for offline analysis.

The online recorders are directly connected with the input. Therefore one can get the live recording at the spot itself. In the case of off-line analysis, the input equipment system is used to prepare data for further analysis using computers which may be located at the same location of the input or remote.


UNT II

107. Define PH. How it is related with blood?

The PH is defined as the logarithm of the reciprocal of W ion concentration.

i.e. PH = log10 (1/W) = - log10 (W)

the chemical balance of the body is identified by the measurement of PH of blood and other body fluids.

108.The PH. value of venous blood is about 7.35. and for atrial blood it is about 7.40.

109.The glass electrode is normally used as PH. electrode.

110.For what purpose chemical electrodes are used?

Chemical electrodes are generally used to measure PH and PO2 of the blood. They are also used to determine the oxygen tension or carbon dioxide tension in the

blood.

111.The hydrogen electrode is also called a reference electrode.

112.For what purpose silver-silver chloride is used?

The silver – silver chloride is used as a reference electrode due to its smaller and stable half cell potential.

113.Define electrophoresis.

Electrophoresis is a method for separating and analyzing macromolecular substances such as plasma proteins. The method is based on the fact that, the molecules carry electric charges and therefore migrate in a electric field.

114.In the electrophoresis, macromolecular substances are analyzed by determining their

migration velocity.

115.Discuss about PCO2 electrode.

It consists of a standard glass pH electrode covered with the rubber membrane

permeable to CO2, between the glass surface and membrane; there is a thin film of

water. The solution under test which contains dissolved CO2 is presented to the outer surface of the rubber membrane. After equilibrium, pH of the aqueous film is measured by the glass electrode and interpreted log PCO2 and pH of the solution.

116.. For what purpose PO2 electrode is used?

PO2 electrode is used to determine the oxygen tension in the blood. It is a piece of platinum wire embedded in an insulating glass holder with the end of wire

exposed to the electrolyte into which the oxygen from the solution under measurement is allowed to diffuse through the membrane.

117. Discuss about blood cells.

The blood cells have important functions in our body. The red blood cell is used for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The white blood cells are part of the body’s defense against infections and foreign substances. The platelet are involved in the clotting of blood.

118. Give the changes in the hemoglobin content of red blood cells.

When the body produces too many red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin in the blood increases, and a chronic disease called polycythemia or dehydration is produced. When the hemoglobin in the blood decreases, anemia is produced.

119. Define cardiac output.

Cardiac output is the amount of blood delivered by the heart to the arota per minute.

120. For what purpose colorimeters and photometers are used?

Colorimeters and photometers are used to measure he transmitted and absorbed light as it passes through a sample.

121. What is SEN?

The SEN is scanning microscope. The SEN is recently developed electron microscope. Here the image is built up by using an electron probe of very small diameter which scans the specimen surface in parallel straight lines as does a television camera.

122. In what way the composition of blood sample is determined?

The composition of blood serum is determined by specialized chemical techniques. The different components of biological substances can e determined by measuring how they either absorb or emit visible light.

123. Define transmittance and absorbance.

The transmittance is defined as the ratio of transmitted light intensity to the incident light intensity.

124. For what purpose flame photometer is used?

Flame photometer is used to analyze urine or blood in order to determine the concentration of potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and lithium (Li).

125. What is flame photometer?

By measuring optical density or absorbance A, the concentration of given substance in the sample can be determined. Colorimeters can be in the filter photometer or spectrophotometer. When an interference filter is used to select a given wavelength, it is called filter photometer.

126. In what way cardiac output is used?

Using implanted electromagnetic fine probe on the arota, we can find the cardiac output per minute directly by multiplying the stroke volume with the heart beat rate per minute.

127. Define stroke volume.

Stroke volume is defined as the amount of blood that is ejected during each heart beat.

Stroke volume = Cardiac output / number of beats/ min.

128. Define total lung capacity.

Total lung capacity (TLC) is the amount of gas contained in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration. It is the sum of vital capacity and residual volume.

129. Define vital capacity.

The vital capacity (VC) is the maximum volume of gas that can be expelled from the lungs after a maximal inspiration.

130. Define residual volume.

The residual volume is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration.

131. Define inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).

It is the extra volume of gas that can be inspired with maximal effort after reaching the normal end of inspiratory level.

132. Define expiratory reserve volume(ERV).

It is the extra volume of gas that can be expired with maximum effort beyond reaching the normal end of expiratory level.

133. Define mean velocity of blood.

Mean velocity = blood flow through a vessel cross sectional area of the vessel.

134. Define mean circulation time.

Mean circulation time is defined as the total amount of blood in the circulation divided by the cardiac output.

135. For what purpose Spirometer is used?

Spirometer is mainly used to measure the respiratory volume measurement.

136. Define pneumotachograph.

Pneumotachograph is an instrument to measure the patient’s air flow rate during

respiration and vital air capacity of the lung.

137. Give the uses of gas analyzers.

Gas analyzers are used to determine the quantitative composition of inspired and expired gas to assess the lung function.

138. Define systole.

Systole is defined as the period of contraction of the heart muscles, specifically the ventricular muscle at which time blood is pumped into pulmonary artery and the aorta.

139. Define diastole.

Diastole is defined as the period of dilation of the heart cavities as they fill with blood.

140. Give the uses of blood flow meters.

Blood flow meters are used to monitor the blood flow in various blood vessels and to measure caridiac output.

141.Name three methods to obtain the direct measurement of blood pressure.

· Percutaneous insertion

· Catheterization

· Implantation of a transducer.

142. Normal diastolic pressure ranges from 60 to 90 mmHg.

143. What is the range of systolic blood pressure in the normal adult?

95 to 140 mmHg.

144. When does heart block occurs?

Heart block occurs when the internal electro conduction system of heart is interrupted.

145. What are tachycardia and bradycardia?

The human hear rate varies normally over a range of 60 to 110 BPM. Rate faster than 110 BPM is called tachycardia. Heart rate slower than 60 BPM is called bradycardia.

146. For what purpose pacemaker is used?

Pacemaker is an electrical pulse generator for starting and for maintaining the normal heart beat.

147. How the heart muscle can be stimulated?

Like all the muscle tissues, the heart muscle can be stimulated with an electric shock. The minimum energy required to excite the heart muscle is about 10 joules.

148. List the methods of stimulating the heart muscles.

There are two types of stimulation or pacing. External stimulation and internal stimulation.

149. For what purpose external stimulation and internal stimulation are employed?

External stimulation is employed to restart the normal rhythm of the heart in the case of cardiac standstill. Internal stimulation is employed in cases requiring long term pacing because of permanent damage that prevents normal self triggering of the heart.

150. List the modes of operation of pacemakers.

Based on the modes of operation of the pacemakers, they can be divided into five types. They are:

· Ventricular asynchronous pacemaker(fixed rate pacemaker)

· Ventricular synchronous pacemaker.

· Ventridefibrillator inhibited pacemaker (demand pacemaker)

· Atrial synchronous pacemaker.

· Atrial sequential ventricular inhibited pacemaker.

151. The other name for asynchronous pacing is competitive pacing.

152. Based on the placement of the pacemaker, how we are classifying it?

Based on the placement of the pacemaker, there are two types as external pacemaker and internal pacemaker.

153. Compare external pacemaker and internal pacemaker.

External pacemaker

Internal pacemaker

It does not necessitate open heart surgery

The pacemaker is surgically implanted

beneath

The skin near the chest or abdomen with its

output leads are connected directly to he heart muscle

It requires open chest minor surgery to

place the circuit

These are used for temporary heart

irregularities. There is no safety or pacemaker.

These are used for permanent heart

damages. There is cent percent safety for circuit from external disturbances

154. What is fibrillation? What are the types of fibrillation?

The condition at which the necessary synchronizing action of the heart is lost is known as fibrillation.

types of fibrillation are : 1. Atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation.

155.What are the various electrodes used for defibrillation?

Internal(spoon shaped) electrodes and external (paddle shaped) electrodes are used for defibrillation.

156. What is counter shock?

The phenomenon of application of an electrical shock to resynchronize the heart is known as counter shock.

157. What is IPP?

IPP means intermittent positive pressure.

Positive pressure ventilators are used to inflate the lungs with IPP.

158. What is meant by monophasic waveform?

Monophasic means most of the excursion of curve is above the base line.

159. What is the need for ventilator?

It is used to provide artificial respiration. Artificial respiration should be applied to the patient, whenever respiration is suspended due to reasons like gas poisoning, electric shock etc.

160. What is meant by defibrillation?

Ventricular fibrillation can be converted into a more efficient rhythm by applying a high energy shock to the heart. This sudden surge across the heart causes all muscle fibers to contract simultaneously. The fibres may then respond to normal physicological pace making pulses. the instrument administering the shock is known as defibrillator. This process is known as defibrillation.

161. What is the need for pre-amplifier?

Isolation amplifiers are used as pre-amplifiers. It is used to increase the input impedance of the monitoring system, so that the stray currents can be reduced. The isolation amplifiers are used in ECG measurement.

162. What is the need for earthing of medical instruments?

Grounding is needed in medical equipments to avoid the macro and micro shocks. The leakage current is also reduced by proper grounding.

163. What is diathermy? List its types.

Diathermy is the treatment process by which cutting, coagulation of tissues are obtained. Its various types are:

· Shortwave diathermy.

· Microwave diathermy

· Ultrasonic diathermy.

· Ultrasonic diathermy.

164. Distinguish between microshock and macroshock.

A physiological response to a current applied to the surface of the body that produces unwanted stimulation like tissue injury or muscle contractions is called as macro shock.

A physiological response to a current applied to the surface of the heart that results in unnecessary stimulation like muscle contractions or tissue injury is called as microshock.

165. What is a defibrillator? State its use.

The condition of heart at which the necessary synchronism is lost is known as fibrillation. Defibrillation is the application of an electric shock to the area of the heart. that is, it is an electronic device that creates a sustained myocardial depolarization of a patient’s heart in order to stop ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation.

166. What is angiography?

Angiogram: It is a special- x-ray imaging technique through which high contrast can be obtained. The outlines of the blood vessels also visible in angiogram.

167. State the principle by which body organs could be visualized by radioisotope method.

The body organs could be visualized in X-ray by using the principle of energy absorption. Two types of radiations are used.

168. Name the principal ions involved in the phenomena of producing cell potentials.

Sodium and potassium ions.

169.Why glass electrode is very much preferred as active electrode in a pH meter?

The glass electrode provides a membrane interface for H+ ions. so that, it is preferred as an active electrode in pH measurement. The pH meter with hydroscopic glass observes the water readily and provides best pH value.

170. Name the four physical principles based on which blood flow meters are constructed.

The blood flow meter is constructed based on the following principles:

· Electromagnetic induction.

· Ultrasonic principle (Transmit type, Doppler type)

· Thermal convection

· Radiograpic principle

· Indicated dilution principle.

171. Distinguish radiographic and fluoroscopic techniques.

Radiography

Fluoroscopy

The patient dose is very low.

The patient dose is very high.

Wide range of contrast can be obtained.

Less contrast and it can be improved by

introducing electromagnetic intensifier.

High resolution in images can be obtained.

Fair resolution in images can be obtained.

Permanent record is available.

Permanent record can be made by inserting

video tape-recorder,

X- ray images developed by photographic

or photosensitive film.

X-ray images developed by fluorescent

principle and photoelectric effect on the fluorescent screen.

Patient is not exposed to X-rays during

examination of the X-ray image.

Patient is exposed to x-ray during

examination.

Efficient is more.

Efficient is less in direct fluoroscopy but it

can be increased by using the modern television system.

The image can be obtained after developing

the film and examination cannot be made before developing the film.

Immediately the image can be seen and

examination can be finished within short time.

Movement of organs cannot be observed.

Movement of organs can be observed.

172. Define cardiac output.

Cardiac output is the amount of blood delivered by the heart to the aorta per minute. for normal adult, the cardiac output is 4-6 litres/min. The measurement of cardiac output is due to low blood pressure, reduced tissue oxygenationnnn, poor renal function, shock and acidosis.

173. What is the pH value of arterial blood and venous blood?

pH value of venous blood = 7.35 pH value of arterial blood = 7.40

174. What is the use of biphasic D.C. defibrillator?

It is used to correct the fibrillation effectively.

www.vidyarthiplus.com 20

EC 1403 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai

Anna_University_Logo.svg

DEPARTMENT OF ECE QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT CODE: EC 1403

SUBJECT NAME: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

Prepared by

P.P.Selvakumar, M.Rekha

PAR T - B (16 Marks) UNIT- 1

1. Describe the terms of Earth orbiting satellites.

*Apogee: The point farthest from earth.

*Perigee: The point closest approach to earth

*Ascending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from south to north.

*Descending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from north to south.

*Line of nodes: The line joining the ascending & descending node through the center of the

earth.

*Line of apsides: The line joining the perigee & apogee through the center of the earth.

*Inclination: The angle between the orbital plane & the earth’ s equatorial plane.

*Prograde orbit: An orbit in which the satellite moves in the same direction as the earth’ s

rotation.

*Retrograde orbit: An orbit in which the satellite moves in a direction counter to the

earth’ s rotation.

*Argument of perigee: The angle from ascending node to perigee, measured in the orbital plane

at the earth’ s center in the direction of satellite motion.

2. Explain the orbital p lane. Draw it neat sketch i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*In the orbital plane, the position vector ‘r’ & the velocity vector ‘v’ specify the motion

of satellite.

R=a(1-e2)/1+ecosv

*Mean anomaly M at time t is found

M=n (t-T) VºM+2esinM+5/4e2sin2M.

3. Explain the Orbital perturbations.

Explanation:

*Effect of non-spherical earth

*Atmospheric drag

*Inclined orbits

*Calendars

*Universal time

*Julian dates

*Sidereal time

4.Explain the geocentric equatorial &top centric co-ordinate system.

· Diagram:

· Explanation:

5.Explain the sub satellite point i) Diagram

ii) Explanation:


UNIT – 2

6. Explain the look angle determination. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

7. Explain the polar mount antenna. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

8. Explain the limits of visibility & sun transit outage. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

9.Explain the attitude control. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

10. Explain the Transponders system. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*Transponder

*Wideband receiver

11.Draw the neat sketch & explain the Input Demultiplexer. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:


UNIT – 3

12. Draw the neat sketch & explain the Antenna subsystem. i) Diagram:

iii) Explanation:

13. Draw the block diagram & explain the Receive only home TV systems. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

14. Explain the indoor unit& outdoor unit. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

15. Draw the block diagram & explain the Master antenna TV system. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*Community antenna TV system

*Transmit receive earth stations.

16. Explain the EIRP & Transmission losses.

*EIRP=GPs

*EIRP is often expressed in db is given by

EIRP=(Ps)+(G) Dbw. Transmission losses:

· Free space transmission

· Feeder losses

· Antenna misalignment losses

· F ixed atmospheric & ionospheric losses

17. Draw the block diagram& Explain the S ys tem noise temperature. i) Block Diagram

ii) Explanation:

*System noise

*Antenna noise

*Amplifier noise temperature

*Noise factor

*Noise temperature of absorptive networks.

18. Explain the carrier to noise ratio of uplink & downlink frequency.

19. Explain the Inter-modulation noise & saturation flux density.


UNIT -4

20. Explain the operation of F DMA system with relevant diagram. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

*Preassigned F DMA

*Demand assigned F DMA

21. Explain the operation of F DMA down link analysis. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

22. Draw the Frame format & explain the operation of TDMA system. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

Reference burst

*Guard time

*Carrier & bit timing recovery

*Burst code word

*Station identification code

*TTY

*Service channel

23.Draw the data format & explain the Unique word detection. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

*Miss probability

*False detection probability

24. Explain the Satellite switched TDMA & C DMA. Draw the neat sketch. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation


UNIT – 5

25. Explain the Radar sat & MS AT. Mention the applications.

26. Expla in about Water resource applications using GIS.

27. Explain about Urban applications using GIS.

28. What is Map? Explain its types

29. Analyze the raster and vector data by retrieval, reclassification, Overlaying and buffering in GIS

30. Explain about data input & output hardware of GIS.

EC 1403 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai

Anna_University_Logo.svg

DEPARTMENT OF ECE QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT CODE: EC 1403

SUBJECT NAME: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

Prepared by

P.P.Selvakumar, M.Rekha

PAR T - B (16 Marks) UNIT- 1

1. Describe the terms of Earth orbiting satellites.

*Apogee: The point farthest from earth.

*Perigee: The point closest approach to earth

*Ascending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from south to north.

*Descending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from north to south.

*Line of nodes: The line joining the ascending & descending node through the center of the

earth.

*Line of apsides: The line joining the perigee & apogee through the center of the earth.

*Inclination: The angle between the orbital plane & the earth’ s equatorial plane.

*Prograde orbit: An orbit in which the satellite moves in the same direction as the earth’ s

rotation.

*Retrograde orbit: An orbit in which the satellite moves in a direction counter to the

earth’ s rotation.

*Argument of perigee: The angle from ascending node to perigee, measured in the orbital plane

at the earth’ s center in the direction of satellite motion.

2. Explain the orbital p lane. Draw it neat sketch i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*In the orbital plane, the position vector ‘r’ & the velocity vector ‘v’ specify the motion

of satellite.

R=a(1-e2)/1+ecosv

*Mean anomaly M at time t is found

M=n (t-T) VºM+2esinM+5/4e2sin2M.

3. Explain the Orbital perturbations.

Explanation:

*Effect of non-spherical earth

*Atmospheric drag

*Inclined orbits

*Calendars

*Universal time

*Julian dates

*Sidereal time

4.Explain the geocentric equatorial &top centric co-ordinate system.

· Diagram:

· Explanation:

5.Explain the sub satellite point i) Diagram

ii) Explanation:


UNIT – 2

6. Explain the look angle determination. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

7. Explain the polar mount antenna. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

8. Explain the limits of visibility & sun transit outage. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

9.Explain the attitude control. Draw it neat sketch. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

10. Explain the Transponders system. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*Transponder

*Wideband receiver

11.Draw the neat sketch & explain the Input Demultiplexer. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:


UNIT – 3

12. Draw the neat sketch & explain the Antenna subsystem. i) Diagram:

iii) Explanation:

13. Draw the block diagram & explain the Receive only home TV systems. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

14. Explain the indoor unit& outdoor unit. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

15. Draw the block diagram & explain the Master antenna TV system. i) Diagram:

ii) Explanation:

*Community antenna TV system

*Transmit receive earth stations.

16. Explain the EIRP & Transmission losses.

*EIRP=GPs

*EIRP is often expressed in db is given by

EIRP=(Ps)+(G) Dbw. Transmission losses:

· Free space transmission

· Feeder losses

· Antenna misalignment losses

· F ixed atmospheric & ionospheric losses

17. Draw the block diagram& Explain the S ys tem noise temperature. i) Block Diagram

ii) Explanation:

*System noise

*Antenna noise

*Amplifier noise temperature

*Noise factor

*Noise temperature of absorptive networks.

18. Explain the carrier to noise ratio of uplink & downlink frequency.

19. Explain the Inter-modulation noise & saturation flux density.


UNIT -4

20. Explain the operation of F DMA system with relevant diagram. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

*Preassigned F DMA

*Demand assigned F DMA

21. Explain the operation of F DMA down link analysis. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

22. Draw the Frame format & explain the operation of TDMA system. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

Reference burst

*Guard time

*Carrier & bit timing recovery

*Burst code word

*Station identification code

*TTY

*Service channel

23.Draw the data format & explain the Unique word detection. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation

*Miss probability

*False detection probability

24. Explain the Satellite switched TDMA & C DMA. Draw the neat sketch. i) Diagram

ii) Explanation


UNIT – 5

25. Explain the Radar sat & MS AT. Mention the applications.

26. Expla in about Water resource applications using GIS.

27. Explain about Urban applications using GIS.

28. What is Map? Explain its types

29. Analyze the raster and vector data by retrieval, reclassification, Overlaying and buffering in GIS

30. Explain about data input & output hardware of GIS.