Anna University, Chennai





1. Define foundry?

2. Define Pattern?

3. Name the various pattern materials.

4. What are the different types of patterns used in foundries?

5. What is the main purpose of providing pattern allowances?

6. What are the difference between shaking allowance and other allowances?

7. State the various types of core boxes?

8. What are the different types of moulding sand?

9. What are the properties of good moulding sand?

10. List any five moulding tools?

11. What are the uses of runner and riser?

12. What is the function of swab?

13. What is the use of vent wire?

14. What are chaplets?

15. How the percentage of moisture content is estimated?

16. Write down the formula for calculating the percentage of clay content?

17. Define AFS grain finess number?

18. What are the parameters involved in determining the strength of the moulding sand?

19. State the different types of moulding processes?

20. Differentiate between green sand mould and dry sand mould?

21. What are the different types of furnaces used for casting?

22. State the main function of tuyers in cupola furnace?

23. What are the types of crucible furnace?

24. How many electrodes are used in direct arc furnace?

25. State the principle of thermocouple pyrometer?

26. What is die casting?

27. How does hot chamber process differ from cold chamber process?

28. Mention few applications of investment casting?

29. Name any two cast products of shell mould?

30. State the purpose of giving lubricating casting in a gravity die casting?

31. Why clay and weights are used in sand casting?

32. State any two applications of continuous casting?

33. What are the various types of moulding machines?

34. Define the term Skim bob?

35. What are the external mediums loaded with the casting in tumbling process?

36. Give four reasons for the casting defect “hot tear’?

37. Why the shift will occur?

38. What are the causes and remedies for fin defects?

39. Mention any two reasons for occurring of ‘swell’?

40. How casting defects are identified?


1. Describe the various types of pattern materials in detail?

2. Explain the types of pattern in detail?

3. Explain skeleton pattern briefly with a neat sketch and compare with sweep pattern?

4. What are pattern allowances? Explain briefly each?

5. What are the different types of cores? Explain any three.

6. Mention the various types of core ovens and briefly explain them?

7. Explain the various stages in core making process?

8. Explain CO2 process of core making. State its advantages and applications.

9. Mention various tests for testing the moulding sand and explain any three in detail.

10. List the various types of moulding sand and write short notes on green sand and dry sand?

11. List out the moulding tools and explain any seven in detail?

12. Explain Green sand mould and Shell moulding with suitable sketches?

13. With a neat sketch of a cupola explain its operation?

14. How does the electric arc furnace melt the metal? Explain direct arc furnace and compare with indirect arc furnace?

15. What is meant by crucible furnace? What are their types? Explain any two in detail with neat


16. Explain briefly the various moulding methods used in foundries?

17. Explain centrifugal casting with neat sketch?

18. Explain investment casting. What are its advantages?

19. Compare die-casting over sand casting process?

20. Explain full moulding process briefly? Mention its advantages and limitations.

21. Explain with a neat sketch the hot chamber die casting process. How does the cold chamber process differ from hot chamber process?

22. Explain with a neat sket5ch the gravity die casting process?

23. Explain centrifugal casting and continuous casting with neat sketches?

24. Enumerate various casting defects and suggest suitable remedies?


1. List out different metal joining processes?

2. Define welding process?

3. How does plastic welding differ from fusion welding?

4. Define autogeneous?

5. What are the functions of flux in welding electrode?

6. Define arc crater.

7. What do you understand by straight polarity?

8. What are the three main types of consumable electrodes?

9. What is the purpose of using inert gas in TIG welding?

10. Differentiate between consumable electrode and non-consumable electrode?

11. How does TIG welding differs from MIG welding?

12. Where the parts to be welded are kept in submerged arc welding?

13. Define resistance welding.

14. Mention the various types of resistance welding?

15. What is the main difference between upset butt welding and flash butt welding?

16. What is the function of welding torch?

17. What is the purpose of using flux in gas welding?

18. What are the various types of flame?

19. How the neutral flame can be obtained?

20. Where the carburising flame is mainly used in welding?

21. How the oxidizing flame is obtained?

22. State the movement of the welding torch in rightward or backward welding?

23. State the applications of air acetylene welding?

24. What are the basic components of laser welding?

25. What are the advantages of friction welding?

26. What are the main components of electro slag welding?

27. Define plasma arc welding?

28. What is the composition of thermit weld?

29. Define brazing?

30. Give the composition of electrician and plumber solder?

31. Define soldering?

32. What are the types of brazing?

33. Give applications of braze welding?

34. Define silver brazing?

35. Define weldability?

36. What is diffusion welding?

37. Give the classification of brazing methods

38. What are the soldering methods?

39. What are the adhesive bonded joints?

40. What are the types of adhesives?


1. Briefly explain the types of welding ?

2. Explain the construction and operation of gas welding process?

3. Explain the construction and operation of metal arc welding?

4. Explain the construction and operation of TIG welding?

5. Explain the construction and operation resistance welding?

6. Explain the construction and operation percussion welding?

7. Explain the construction and operation submerged arc welding process?

8. Explain the construction and operation electro slag welding process?

9. Explain the construction and operation plasma arc welding process?

10.Explain the construction and operation thermit welding process?

11.Explain the construction and operation electron beam welding process?

12.Explain the construction and operation friction welding process?

13.Explain the construction and operation diffusion welding process?

14.Explain the construction and operation MIG welding process?

15.Briefly explain about the types of defects in welding process?

16.Briefly explain about the brazing and soldering process?

17.Briefly explain about the filler materials and fluxes?

18.Briefly explain about the types of adhesive bonding?

19.Briefly explain about the types of gas welding

20.Briefly explain about the equipments used in welding process?

21.Briefly explain about the types of flames and its characteristics?




1. Define cold working of metals?

2. Define re-crystallization temperature?

3. Define the process of mechanical working of metals?

4. Define hot working of metals?

5. What are the advantages of hot working over cold working?

6. Give the classifications of rolling mills?

7. What is meant by semi or warm hot working?

8. Define forging?

9. Give some basic forging operations?

10. Define upsetting?

11. Define extrusion ratio?

12. What is meant by cold spinning?

13. Define hot spinning?

14. Define impact extrusion?

15. Define tube drawing?

16. Define degree of drawing?

17. Name four different press working operations?

18. What are the defects in forging operations?

19. Define slab plate sheet and strip?

20. Define forgeability?

21. Define powder forging?

22. Explain isothermal forging?

23. Explain orbital forging?

24. Define gatorizing?

25. Name two metals having re-crystallization at room temperature?

26. What are two common methods of thread rolling?

27. What are the advantages of cold rolling?

28. What are types of force welds?

29. Give some hand tools which are used in forging operations?

30. What are the types of hammers used in forging operations?

31. What are the methods used for producing seamless tube?

32. What is the formula for work done to make a cut?

33. What is the difference between a bloom and a billet?

34. Describe the methods used for cleaning the forging?

35. Write short notes on super plastic forging?

36. What is the formula used for calculating roll force?

37. What are the defects in rolled parts?

38. What is the formula used for power per roll?

39. What are the types of hot extrusion process?

40. What are the classifications of tube drawing process?


1. Explain the hot working and cold working with suitable example?

2. Define rolling and discuss according to the classification?

3. Discuss the various forging operations?

4. Discuss closed die forging and open die forging?

5. Give the advantages of press forging and over drop forging?

6. What are the defects in forging explain it?

7. Define extrusion and explain the various classifications?

8. How the pipe and tubes are manufacturing?

9. Define drawing and discuss the classifications with neat sketch?

10. What are the various press working operations?

11. Explain the bending terminology?

12. Differentiate between press forgings and hammer forging?

13. Explain the working of some drawing equipments?

14. Explain the flat strip rolling process?

15. Explain shape rolling operations?

16. What do you understand about thread rolling explain?

17. What are the defects in rolled parts?



1. What is sheet metal work?

2. Give any ten tools used in sheet metal hand operations?

3. Write down any four sheet metal characteristics?

4. What is meant by clearance?

5. Mention the effect of insufficient clearance?

6. What is meant by seaming?

7. State the advantage of press working operations?

8. What is stretching?

9. Define the term spring back?

10. How force exerted on the form block is calculated?

11. What are the advantages of stretch forming operations?

12. List out the applications of stretch forming operations?

13. State the law of process of fracture in formability?

14. State the law of geometrical similitude?

15. What are the formability test methods?

16. Mention the various types of simulative test carried out for various cup forming process?

17. What are the applications of forming limit diagram?

18. Define special forming process?

19. What are the types of special forming process?

20. What are the advantages of hydroforming process?

21. State the limitations and applications of rubber pad forming process?

22. How rubber hydro forming is carried out?

23. What is metal spinning process?

24. Describe power spinning process?

25. Mention the advantages of power spinning process?

26. State the advantages of explosive forming process?

27. What is peen forming process?

28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of peen forming process?

29. What is super plasticity of metals?

30. What are the various materials developed for super plastic forming process?

31. Mention the advantages of super plastic forming process?

32. What are the applications of super plastic forming process?

33. Name the various process performed by explosive process?

34. What are the various measuring tools used in sheet metal operations?

35. Write down any four sheet metal characteristics?

36. State the methods of stretch forming process?

37. How upper die is pressed against the sheet metal surface in rubber pad forming process?

38. State the various methods of metal spinning process/

39. How magnetic pulse is created?

40. Mention the effect of insufficient clearance?


1. Describe sheering operations in a sheet metal work with a neat sketch?

2. How press capacity for shearing operations can be determined?

3. Describe various types of bending operations with its neat sketches?

4. Write down the step by step procedure for determining pass capacity for drawing operations?

5. What is sketch forming? How it is carried out in sheet metal?

6. Explain any one method of stretch forming operation with a neat sketch?

7. Write short notes on formability tests?

8. Explain hydroforming process with neat sketches?

9. Describe the rubber pad forming process with neat sketches. How it is differed from rubber hydro forming process?

10. Explain the power spinning process with neat sketch. Give the their applications

11. Describe explosive forming process with a neat sketch?

12. How magnetic pulse forming process is carried out on sheet metal?

13. Explain peen forming process with a neat sketch?

14. What is super plastic of metal? How this process is carried out on sheet metal?

15. Write short notes on super plastic forming materials?



1. How the plastic is defined?

2. How the organic materials are classified?

3. What are the materials used for processing plastics?

4. Give some examples for additives?

5. Give some examples for fillers?

6. What are the types of plastics?

7. What are the processes of thermo-plastics?

8. What are the processes of thermosetting-plastics?

9. What are the types of compression moulding?

10. What are the types of laminate?

11. What are the foamed plastics?

12. Define co polymerization?

13. What are the fusion and solvent methods?

14. What are the processes involved in laminates?

15. Give some additives added to the manufacturing of rubber?


1. What are the types of plastics?

2. What are the characteristics of the forming and shaping process?

3. What are the types of moulding of thermo plastics?

4. Explain the working principles and applications of a) injection moulding

b) blow moulding

c) rotational moulding d) film moulding

5. Explain the extrusion process?

6. Explain the thermo forming process?

7. Explain the working principles and applications a) compression moulding

b) transfer moulding

8. What is bonding of thermo plastics?

9. What are the fusion and solvent methods?

10. Explain induction and ultra sonic methods?


Anna University, Chennai






Branch/Sem : ECE / III

Unit – I Boolean algebra and Logic Gates

Part A

1. Find the hexadecimal equivalent of the decimal number 256

2. Find the octal equivalent of the decimal number 64

3. What is meant by weighted and non-weighted coding?

4. Convert A3BH and 2F3H into binary and octal respectively

5. Find the decimal equivalent of (123)9

6. Find the octal equivalent of the hexadecimal number AB.CD

7. Encode the ten decimal digits in the 2 out of 5 code

8. Show that the Excess – 3 code is self –complementing

9. Find the hexadecimal equivalent of the octal number 153.4

10. Find the decimal equivalent of (346)7

11. A hexadecimal counter capable of counting up to at least (10,000)10 is to be constructed. What is the minimum number of hexadecimal digits that the counter must have?

12. Convert the decimal number 214 to hexadecimal

13. Convert 231.3 4 to base 7

14. Give an example of a switching function that contains only cyclic prime implicant

15. Give an example of a switching function that for which the MSP from is not unique.

16. Express x+yz as the sum of minterms

17. What is prime implicant?

18. Find the value of X = A B C (A+D) if A=0; B=1; C=1 and D=1

19. What are ‘minterms’ and ‘maxterms’?

20. State and prove Demorgan’s theorem

21. Find the complement of x+yz

22. Define the following : minterm and term

23. State and prove Consensus theorem

24. What theorem is used when two terms in adjacent squares of K map are combined?

25. How will you use a 4 input NAND gate as a 2 input NAND gate?

26. How will you use a 4 input NOR gate as a 2 input NOR gate?

27. Show that the NAND connection is not associative

28. What happens when all the gates is a two level AND-OR gate network are replaced by

NOR gates?

29. What is meant by multilevel gates networks?

30. Show that the NAND gate is a universal building block

31. Show that a positive logic NAND gate is the same as a negative logic NOT gate

32. Distinguish between positive logic and negative logic

33. Implement AND gate and OR gate using NAND gate

34. What is the exact number of bytes in a system that contains (a) 32K byte, (b) 64M bytes, and (c) 6.4G byte?

35. List the truth table of the function: F = x y + x y’ + y ’z

Part B

1. (a) Explain how you will construct an (n+1) bit Gray code from an n bit

Gray code

(b) Show that the Excess – 3 code is self -complementing

2. (a) Prove that (x1+x2).(x1’. x3’+x3) (x2’ + x1.x3) =x1’x2

(b) Simplify using K-map to obtain a minimum POS expression:

(A’ + B’+C+D) (A+B’+C+D) (A+B+C+D’) (A+B+C’+D’) (A’+B+C’+D’) (A+B+C’+D)

3. Reduce the following equation using Quine McClucky method of

minimization F (A,B,C,D) = _m(0,1,3,4,5,7,10,13,14,15)

4. (a) State and Prove idempotent laws of Boolean algebra.

(b) using a K-Map ,Find the MSP from of F= _(0,4,8,12,3,7,11,15) +_d(5)

5 (a) With the help of a suitable example ,explain the meaning of an redundant prime i implicant

(b) Using a K-Map, Find the MSP form of F= _ (0-3, 12-15) + _d (7, 11)

6 (a) Simplify the following using the Quine – McClusky minimization technique D = f(a,b,c,d) = _ (0,1,2,3,6,7,8,9,14,15).Does Quine –McClusky take care of don’t care conditions? In the above problem, will you consider any don’t care conditions? Justify your answer

(b) List also the prime implicants and essential prime implicants for the above case

7 (a) Determine the MSP and MPS focus of F= _ (0, 2, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15)

(b) State and Prove Demorgan’s theorem

8 Determine the MSP form of the Switching function

F = _ ( 0,1,4,5,6,11,14,15,16,17,20- 22,30,32,33,36,37,48,49,52,53,56,63)

9. (a) Determine the MSP form of the Switching function

F( a,b,c,d) =_(0,2,4,6,8) + _d(10,11,12,13,14,15)

(b) Find the Minterm expansion of f(a,b,c,d) = a’(b’+d) + acd’

10 Simplify the following Boolean function by using the Tabulation Method

F= _ (0, 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15)

11 State and Prove the postulates of Boolean algebra

12 (a) Find a Min SOP and Min POS for f = b’c’d + bcd + acd’ + a’b’c + a’bc’d

13 Find an expression for the following function usingQuine McCluscky method

F= _ (0, 2, 3,5,7,9,11,13,14,16,18,24,26,28,30)

14 State and Prove the theorems of Boolean algebra with illustration

15 Find the MSP representation for

F(A,B,C,D,E) = _m(1,4,6,10,20,22,24,26) + _d (0,11,16,27) using K-Map method

Draw the circuit of the minimal expression using only NAND gates

16 (a) Show that if all the gates in a two – level AND-OR gate networks are replaced by

NAND gates the output function does not change

(b) Why does a good logic designer minimize the use of NOT gates?

17 Simplify the Boolean function F(A,B,C,D) = _ m (1,3,7,11,15) + _d (0,2,5) .if don’t care conditions are not taken care, What is the simplified Boolean function .What are your comments on it? Implement both circuits

18 (a) Show that if all the gate in a two – level OR-AND gate network are replaced by NOR

gate, the output function does not change.

(b) Implement Y = (A+C) (A+D’) ( A+B+C’) using NOR gates only

19 (a) F3 = f(a,b,c,d) = _ (2,4,5,6) F2 = f(a,b,c,d) = _ (2,3,,6,7)

F1 = f(a,b,c,d) = _ (2,5,6,7) .Implement the above Boolean functions

(i) When each is treated separately and

(ii)When sharing common term

(b) Convert a NOR with an equivalent AND gate

20 Implement the Switching function whose octal designation is 274 using NAND gates only

21 Implement the Switching function whose octal designation is 274 using NOR gates only

22 (a) Show that the NAND operation is not distributive over the AND operation

(b) Find a network of AND and OR gate to realize f(a,b,c,d) = _ m (1,5,6,10,13,14)

23 What is the advantages of using tabulation method? Determine the prime implicants of the following function using tabulation method

F( W,X,Y,Z) = _(1,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,15)

23 (a) Explain about common postulates used to formulates various algebraic structures

(b) Given the following Boolean function F= A”C + A’B + AB’C + BC Express it in sum of minterms & Find the minimal SOP expression Unit – II Combinational Logic

Part A

1. How will you build a full adder using 2 half adders and an OR gate?

2. Implement the switching function Y= BC’ + A’B + D

3. Draw 4 bit binary parallel adder

4. Write down the truth table of a full adder

5. Write down the truth table of a full sub tractor

6. Write down the truth table of a half sub tractor

7. Find the syntax errors in the following declarations (note that names for primitive gates are optional):

module Exmp1-3(A, B, C, D, F)

inputs A,B,C,

and g1(A,B,D); not (D,B,A); OR (F,B,C); endmodule ;

8. Draw the logic diagram of the digital circuit specified by module circt (A,B,C,D,F);

input A,B,C,D;

output F;

wire w,x,y,z,a,d; and (x,B,C,d); and y,a,C);

and (w,z,B);

or (z,y,A); or (F,x,w); not (a,A); not (d,D); endmodule

9. Define Combinational circuits

10. Define Half and Full adder

11. Give the four elementary operations for addition and subtraction

12. Design the combinational circuit with 3 inputs and 1 output. The output is 1 when the binary value of the inputs is less than 3.The output is 0 otherwise

13. Define HDL

14. What do you mean by carry propagation delay?

15. What is code converter?

16. Give short notes on Logic simulation and Logic synthesis

17. What do you mean by functional and timing simulation?

18. What do you mean by test bench?

19. Give short notes on simulation versus synthesis

20. Define half sub tractor and full sub tractor

Part B

1 Design a 4 bit magnitude comparator to compare two 4 bit number

2 Construct a combinational circuit to convert given binary coded decimal number into an Excess 3 code for example when the input to the gate is 0110 then the circuit should generate output as 1001

3 Design a combinational logic circuit whose outputs are F1 = a’bc + ab’c and

F2 = a’ + b’c + bc’

4 (a) Draw the logic diagram of a *-bit 7483 adder

(b) Using a single 7483, Draw the logic diagram of a 4 bit adder/sub tractor

5 (a) Draw a diode ROM, which translates from BCD 8421 to Excess 3 code

(b) Distinguish between Boolean addition and Binary addition

6 Realize a BCD to Excess 3 code conversion circuit starting from its truth table

7 (a) Design a full sub tractor

(b) How to it differ from a full sub tractor

8 Design a combinational circuit which accepts 3 bit binary number and converts its equivalent excess 3 codes

9 Derive the simplest possible expression for driving segment “a” through ‘g’ in an 8421

BCD to seven segment decoder for decimal digits 0 through 9 .Output should be active high (Decimal 6 should be displayed as 6 and decimal 9 as 9)

10 Write the HDL description of the circuit specified by the following Boolean function

(i) Y= (A+B+C) (A’+B’+C’)

(ii) F= (AB’ + A’B) (CD’+C’D) (iii) Z = ABC + AB’ + A(D+B) (iv) T= [(A+B} {B’+C’+D’)]

11 Design 16 bit adder using 4 7483 ICs Unit – III Design with MSI Devices Part A

1. What is a decoder and obtain the relation between the number of inputs ‘n’ and outputs

‘m’ of a decoder?

2. Distinguish between a decoder and a demultiplexer

3. Using a single IC 7485 ; draw the logic diagram of a 4 bit comparator

4. what is decoder

5. What do you mean by encoder?

6. Write the short notes on priority encoder

7. What is multiplexer? Draw the logic diagram of8 to 1 line multiplexer

8. What do you mean by comparator?

9. Write the HDL description of the circuit specified by the following Boolean function


10. How does ROM retain information?

11. Distinguish between PAL and PLA

12. Give the classification of memory

13. What is refreshing? How it is done?

14. What is Hamming code?

15. Write a short notes on memory decoding

16. List the basic types of programmable logic devices

17. What is PAL? How it differ from PROM and PLA?

18. Write a short notes on – PROM,EPROM,EEPROM

19. How many parity bits are required to form Hamming code if massage bits are 6?

20. How to find the location of parity bits in the Hamming code?

21. Generate the even parity Hamming codes for the following binary data

1101, 1001

22. A seven bit Hamming code is received as 11111101. What is the correct code?

23. Compare static RAMs and dynamic RAMs

24. Define Priority encoder

25. Define PLDs

Part B

1. Implement the switching function F= _(0,1,3,4,7) using a 4 input MUX and explain

2. Explain how will build a 64 input MUX using nine 8 input MUXs

3. State the advantages of complex MSI devices over SSI gates

4. Implement the switching function F(A,B,C) = _ ( ,2,4,5) using the DEMUX 74156

5. Implement the switching function F= _(0,1,3,4,12,14,15) using an 8 input MUX

6. Explain how will build a 16 input MUX using only 4 input MUXs

7. Explain the operation of 4 to 10 line decoder with necessary logic diagram

8. Draw a neat sketch showing implementation of Z1 = ab’d’e + a’b’c’e’ + bc + de ,

Z2 = a’c’e, Z3 = bc +de+c’d’e’+bd and Z4 = a’c’e +ce using a 5*8*4 PLA

9. Implement the switching functions: Z1 = ab’d’e + a’b’c’e’ + bc + de ,

Z2 = a’c’e,

Z3 = bc +de+c’d’e’+bd and

Z4 = a’c’e +ce Using a 5*8*4 PLA

10 Design a switching circuit that converts a 4 bit binary code into a 4 bit Gray code using

ROM array

11.Design a combinational circuit using a ROM ,that accepts a 3- bit number and generates an output binary number equal to the square of the given input number Unit – IV Synchronous Sequential Logic

Part A

1. Derive the characteristic equation of a D flip flop

2. Distinguish between combinational and sequential logic circuits

3. What are the various types of triggering of flip-flops?

4. Derive the characteristic equation of a T flip flop

5. Derive the characteristic equation of a SR flip flop

6. What is race round condition? How it is avoided?

7. List the functions of asynchronous inputs

8. Define Master slave flip flop

9. Draw the state diagram of ‘T’ FF, ‘D’ FF

10. Define Counter

11. What is the primary disadvantage of an asynchronous counter?

12. How synchronous counters differ from asynchronous counters?

13. Write a short note on counter applications

14. Compare Moore and Mealy models

15. When is a counter said to suffer from lock out?

16. What is the minimum number of flip flops needed to build a counter of modulus z 8?

17. State the relative merits of series and parallel counters

18. What are Mealy and Moore machines?

19. When is a counter said to suffer from lockout?

20. What is the difference between a Mealy machine and a Moore Machines?

21. Distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous sequential logic circuits

22. Derive the characteristic equation of a JK flip flop

23. How will you convert a JK flip flop into a D flip flop

24. What is mean by the term ‘edge triggered’?

25. What are the principle differences between synchronous and asynchronous networks

26. What is lockout? How it is avoided?

27. What is the pulse mode operation of asynchronous sequential logic circuits not very


28. What are the advantages of shift registers?

29. What are the applications of a shift register?

30. How many flip –flops are needed to build an 8 bit shift register?

31. A shift register comprises of JK flip-flops. How will you complement of the counters of the register

32. List the basic types of shift registers in terms of data movement.

33. Write a short notes on PRBS generator

34. Give the HDL dataflow description for T flip - flop

35. Give the HDL dataflow description for JK flip – flop

Part B

1 Draw the state diagram and characteristics equation of T FF, D FF and JK FF

2 (a) What is race around condition? How is it avoided?

(b) Draw the schematic diagram of Master slave JK FF and input and output waveforms.Discuss how it prevents race around condition

3 Explain the operation of JK and clocked JK flip-flops with suitable diagrams

4 Draw the state diagram of a JK flip- flop and D flip – flop

5 Design and explain the working of a synchronous mod – 3 counter

6 Design and explain the working of a synchronous mod – 7 counter

7 Design a synchronous counter with states 0,1, 2,3,0,1 …………. Using JK FF

8 Using SR flip flops, design a parallel counter which counts in the sequence

000,111,101,110,001,010,000 ………….

9 Using JK flip flops, design a parallel counter which counts in the sequence

000,111,101,110,001,010,000 ………….

10 (a) Discuss a decade counter and its working principle

(b) Draw as asynchronous 4 bit up-down counter and explain its working

11 (a) How is the design of combinational and sequential logic circuits possible with PLA? (b) Mention the two models in a sequential circuit and distinguish between them

12 Design a modulo 5 synchronous counter using JK FF and implement it. Construct its timing diagram

12 A sequential machine has one input line where 0’s and 1’s are being incident. The machine has to produce a output of 1 only when exactly two 0’s are followed by a ‘1’ or exactly two 1’s are followed by a ‘0’.Using any state assignment and JK flipflop,synthesize the machine

13 Using D flip –flop ,design a synchronous counter which counts in the sequence

000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 1001,110,111,000

15 Using JK flip-flops, design a synchronous sequential circuit having one and one output. the output of the circuit is a 1 whenever three consecutive 1’s are

observed. Otherwise the output is zero

14 Design a binary counter using T flip – flops to count in the following sequences: (i) 000,001,010,011,100,101,110,111,000

(ii) 000,100,111,010,011,000

15 (a) Design a synchronous binary counter using T flip – flops

(b) Derive the state table of a serial binary adder

17. Design a 3 bit binary Up-Down counter

18. (i) Summarize the design procedure for synchronous sequential circuit

(ii) Reduce the following state diagram

Unit – V Asynchronous Sequential Logic

Part A

1. Distinguish between fundamental mode and pulse mode operation of asynchronous sequential circuits

2. What is meant by Race?

3. What is meant by critical race?

4. What is meant by race condition in digital circuit?

5. Define the critical rate and non critical rate

6. What are races and cycles?

7. What is the significance of state assignment?

8. What are the steps for the analysis of asynchronous sequential circuit?

9. What are the steps for the design of asynchronous sequential circuit?

10. Write short notes on (a) Shared row state assignment

(b) One hot state assignment

11. What are Hazards?

12. What is a static 1 hazard?

13. What is a static 0 hazard?

14. What is dynamic hazard?

15. Define static 1 hazard, static 0 hazards, and dynamic hazard?

16. Describe how to detect and eliminate hazards from an asynchronous network?

17. What is static hazard?

18. List the types of hazards?

19. How to eliminate the hazard?

20. Draw the wave forms showing static 1 hazard?

Part B

1. What is the objective of state assignment in asynchronous circuit? Give hazard – free realization for the following Boolean function f(A,B,C,D) = _M(0,2,6,7,8,10,12)

2. Summarize the design procedure for asynchronous sequential circuit a. Discuss on Hazards and races

b. What do you know on hardware descriptive languages?

3. Design an asynchronous sequential circuit with 2 inputs X and Y and with one output Z Wherever Y is 1, input X is transferred to Z .When Y is 0; the output does not change for any change in X.Use SR latch for implementation of the circuit

4. Develop the state diagram and primitive flow table for a logic system that has 2 inputs,x and y and an output z.And reduce primitive flow table. The behavior of the circuit is stated as follows. Initially x=y=0. Whenever x=1 and y = 0 then z=1, whenever x = 0 and y = 1

then z = 0.When x=y=0 or x=y=1 no change in z ot remains in the previous state. The logic system has edge triggered inputs with out having a clock .the logic system changes state on the rising edges of the 2 inputs. Static input values are not to have any effect in changing the Z output

5. Design an asynchronous sequential circuit with two inputs X and Y and with one output Z. Whenever Y is 1, input X is transferred to Z.When Y is 0,the output does not change for

any change in X.

6. Obtain the primitive flow table for an asynchronous circuit that has two inputs x,y and one output Z. An output z =1 is to occur only during the input state xy = 01 and then if the only if the input state xy =01 is preceded by the input sequence.

7. A pulse mode asynchronous machine has two inputs. It produces an output whenever two consecutive pulses occur on one input line only .The output remains at ‘1’ until a pulse has occurred on the other input line. Draw the state table for the machine.


(a) How will you minimize the number of rows in the primitive state table of an incompletely specified sequential machine

(b) State the restrictions on the pulse width in a pulse mode asynchronous sequential machine

9. Construct the state diagram and primitive flow table for an asynchronous network that has two inputs and one output. The input sequence X1X2 = 00,01,11 causes the output to

become 1.The next input change then causes the output to return to 0.No other inputs will produce a 1 output

CS1201 DATA STRUCTURES Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai




(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)






1. Write down the definition of data structures?

2. Give few examples for data structures?

3. Define Algorithm?

4. What are the features of an efficient algorithm?

5. List down any four applications of data structures?

6. What is divide and conquer?

7. State the importance of dynamic programming

8. Define storage structure?

9. Define file structure?

10. What are the four major parts in an iterative process?

11. Write down the algorithm for solving Towers of Hanoi problem?

12. What are the different types of data structures?

13. What do you mean by primitive data structure?

14. What are the three stages of problem solving aspect.

15. Define depth of recursion?

16. What is searching?

17. What is Linear search?

18. Define Space Complexity

19. Define Time Complexity

20. What are asymptotic notations?

21. What is information?

22. Define Recursion?

23. What is a Fibonacci sequence?


1. Explain in detail the steps involved in Top down Design. (16)

2. Write the verification condition of a program segments with i) Straight line statements (4)

ii) Branches (6)

iii) Loops (6)

3. Write short notes on efficiency of an algorithm (16)

4. Write short notes on analysis of an algorithm (16)

5. (a) Develop an algorithm to compute the sums for the first n terms

S=1+ (1/2) + (1/3) +…. (8)

(b) Discuss in detail about the implementation of the algorithm. (8)

6. (a) Write an algorithm to reverse the digits of a decimal number. (8) (b) Write an algorithm to compute the Fibonacci series for ‘n’ terms. (8)



1. What is an Abstract Data type (ADT)? Explain?

2. What is a Stack?

3. What are the two operations of Stack?

4. Write postfix from of the expression –A+B-C+D?

5. What is a Queue?

6. What is a Priority Queue?

7. What are the different ways to implement list?

8. What are the advantages in the array implementation of list?

9. What is a linked list?

10. Name the two fields of Linked list?

11. What is a doubly linked list?

12. Name the three fields of Doubly Linked list?

13. Define double circularly linked list?

14. What is the need for the header?

15. List three examples that uses linked list?

16. Give some examples for linear data structures?

17. Write postfix from of the expression –A+B-C+D?

18. How do you test for an empty queue?

19. What are the postfix and prefix forms of the expression?

20. Explain the usage of stack in recursive algorithm implementation?

21. Write down the operations that can be done with queue data structure?

22. What is a circular queue?


1. Write a program in C to return the position of an element X in a List L. (16)

2. (a) State & explain the algorithm to perform Radix Sort. (8)

(b) Write a Program in C to create an empty stack and to push an element into it. (8)

3. Explain how queues can be implemented using Arrays (16)

4. (a) Write a ‘c’ program to multiply two polynomials. (8) (b) Write a ‘c’ program to add two polynomials. (8)

5. (a) Write an algorithm to convert infix to postfix expression and explain it with example (8) (b) Write an algorithm to evaluate a postfix expression and explain it with example (8)

6. (a) Write an algorithm to check given expression contains balanced Parenthesis or not. (8) (b) Write an algorithm for insertion and deletion operation in a circular queue (8)



1. Define non-linear data structure?

2. Define tree?

3. Define leaf?

4. What is meant by directed tree?

5. What is an ordered tree?

6. What is a Binary tree?

7. What are the applications of binary tree?

8. What is meant by traversing?

9. What are the different types of traversing?

10. What are the two methods of binary tree implementation?

11. Define pre-order traversal?

12. Define post-order traversal?

13. Define in -order traversal?

14. What is the length of the path in a tree?

15. Define expression trees?

16. Define strictly binary tree?

17. Define complete binary tree?

18. What is an almost complete binary tree?

19. Define AVL Tree

20. Define collision resolution


1. (a) Construct an expression tree for the expression A+(B-C)*D+(E*F) (8) (b) Write a function to delete the minimum element from a binary heap (8)

2. Write a program in C to create an empty binary search tree & search for an element X in it. (16)

3. Explain in detail about Open Addressing (16)

4. Explain in detail insertion into AVL Trees (16)

5. Write a recursive algorithm for binary tree traversal with an example. (16)

6. Write an algorithm for initializing the hash table and insertion in a separate Chaining (16)

7. State & explain the algorithm to perform Heap sort. Also analyze the time Complexity of the algorithm (16)

8. Write a C program to perform Merge sort and analyze time complexity of the Algorithm. (16)

9. State & explain the algorithm to perform Quick sort. Also analyze the time complexity of the algorithm. (16)

10. State & explain the algorithm to perform Shell sort. Also analyze the time complexity of the algorithm. (16)



1. Define Graph?

2. Define adjacent nodes?

3. What is a directed graph?

4. What is an undirected graph?

5. What is a loop?

6. What is a simple graph?

7. What is a weighted graph?

8. Define out degree of a graph?

9. Define indegree of a graph?

10. Define path in a graph?

11. What is a simple path?

12. What is a cycle or a circuit?

13. What is an acyclic graph?

14. What is meant by strongly connected in a graph?

15. When is a graph said to be weakly connected?

16. What is meant by sorting?

17. What are the two main classifications of sorting based on the source of data?

18. What is meant by external sorting?

19. What is meant by internal sorting?

20. What are the various factors to be considered in deciding a sorting algorithm?

21. What is the main idea behind insertion sort?

22. What is the main idea behind selection sort?

23. What is the basic idea of shell sort?

24. What is the other name for shell sort?

25. What is the purpose of quick sort?


1. Formulate an algorithm to find the shortest path using Dijkstra’s algorithm and explain with example. (16)

2. Explain the minimum spanning tree algorithms with an example. (16)

3. (a) Write short notes on Biconnectivity. (8)

(b) Write an algorithm for Topological Sort of a graph. (8)

4. Write and explain weighted and unweighted shortest path algorithm (16)

5. Explain the various applications of Depth First Search. (16)



1. Types of automatic list management?

2. What do you meant by Reference count method?

3. What is Garbage collection

4. What is compaction?

5. Give the purpose of list management?

6. What are the disadvantages of reference count method?

7. What are the phases of garbage collection?

8. What do you mean by thrashing?

9. What are the types of pointers?

10. What are methods of implementing add on and tail operations in linked list?

11. Define first fit

12. Define best fit.

13. Define worst fit.

14. What is internal and external fragmentation?

15. What are the types of buddy system?


1. Explain the linked list representation of a list with an example. (16)

2. Explain reference count method with an example. (16)

3. Explain garbage collection with their variations. (16)

4. Explain the dynamic memory management with necessary methods. (16)

5. Write about operations in linked linear lists. (16)

6. Explain the linked list implementation of stack ADT in detail. (16)

AE1005 WIIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai




UNIT - 1

1. Explain Buckingham PI theorem with example.

2. Define any five non dimensionless members.

3. An aircraft is to fly at a height –

C for completes dynamic similarity. What would be P & V should be used

WT F μα T (T + 7), E = γ , P = ρRT T v γ

of specific heats.

4. A 7.2m height & 15m long spillway discharges 94m3/s discharge under a head of 2.0m.

If 1:9 scale model of this spillway is to be constructed, determine model dimensions, head o ver spillway model & the model discharge. If model experience a force of 7500N.

Determine force on the prototype.

UNIT - 2

5. Explain about losses in subsonic wind tunnel.

6. Give the C lassification of wind tunnel & explain about hypersonic wind tunnel.

7. With a neat sketch explain about types of supersonic wind tunnel.

8. Explain about losses in supersonic wind tunnel.

9. Explain about high speed wind tunnel with neat sketch.

UNIT – 3

10. Derive the expression for test section speed.

11. With a neat sketch explain about calibrations of supersonic wind tunnel.

12. Explain about flow angularity measurements & its types.

13. With a neat sketch explain about turbulence measurements.

UNIT – 4

14. Explain about any one types of wind tunnel balances with neat example.

15. With a neat sketch explain about velocity measurements using LDA.

16. With a neat sketch brief about pressure measurements by using transducers.

17. With a neat sketch explain about force measurements in wind tunnel.

UNIT – 5

18. Explain about optical method of flow visualization.

19. Explain flow visualization method by using smoke & tuft grid techniques.

20. With a neat sketch explain about dye injection techniques.

AE1005-WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai




1. Derive on the basis of dimensional analysis suitable parameters to present the thrust developed by a propeller. Assume that the thrust depends on the angular velocity, speed of advance, diameter dynamic viscosity, mass density, and elasticity of the fluid medium which can be denoted by the speed of sound in the medium?

2. The pressure difference in a pipe of diameter and length due to viscous flow depends on the velocity viscosity and density .using Buckingham theorem obtains an expression

3. Explain Buckingham pi theorem with example

4. Briefly explain the types non dimensionless number


1. Derive the pressure drop coefficient for diffuser and effuse and draw the corresponding curve?

2. Explain the operation, merits, demerits and application of hypersonic wind tunnel and also briefly explain the losses in subsonic wind tunnel.

3. Explain the operation, merits, demerits and application of supersonic and aero acoustic tunnel?

4. Explain the operation, merits, demerits and application of any three special purpose wind tunnels

5. Briefly explain the special purpose hypersonic wind tunnel


1. Derive the equation for test section speed in low speed wind tunnel and draw the corresponding curve

2. Explain types of flow angularity measurement.

3. Explain types of turbulence measurement in wind tunnel?

4. Explain the operation Gun tunnel and Shock tunnel

5. With a neat illustration explain the objective of calibration of a wind tunnel. In what way the calibration procedure for a supersonic tunnel different from that of a subsonic wind tunnel?


1. How to measure velocity of flow using LDA technique

2. Explain wire type balance with neat sketch and mention the merits and demerits

3. Explain strut type balance with neat sketch and mention the merits and demerits

4. Explain six component balance with neat sketch

5. Mention the features and characteristics of wind tunnel balance


1. Explain the classification of flow visualization techniques

2. Explain the optical flow visualization techniques

3. Explain surface flow visualization technique

4. Explain the data flow visualization techniques

AE1005-WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai



Two Mark Questions



It’s defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the elastic force.


It’s defined as the ratio of an inertia force of the flowing fluid and the viscous force of the fluid


It’s defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the pressure force


It’s defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid to surface tension force


It’s defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the gravity force


If there are n variables in a physical phenomenon and if this variables contain m fundamental dimension (M, L, T) then the variables are arranged to (n- m) dimensionless terms, each term is called л-term


Model and prototype have similar properties or model and prototype are similar


Ø Geometric similarity

Ø Kinematic similarity

Ø Dynamic similarity



Ø Low speed wind tunnel,

Ø High speed wind tunnel,

Ø Special type tunnel.


It converts available pressure energy into kinetic energy and its located upstream of the test section.


It converts the kinetic energy to pressure energy and it’s downstream of the test section.


It is attached with an one way valve so that it take the air and by propeller suction, flow is maintained inside the return type.


§ Construction cost less,

§ It no surging problem is open to the free atm. DEMERITS.

§ Tunnels much noisy,

§ Make cost environment problem.


It is defined as the ratio between the total kinetic energy of the flow to the energy loss.

ER = 1/K0


§ This is the simplest among the supersonic tunnel and most economic to build.

§ Constant blowing press can be maintaining for considerable running by throttle valve.


Ø It is used to study the spinning motion of the aircraft,

Ø Ejection of pilots from seats,

Ø Parachute flying,

Ø Helicopter operation.


ü Friction losses,

ü Expansion losses,

ü Losses in the contraction cone and test section,

ü Losses in guide vanes,

ü Losses in cooling system.

UNIT – 3.


· Sphere type yaw meter,

· Claw type yaw meter.


Ø Turbulence sphere,

Ø Pressure sphere,

Ø Hot wire anemometer.


§ Using max. no of fan blades,

§ Using a very long and gradual nacelle,

§ Anti swirl vanes,

§ Providing max. Possible distance between propellers and test section.


The rate of heat from an electrical heated wire and placed in an airstream is proportional to the velocity.



Wind tunnel balance is a device to measure the actual forces &moments acting on a model placed in the test section stream


· Wire type balance

· Strut type balance

· Platform type balance

· Yoke type balance

· Strain gauge type balance


In wire type wind tunnel balances only wires are used to support the model. All the load components are transmitted to the measuring device by these wires.


· Yoke type

· Platform type

· Pyramid type


· Internal balance

· Semi internal balance

· External balance


The principle is that the pressure is balanced by the weight of a liquid column.


· Syphon barometer

· Fortin barometer

· Aneroid barometer


· They must be calibrated periodically to ensure that they continue to read correctly

· The manometers are less expensive when there is a large number of pressures to be read

· Like manometers, they cannot be easily read electronically


They are classified as mechanical, electrical & optical type


· They provide signal proportional to the applied pressure which can be automatically recorded by acquisition system

· They are relatively low volume devices & consequently respond more rapidly to pressure changes

· They are small enough to be mounted inside wind tunnel models


The principle is that a moving particle illuminated by a light beam scatters light at a frequency different from that of the original beam. This difference in frequency is known as Doppler shift & it’s proportional to the velocity of the particle.


· Micro polythene spheres

· Diluted milk droplets

· Diluted smoke particles

· Aerosol

· Fine alumina powder


· It has high frequency response

· It has negligible probe interference

· It is applicable to a wide range of applications

· The measurement with LDA is absolute, linear with velocity & require no pre- calibration


In reference beam system the scattered beam of light is optically mixed with original beam & the difference is obtained as the Doppler shift in frequency. This technique is known as heterodyning & it’s the characteristic of a photo multiplier.


It is capable of measuring low speeds of air which cannot be measured accurately with a conventional manometer.



The path of a point or particle convected with the flow is called a path line. If we could release a tracer particle at any selected point and record its subsequent path, this would be a path line.


It is a curve which represents the instantaneous motion of the fluid particle from the given point.


A streamline through a point at an instant in time is the line whose tangent is the velocity at that point and that follows a path through the fluid such that the tangent at every point is the local instantaneous velocity.


A timeline is generated by simultaneously emitting a short burst of tracers along a line perpendicular to the local flow. This marks a line of elements that are in a straight line at the initial time.


The flow visualization can be broadly classified into two, they are

ü surface flow visualization

ü flow field visualization


Key aspects of surface flows that may be investigated using visualization techniques


ü Stagnation point location

ü Separation lines

ü Location of boundary layer transition

ü Characteristic unsteadiness

ü Extent of separation zones

ü Types of critical points


The Tufts must be of light, flexible material that will align itself with the local surface flow as a result of direct of direct aerodynamic force.


The most commonly used material is light yarn with weights and lengths chosen according to model size and test speed.


The tuft material is monofilament nylo n that has been treated with a fluorescent dye.


ü Easily producible

ü Once the tufts are installed the model can be repositioned and indications studied visually & photographed for as long as desired.


ü Shadow graph

ü Schlieren technique

ü Interferometer


Ø Flow over an aerofoil

Ø Study vortex motion


Ø Non intrusive

Ø Avoiding the formation of unwanted shockwaves

Ø Avoid problems associated with the introduction of foreign particles


From corpuscular properties of light, we know that when light travels through a gas the velocity of propagation is affected by the physical properties of the gas.



The speed of a wave front of light varies inversely with the inde x of refraction of the medium through which the light travels.

AE2352 EXPERIMENTAL STRESS Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai



Unit -1

1. Explain the basic generalized measuring system with neat sketch.

2. Describe the direct reading and null balance methods in strain measurement.

3. Explain the measurement of pressure with diagram

4. (a)Active and passive instruments

(b)Null type and deflection type instruments (c)Analogue and digital instruments (d)Tolerance and dead space

5. Explain the various elements of a measurement system with a block diagram.

6. Briefly explain static characteristic of measurement.

7. Explain briefly Errors in measurement.

8. Briefly Explain Un-Bonded and Bonded Electrical strain gauges.

9. Explain briefly Optical Extensometers.

10. Explain briefly Huggenberger and Johnson Extensometers.

11. Explain briefly choice of selection of right extensometer for material testing

12. Briefly explain the working principle of LVDT.

13. Explain with neat sketches the working of a Mechanical extensometer.

14. Explain with neat sketches the working of a Electrical extensometer.

15. Explain with neat sketches the working of an acoustical extensometer.

16. What are the different types of strain gauges? What are the advantages over other types of gauges?

Why foil type gauges are prepared over wire type of gauges?

17. What are the basic characteristics of a strain gauge? Which factors should be considered while selecting a strain gauge?

Unit -1I

1. Derive the expression for balanced and un-balanced Wheatstone bridge circuit

2. Derive the expression for principal strains and its direction in terms of strain measured in a three element rectangular rosette (gauge A along x- axis, gauge B along 450 to the x- axis and gauge C along y- axis).

3. Derive an expression for output voltage of Wheatstone bridge circuit for strain measurements.

4. Derive an expression for output voltage of Potentiometer circuit for strain gauges.

5. Determine principal stresses and principal strains with help of a delta rosette mounted on an aluminum specimen with values of A = 400µ , B = 400µ , C= 400µ , Eal = 70GPa, γ = 0.3

6. Three strain gauges are applied to an area at a point in such a manner that gauge ‘b’ makes a positive

angle of 300 with gauge ‘a’ and gauge ‘c’ makes a positive angle of 450 with gauge ‘b’ . The strain readings obtained from the gauges are as follows.

Gauge Strain µ m/m a -600

b 300 c 400

Calculate the principal strains, principal stresses and principal directions.

7. Derive the expression for principal strains and its direction in terms of strain measured in a Four element rectangular rosette

8. Derive the expression for principal strains and its direction in terms of strain measured in a Delta rosette

9. Explain briefly the NULL balance bridges.


1. Explain the effects of stressed model in a plane polariscope in dark-field set up.

2. What is meant by compensation in photo elasticity and explain any two fringe compensation method in detail with its advantages over other methods.

3. Explain the importance of isoclinic’s and isochromatic with neat sketch.

4. Explain the separation technique based on the equilibrium equation.

5. Explain two separation technique used in photoelasticity.

6. Explain fringe sharpening and fringe multiplication techniques used in photo elasticity.

7. Derive the expression for the intensity of emerging light from a plane polariscope with a stressed model and show how it enables us to determine the isoclinics and the isochromatics.

8. Show the intensity of light emerging from circular polariscope is a function of principal stress difference.

9. Derive the relation between the stresses, relative retardation, material fringe value and thickness of

photoelastic model.

Unit IV

1. Explain the moiré method in brief and discuss the fundamental properties of the moiré fringes. .

2. Explain briefly the Moiré method of strain analysis.

3. Explain Brittle coating technique with neat sketch.

4. Explain working principle of Holography

5. Enumerate the brittle coating crack pattern with explanation.

1. Explain and application of the followings: (i) Radiography

(ii) Ultrasonic testing

2. Explain:

(i) Moiré method of strain analysis. (ii) Acoustic emission technique.

3. Explain \

(i) Eddy current testing

(ii) Brittle coating technique

Unit V

4. Explain the working principle of Fibre optic sensors with neat sketch.

5. Explain holography and ultrasonic C-scan non-destructive testing methods with its application.

6. Explain acoustic emission technique with neat sketch.

7. Explain radiography and fluorescent penetrant

8. What is the principles of radiography and explain the production of X-rays with the help of schematic diagram.

AE-2352 Experimental Stress Analysis Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai



AE-2352 Experimental Stress Analysis

Two Mark Questions

Unit I

1. Define Measurement:

The measurement of a given quantity is essentially an act or result of comparison between a quantity whose magnitude (amount) is unknown, with a similar quantity whose magnitude (amount) is known, the later quantity being called a standard.

2. What are the basic requirements for measurement?

(i) The standard used for comparison purposes must be accurately defined & should be commonly acceptable.

(ii) The standard must be of the same character as the measure and (ie, the

unknown quantity or the quantity under measurement)

(iii) The apparatus used and the method accepted for the purposes of comparison must be provable.

3. What are the methods of measurements?

(i) Direct Method: In these methods, MEASURAND is directly compared against a STANDARD.

(ii) Indirect Method: Measuring systems are used in indirect methods for measurement purposes

4. What is dimensional measurement?

Dimensional Measurements are characterized as determination of size of an object. These are the measurements of dimensions of an object.

5. What are the ‘STANDARD’S for the measurement of an angle?

The primary standards of angle may be taken either as angle subtended by a circle at its centre ie, 360° or as angle between two straight line intersecting in a manner such that all four angles so formed are equal, ie, each angle is 90°

6. How we can measure the Area of survey plats?

Measurement of area of regular and standard geometrical figures can be obtained from the dimensions using standard mathematical relationships.

There are many engineering applications which require the measurement of plane area. Graphical determination of the area of survey plots form maps, the integration of function to determine the area enclosed by a curve analysis of experimental data may require the use of measurement of plane area.

7. Give any two methods for measure an unknown force

An unknown force may be measured by the following methods,

1. Balancing the unknown force against the known gravitational force either directly

(or) indirectly using a system of levers.

2. Transferring the unknown force to a fluid pressure and then meaning the resulting fluid pressure. Hydraulic and Pneumatic load cells are used for transferring

the force into pressure.

8. How we can measure the temperature changes?

Temperature is not measured directly, but is measured through indirect means; change of temperature of a substance causes a variety of effects. These effects may be physical, chemical, electrical (or) optical and they may be used for the measurement of temperature through use of proper temperature sensing devices.

9. Tell some thing about ‘static characteristics’ and ‘static calibration’ in measurements:

‘Static characteristics’ of a measurement system are in general those that must

be considered when the system or instrument is used to measure a condition not varying with time. All the static performance characteristics are obtained in one form or another by a process called’ static calibration’

10. What is accuracy and tell about point accuracy?

Accuracy is the closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of the quantity being measured. Thus accuracy of a measurement means conformity to truth.

‘Point Accuracy’ is the accuracy of the instrument only at one point on it scale.

11. Give the Type of errors in measurements

(i) Gross errors (ii) Random rrors (iii) systematic errors

- Instrumental errors

- Environmental errors

- Observational errors

12. Differentiate Gross error and Instrumental Error

Gross errors mainly cover human mistakes in reading instruments and recording and calculating measurement results.

Instrumental Error occurs due to the wrong adjustments of a measuring devices while it construction or misalignments of its pats.

13. Differentiate environmental and systematic errors

Environmental errors causes due to the surrounding condition of instruments, but systematic errors causes because of the fault of the arrangement of measuring system during the whole measuring process.

14. What absolute static error? Give example

Absolute static error is the difference between measured values of quantity and the true value of quantity. ie, Eo= X(m) - X(t)

Example: an error of 2mm is negligible when the length being measured is of the

order of ( 1000 mm) 1 m but the same error of 12 mm may be considerable when the measurement of 10mm length.

15. What do you mean by limiting errors?

The limits of the deviations from the specified values of measurement datas are defined as `Limiting errors' (or) `Guarantee error'

16. Determine relative limiting error:

The relative error (fractional error) is defined as the ratio of the error to the specified magnitude (nominal magnitude) of a quantity.

Relative limiting error A Limiting error

( Er) = =

As A Normal Value

17. What is an uncertainty in a measurement?

Un certainty of measurement is a parameter associated with the result of measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of values that could be reasonably attributed to the measurand.

18.Define static sensitivity

the static sensitivity of an instrument or an instrumentation system is the ratio of the magnitude of the output quantity to the magnitude of input )quantity being measured)

19. Define scale range:

The scale range of an instrument is defined as the difference between the largest and the smallest reading of the instruments.

20. What is the frequency range in measurements?

Frequency range is defined as frequency over which measurements can be performed with a specified degree of accuracy.

21. What is extensometer?

Extensometer is an instrument used top measure minute deformation of material while it is subjected to a stress.

22. Classify the extensometers depending upon the magnification systems.

1. Mechanical Extensometers

2. Optical extensometers

3. Acoustical (Vibrating wire) extensometers

4. Electrical extensometers

5. Pneumatic extensometers.

23. What are the Basic Requirements of extensometer?

1. Very high magnification:The magnification required is usually greater than 1000: 1

2. Sensitivity: The relation between input and output should not be affected by the reversal in the direction of input and this requires that the movement should not have any friction.

3. Low input force: The input force required to cause displacement should be extremely small thus there is no defamation of the component due to the process of measurement.

24. Classify the mechanical extensometers depending upon the manner of obtaining the magnification.

1. Wedge magnification

2. Screw magnification

3. Compound magnification

4. Lever magnification

25. Give the disadvantages of a simple mechanical lever magnification

For strain measurements on inner surfaces of small structures, the clearance may be in sufficient for the gauge and all its auxiliary equipment.

26. Give the magnification capacity & gaugelength of Huggen-Berger tensometer

The magnification may vary from 300 to 2000 depending upon the model. The gauge length varies from 12.5 to 25 mm.

27. Give the advantages of scratch gauge

1. Compact in size

2. It can be attached to almost any surface with clamps or screws & adhesive bonding

3. It can measure scratch under all types of loading (static, shock, fatigue)

4. It can be used to record stress in all types of environments.

28. Tell something about the magnification capacity of Marten's extensometer

This instrument is extremely sensitive and by using telescope, regarding may be estimated to 1/10 mm which corresponding to a length charge of approximately 0.0002m.

29. Give the classifications of Electrical strain gauges

(a) inductance (or) magnetic strain gauges

(b) Electrical resistance strain gauges

(c) The capacitance strain gauges.

30. How strain can be measured by using Electrical strain gauges?

Electrical strain gauge is a device in which a change in length produces a change in some electrical characteristics of the gauges.

31. Give the working principle of inductance strain gauges?

An electrical inductance gauge is a device in which the mechanical quantity to be measured produced a change in the magnetic field, and hence in the impedance of a current carrying coil.

32. Give the working principle of eddy- current gauges

In this types of gauges the losses in the magnetic circuit are varied by changing the thickness or position of the high- loss element inserted in the magnetic field.

33. What is known as foil strain gauges?

The foil strain gauge has metal foil photo- etched in a grid pattern of the electric insulator of the thin resin and gauge leads attached.

34. What is the basic principle of unbonded metallic strain gauges

the principle of unbonded metallic gauges is based on change in electrical resistance of a metallic wire due to change in tension of the wire.

Unit -II

1. What is photo-etching?

Photo etching is the act of producing grid configuration on metal foil with the help of photo effect.

2. What is known as strip gauges?

The number of strain gauges are arranged in a particular manner is called strip gauges.

3. What is known as strain rosettes?

An arrangement of strain gauges in particular orientation or angle is known as strain rosettes

4. Give the quantities required for a good gauge material?

High gauge factor High resistance Low temperature


High electrical stability Good corrosion resistance

High yield point stability

5. Give some arrangements of strain gauges to obtain strain rosettes

1. Two gauge rosette

2. Rectangular rosette

a) Three element b) Four element

3. Delta (or) Equiangular rosette

4. T. Delta rosette

6. What are the methods are available for computing the strain rosette datas?

1. Analytical Solutions

2. Graphical Solutions

3. Semi ± graphical (or) vectorial layout method

4. Nomographic Solutions

5. Geometrical Computers.

7. Give the advantages of strain Rosette analysis.

(i)Extreme simplicity and speed of application. (ii)Possibility of allowing for transverse effects. (iii)No requirements for additional equipments.

(iv) The possibility of training relativity unskilled persons to use the method.

8.Give the type of strain gauge circuits.

1. Wheat stone bridge circuits for static strain measurements.

2. Potentiometer circuits for dynamic strain measurements.

9. Define sensitivity of potentiometer:

Sensitivity of the potentiometer circuit is defined as the ratio of the output voltage divided by the strain.

1. Define Light


Light is usually defined as the radiation that can affect the human eye.

2. Define White light:

Light from a source that emits a continuous spectrum with equal energy for every wave length is called white light.

3. Define monochromatic light:

Light of a single wave length is called monochromatic light. Example: sodium vapour lamp, Hg arc lamp.

4. What is wave front?

The focus of points on different radial lines from the source exhibiting the same disturbance at a given instant of time, in a surface known as a wave front.

5. Define Ray?

A line normal to the wave front, indicating the direction of propagation of the waves is called a ray.

6. What are longitudinal waves?

The waves in which vibration are along the direction of their travel is known as longitudinal waves.

7. What are transverse waves?

Transverse waves are waves in which vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of wave travels.

8. What is polarized light?

The light having vibration only along a single straight line perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light is said to be polarized.

9. What is plane of polarization?

The plane containing the direction of propogation of light, but containing no vibrations is called the plane of polarization.

10. What are the methods are available to obtain plane polarized light?

(i) Refraction and Reflection for glass plate. (ii) By using Nichol Prism.

11. What are the disadvantages are available in Nichol prism when we use that to obtain plane polarized light?

1. Costly

2. Intensity is Poor.

12. What is the basic principle for photo elasticity?

When polarized light enters a loaded transparent component, it is split into two beams both beams travel along the same path, but each vibrates along a principal direction and travels at a speed proportional to the associated principal stress.

13. What is Refractive index?

The ratio of the velocity of light In air to the velocity in the medium is called the refractive index of the medium and is denoted by `n' .

14. What do you mean by Polariscope?

Polariscope is an optical instrument that utilizes the properties of polarized light in its operation.

15. Give the types of polariscopes used in experimental stress analysis? (i) Plane Polariscope

(ii) Circular Polariscope

16. Give the four different possible setups in circular polariscope?


Polariser- Analyzer

Quarter wave plates


















17. What is known as isotropic point in a polariscope setup?

In a particular point in a stressed model where σ1= σ2 , that fringe order is zero and permanent block dots appear at these points such are called isotropic points.

18. What are the properties of photo elastic materials?

1. Transparent to light used in the Polariscope.

2. Easily machinable by conventional means.

3. It should be force form residual stresses

4.They should have both mechanical and optical isotropy and homogeneity.

19. Give the most commonly used methods for compensation techniques

1. Babinet compensation method.

2. Babinet soleil compensation method

3. Tension or compression stop method.

4. Tardy method of compensation.

5. Senarment method of compensation

6. Photometric method.

20. What are the techniques used to determine the stresses at the inner layers of the body in 3D photo elasticity?

1. Locking in the stresses in the model

2. Multilayer reflection technique.

Unit - IV

1. Define Non - destructive testing

Non ±destructive testing is a technique for revealing flaws and defects in a material or device without damaging as destroying the test sample.

2. Give some advantages of NDT:

1. Can be done directly on production items without regards to part cost or quantity available.

2. Can be done on 100% of production of on representative samples.

3. Give the limitations of NDT:

1. Results often must be interpreted by a skilled. Experienced technician.

2. In absence of contact with each other, different observers may disagree on meaning & significance of test results.

4. Give the advantages of Radiographic inspection.

- The ability to detect internal flows

- An ability to detect significant variations in composition.

- Permanent recording of raw inspection datas.

5. Give some advantages of Brittle coating method.

- Provides nearly whole field area

- Is non destructive if the coating is sensitive enough.

- Is simple to analyze

6. Give some advantages by using fiber optic sensors.

- Light weight (very small in size)

- Low power requirement

- Resistant to electromagnetic interference

- High sensitivity


Anna University, Chennai





1. Describe the role of Managers

2. What are the historical inputs for management?

3. What are the difference between Management and Administration?

4. In today’s context explain in detail the different functions of management

5. Elucidate the strategies for international business

6. What are contributions of F.W.Taylor?

7. Draw out clearly whether Management is Science or Art.

8. Discuss in detail about Henri Fayols contribution towards principles of management


9. Explain the decision making process & its techniques.

10. What are the principles of formulating policies in modern organizations? Explain the essentials of formulating polices.

11. What are the various steps in planning? Discuss the considerations for planning process?

12. What are the modern techniques used in planning process?

13. State the various process of MBO.

14. Describe the formal & informal Organizations.

15. Explain the nature and purpose of organization

16. What are the various types of Plans?


17. What are the various types of organization? Discuss the merits and demerits of various organizational structures?

18. Explain the nature and purpose of Organizing

19. What are the difference between centralization and decentralization?

20. What are the steps involved in selection process?.

21. Describe the various types of training

22. Explain in detail about the performance appraisal.


23. Explain various theories of motivation?

24. Explain the different form of motivation technique.

25. Explain various types of leadership?

26. Explain the process of Communication.

27. Elucidate the barriers in Communication.

28. Describe in detail about the organization culture

29. Explain in detail about the creativity and innovation


30. What are the various methods of control techniques?

31. Explain in detail about the maintenance control and Quality control

32. Describe the process of controlling

33. Explain the various types of control

34. Explain in detail about the cost control and purchase control

35. Describe the importance of controlling.

MG2351 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai







“Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups accomplish their aims effectively and efficiently”

“Art of getting things done through others”

A process of Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading and Controlling.

2. Characteristics of management:

Ø Management is goal oriented ( Mean to achieve goals)

Ø Management is universal ( Suitable for all Size of organizations & Activities

Ø Integrative force: Individual efforts à Converged in to organizational goals

Ø Management is a social process: Done by people, through people for people

Ø Management is a multidisciplinary: Depends on knowledge from several disciplines.

3. Objectives of management

Ø Organizational objectives: ROI, Survival and solvency of business, Growth, Goodwill and Market standing

Ø Personal objectives: Salary & Remuneration, Working conditions, Training &

development opportunities, Participation in management, Security of service.

4. Need & Importance of management

Ø To achieve Objectives & Goals

Ø Optimum utilization of resources

Ø Minimization of cost

5. Division of work: Every employee is assigned one particular work type

Authority and responsibility: Power & Commitment

6. Discipline: Rules, orders, instructions should be followed without any deviation or Choice.

7. Unity of command: One should get orders from only one superior.

8. Unity of direction: all activities should be focused towards common goals.

Subordination of Individual interest to general Interest: Adhering to Goals of organization.

9. Remuneration: Fair and reasonable payment to the contributions made

10. Centralization: Power 78 Authority sharing between Top level, Middle level & Bottom level and also across various functional divisions & Branches.

11. Scalar Chain: Un broken line of command from top to bottom level (G.M à DGM à

Managerà Asst. Managerà Supervisorà Senior employee à Skilled employee à Employee)

12. Order: Smooth flow of work and resource handling

13. Equity: Treat all employees with Justice, Similar way and Kindness

Stability of tenure of personnel: Job security

14. Initiative: Willingness to do things and also in a creative way

15. Esprit- de – corps: Team spirit and working in harmony

16. Contributions by Max weber – Bureaucratic organization:

Bureaucratic model is more efficient form of organization because it aims at high degree of precision efficiency, objectivity and rationality.

Characteristics of Weber model:

Ø Division of labour: Specialization

Ø Hierarchy of authority: Position and relationship with superiors & subordinates

Ø Rigidity in compliance with procedures and framework of rules: No deviation

Ø Impersonality: Formal and functional relationship

Ø Technical competence: Job requirements and skills

17. Behavioral approach (Neo Classical theory) Contributions of Hawthorne studies

George Elton Mayo conducted it

Conducted at Hawthorne plant of Western electronic company

1927 to 1932

Experiments conducted:

Ø Illumination experiment: To test the fact that more working comfort would ensure better performance. The lights that illuminated the factory were reduced in numbers.

Ø Relay assembly test room experiment: Changes in Supervision, Job rotation, More interaction, Flexible working hours, More wages

Ø Mass interviewing programme: Attitude towards their job, working conditions and supervision conditions

Ø Bank wiring experiments : Study on informal groups and its effectiveness in Internal

Target setting

18. Top level management:

Ø Corporate planning for the entire operations

Ø Critical, Important and Macro decisions

Ø Corporate Objectives & Goals

Ø Decide on structure of Organization, creating various positions

Ø Review , change decisions and control of all financial and operating results

19. Middle level management:

Ø Department plan, Goals, activities

Ø Means of achieving the goals

Ø To perform all managerial functions

Ø Issue detailed orders and instructions

Ø Interpret policy to sub ordinates and lower level employees.

20. Lower level management

Planning of day to day work

Orders & Instructions were issued, received & Implemented

Supervising & Guiding of employees

Discipline & Team work

Performance & Improvement

21. Sole trading

Business unit which is owned and controlled by a single individual is known as a sole trading concern.

Advantages of sole trading

1. It is easy to form and close the business

2. It is easy for decision making

22. Partnership

A partnership is an association of two or more person to carry on business and to share its profits and losses.

Advantages of partnership

1. Easy to formation

2. Registration is not compulsory

23. Inter personal roles

Ø The figurehead role ( Ceremonial head)

Ø The leader role (Lead the organization towards the objective)

Ø The Liaison ( Communicating on behalf of organization to outsiders)

24. Informational roles

Ø Recipient role (Receives information)

Ø The disseminator role ( Pass on communication to subordinates)

Ø The spokes person role ( Pass on information to public & Stake holders)

25. Decision Roles

Ø The entrepreneurial role ( Invest, Direct & venture in to business)

Ø The disturbance handler role ( Crisis management)

Ø The resource allocator role ( Planning & Budgeting of resources)

Ø The negotiator role (Bargaining & offering)

26. Effectiveness: Achievement of objectives

27. Efficiency: Achievements of ends/Goals with least amount of resources.

28. Planning:

*Determination of objectives

*Forecasting and choice of course of action

*Formulation of policies, Programmes, Budgets, Schedules etc to achieve objectives

*Laying down of procedures and standard of performance

29. Organizing:

* Deciding on various activities required to achieve a goal

* Grouping and arranging the activities

* Assigning duties of all individuals working

* Assigning authority to the various designations

* Fixing up responsibility and performance standards

* Establishing horizontal and Vertical relationship

Ø 30.Staffing

* Deciding on quality and Quantity of manpower requirement and ensuring their availability with readiness to perform

à Manpower planning

à Recruitment

à Selection

à Training & Development

à Compensation

à Maintenance of human resource

31. Directing

Communication with all levels in the management Motivation: Provide means for better involvement in the task Leadership: Means to get things done

32. Controlling

All activities are performed according to standards pre decided

Taking steps in order of deviations

Handling issues and problems

33. Planning

Unit 2

“The plan is the action that orient towards goal or objective through the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through and the methods to use. Deciding on Coordinated activities that could bring in achievement of desired results.

*Planning is the future course of action towards attains the goal.

34. Objectives or Goals: Ends towards which activities are aimed or focused.

35. Strategies: Integrated Programme to achieve comprehensive objectives

36. Policies (Majors & Minors) Specific Area, Framework and Important guidelines for carrying out various activities.

37. Procedures: A required method of handling future activities. activity oriented

38. Rules: Specific required actions or Non actions that could join to form procedures, Task oriented

39. Programs: Set of clear instructions in a logical sequence to perform a particular task.

40. Budgets: Statement of expected results expressed in numbers.

41. Long range planning: Long range planning sets Long term goals and formulate specific plan to achieve it.

42. Short range planning: Determination of short term activities to achieve short term goals, thereby enabling reaching of Long term Goals through successful implementation of other short term plans also.

43. Functional planning: Planned for functional areas like Production, Marketing, Finance, R & D, Systems and HRM.

44. Objectives and goals may be defined as a ‘Future destination or desired state of affairs which the organization wants to attain’

* Future direction towards organizational objectives

M C Farland: “Objectives are the goals, aims or purposes that organizations wish to achieve over varying periods of time’

Features of objectives:

(1) Basic plans : Objectives are the basis of all other plans

(2) Multiple in nature: In various functional areas and combine to bring success

(3) Arranged in hierarchy: Higher to lower level at various departments and divisions

(4) Objectives vary in time span : Long term & short span

(5) Objectives may be general or specific

· Maintenance * Operational * Productive * General

45. Concepts in MBO (Management by objectives)

Peter F Druker in 1954

Self control and Self direction

Performance appraisal – Central focus of MBO

Self appraisal and self development

The active involvement of subordinates in the appraisal process leads to commitment and creates an environment for motivation.

46. Process of MBO

Ø Setting preliminary objectives

Ø Fixing key result areas

Ø Setting subordinate’s objectives

Ø Recycling objective

Ø Matching resources with objectives

Ø Periodic performance review

Ø Appraisal.

47. MBO Benefits

Ø Improvement of managing : Involvement and Motivated

Ø Clarification of organization: No misunderstanding

Ø Encouragement of personal commitment: Opportunity to contribute their ideas

Ø Development of effective controls: Verifiable Goals.

48. Strategies

“It is a complex plan for bringing organization from a given posture to a desired position in a future period of time”.

49. Characteristics of strategy:

Ø Comprehensive and integrated action plan drawn for achieving objectives

Ø Strategy is based on situational analysis of organization and environmental analysis


Ø Maximizing the performance and output with limited and minimum resources.

Ø Flexible enough to make changes and exploit new opportunities

Ø Flexible and dynamic in nature

Ø Long period of time plans with short term operational plans also

Ø Imposed externally by political, social, Legal and economical forces.

Ø It is interpretative planning formulated to interpret the meaning of the policies.

50. Policies:

Formulation, communication and implementation of policies.

“A policy is a general standing plan guiding the management in the conduct of enterprise management operations”

51. Characteristics of policies:

Ø Formulated in the context of objectives and seeks to contribute to the organizational objectives.

Ø Communicated to all managers.

Ø Broad guideline to the thinking and action

Ø Expression of top management to facilitate managerial decisions.

Ø Restrictive and permissive in nature.

52. Importance of policies:

Ø Speed up decision making

Ø Better delegation and decentralization of authority

Ø Coordination: Creates unity of efforts and uniformity of action and it focuses attention on organizational objectives.

Ø Simplifies control: Helps to prevent unwarranted deviations from planned course of action.

Ø Accomplishment of objectives

53. Planning premises

Planning premises are the anticipated environment in which plans are expected to operate.

Classification of planning premises

1. Internal and external premises

2. Tangible and intangible premises

3. Controllable and uncontrollable premises.

54. Decision making

Selection of a course of action from or among alternatives” Choosing from available alternatives

55. Components of decision making process

Ø Decision maker

Ø Decision problem

Ø Environment around the problem

Ø Objectives of decision maker

Ø Alternative course of action

Ø Outcomes expected from various alternatives

Ø Final choice

56. Routine and strategic decisions

Routine: Regular, Normal, day to day, less significance, No deviations

Strategic: Critical, high value, responsible for success/failure of the organization.

57. Policy and operating decisions

Policy: Vital importance and taken by top management

Operating decisions: Lower levels of management, activities, tasks and processes.

58.Organizational and Personal decision

Organizational: Official capacity

Personal decisions: Individual

59. Programmed and non programmed decisions:

Programmed: Routine and Repetitive

Non programmed decisions : Situational, Accidental and Contingency

60. Individual and Group decisions Individual: Decisions of own by Leaders Group: Collective decisions

Ø Quantitative techniques:

1. Time series analysis ; Adjusted to trend, seasonal variations

2. Extrapolation: Future projection based on past & Present trends

3. Regression analysis : Relative movements of one more interrelated series.

4. Input – output analysis : Cause- effect estimation

5. Econometric model: Expressing in quantitative terms the relationship between different variables that could influence.

61. Organization:

Unit 3

“Different things ( Roles and responsibilities) to different people ( Individuals in the organization)”.

Ø Formalized intentional structure of roles and positions.

62. Organizing means

Ø Identification and classification of required activities.

Ø Grouping of activities necessary to attain objectives.

Ø Assignment and delegation of authority to implement it

Ø Horizontal and vertical coordination and control. Organizational structure: designed to

Clarifies who is to do what tasks and who is responsible for what results. To remove obstacles to performance.

To make decisions and communicating it to all levels of management.

63. Formal and Informal organization:

Formal organization: the intentional structure of roles in a formally organized enterprise- A structure in which each individuals would deliver duties and responsibilities. Not a voluntary structure for employees.

Informal organization: A network of personal and social relations not established or required by the formal organization but arising spontaneously as people associate with one another”.

Grape vine: An informal way of communication taking place inside the organization through rumors.

64. Process of organizing involves:

Ø Determining activities, Grouping activities, Assigning duties

Ø Delegating authority and Coordinating activities

65. Line organization: Scalar organization

Ø Direct lines of authority flowing from top to bottom levels of organization.

Ø Features:

Ø Scalar chain from top to bottom

Ø No provision for staff experts

Ø Orders flow directly from superiors to subordinate

Ø Subordinate responsible for achieving work to the superior.

Ø Each superior is independent and takes decisions in his own area

Ø Each individual responsible for executive only

Ø Direct vertical flow of authority

Ø Authority-Highest at the top and reduces towards lower level.

Ø Planning and doing by same person

66. Functional organization

Organization in which various activities are classified in to a number of functions such as production, Marketing, Finance, Personnel, etc and each function is placed under the charge of functional expert.


Entire work of organization is divided in to major functions. Every function is under the charge of a specialist

Every functional expert is given functional authority to command people of other departments concerning his function.

Every subordinate receives instructions from a group of specialist.

67. Line and staff organization

“Designed to maintain a proper balance between centralization (Line organization) and divisions of control (Functional organization).


Ø Line authority are used

Ø Direct chain of command

Ø Staff experts play a supportive role

Ø Specialized activities and basic activities are separated

Ø Unity of command is maintained.

67. Matrix Organization:

Hybrid structure combining functional departmentation and project structure.

Functional structure is a permanent feature of the matrix organization and retains authority for the overall operation of functional units. Project departments and project teams are created when ever specific projects require a high degree of technical skill and other resources for a temporary period.

Developed to meet the needs of large and complex organizations which require a structure more flexible and technically oriented rather than the functional structures.


Ø Helps focused attention , talent, resource usage – Better control

Ø More flexible-Effective communication

Ø Professionals can test their competence and make maximum contributions.

Ø Motivate the staff to work for completion of project- Priority

Ø Physical resources are assigned, Better balance and job security.

68. Departmentation

Grouping of similar activities of the business into departmentation, division units.

Departmentation by different strategies

1. Department by numbers

2. Department by time

3. Department by enterprise function

4. Department by Territory

5. Department by Customers

6. Department by process

7. Department by product or service.

69. Delegation of authority

Ø The process by which a manager shares some of his functions and authority with subordinates is called delegation of authority.

Ø Delegation involves assigning duties, entrusting authority and imposing responsibility on subordinates.

Ø Delegation is always done within certain limit.

Ø After delegation , the manager should have the responsibility to follow it up.

Ø Delegated authority could be taken back at the time by higher official.

Ø Supervisor exercises control over operations of authority

Ø Routine works are delegated and the manager con focus on other important matters.

Ø Delegation of authority based on division of work

Ø Systematic process.

70. Process of delegation:

Ø Assignment of duties: Defines the tasks to be performed by the subordinates.

Ø Granting of authority: Providing authority to perform tasks or activities.

Ø Creating of responsibility: Subordinates become accountable for the performance of their duties..

71. Authority: Implies right and power of a person to exercise discretion to make decisions, to issue orders, to use organizational resources and to hire and fire employees.

Hendry fayol on Authority “ The right to give order and the power to exact obedience”.

72. Responsibility: Obligation to perform the given task to the best of one’s abilities.

73. Centralization: Centralization of authority refers to systematic and consistent retention or concentration of authority for decision making at higher levels of management.

74. Decentralization: Systematic dispersal of authority in all departments and at all levels of management. An organization said to be decentralized when managers at middle and lower levels are given the authority to take decisions on matters referring to their functions.

75. Staffing

Staffing basically involves matching jobs and individuals

76. Role of staffing

1. Increase in the number of employees

2. Changing employee roles and values

3.Increasing the percentage of woman employees

4. Widening the functions of the management

5. Effective attainment of organization goals

6. Provision of job satisfaction to employees.

77. Factors affecting staffing

1. Political factors

2. Economic factors

3. Social factors

4. Legal factors

5. Customers

6. Technological factors

78. Job specification: Formal statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities required for the successful performance of a job.

o Qualification required

Educational qualification



Physical standards Communication abilities Degree of initiative

Judgment & Decision making

Human attributes (i.e) Behavioral an emotional aspects

Manager (Finance) Identification: MG (F) 31/2002

Designation: Manager ( Finance)

Age limit : 40 to 50 ( Relaxable by 5 years in exceptional cases) Educational qualification: CA/ ICWA

Degree or Diploma in financial management

Desirable: MBA or Mcom. From any recognized university. Experience: Relevant Industry : Minimum 3 years

Other Industry : Minimum 5 years

Physique: Height, Weight, General health and ailment

Special skills : Ability to work in computerized environment

Position in Organization: Middle level management to report to direct ( Finance).

79.Recruitment:Process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them (motivate them) to apply for jobs in the organization.

80.Sources of Recruitment

Promotion, Training & Personal contact, Placement services,

Development & Transfer Advertisement, On campus recruitment, Educational Institution, Factory gate appointment, Labour contractors

81. Directing

Unit 4

Directing is a managerial function which primarily concerned with influencing, guiding, supervising and inspiring subordinates in a planned manner.

“ All those activities which are designed to encourage subordinates to work efficiently and effectively in both the short and long run”.

82. Process of directing involves

Ø Orders about work to subordinates

Ø Guiding, Counseling, and educating subordinates

Ø Supervising the work being performed

Ø Maintaining discipline and rewarding efficient workers

Ø Motivating and inspiring the subordinates

83. Nature of directing

Ø Directing is a sub function between organizing, Staffing and Controlling

Ø It is an initiating function. Giving orders and instructions for converting decisions in to actions.

Ø Continuous process

Ø Performed by all managers at every level of organization.

Ø The time for directing will increase when we move down the level in organization

Ø Action oriented items converting objectives in to achievement of objectives.

Ø It connects planning, Organizing, staffing and Controlling

Ø Issuing orders, Instructions and activity to subordinates.

84. Motivation:

S R S Performance = Ability X Motivation X Technology

Motive : An inner state that activates energizes or moves an individual and channelizes his behavior towards goals.

Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action in order to accomplish desired goals.

85. Importance of motivation:

Ø Effective use of resources

Ø Higher efficiency

Ø Accomplishment of organizational goals

Ø Reduced labor turnover and absenteeism

Ø Healthy Industrial relation

Ø Improved corporate image

86. Maslow’s Hierarchy Need hierarchy theory

Ø Hierarchical placement of human needs from lower to higher order

If a given level of needs are satisfied fully, by providing these needs will not motivate him. He goes to next higher level of needs.

87. Herzberg’s motivation Hygiene theory (Two factor theory)

But unlike Maslow’s theory that the movement to next level shall happen when lower level is achieved is not practical because there is overlapping of needs

Dissatisfiers (Hygiene factors) Satisfactors (Motivational factors) Dissatifiers: Satisfactors:

Policy, administration, Supervision, Achievement, Recognition, Challenging

Working conditions, Interpersonal relations, work, advancement

Salary, Status, Job security, personal life


Hygiene factors are the needs that would not be felt as a motivator when it is present, but when it is absent the dissatisfaction is felt (Maintenance factors). i.e. Electricity & Salary

The motivational factors are the needs that would motivate an employee to perform.

Herzberg was able to recommend the importance of satisfiers which can motivate the employees.

88. Expectancy theory of motivation: Victor H Vroom

“People will be motivated to do things to reach goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it”.

Force = Valence & Expectancy

Valance: Strength of an individual’s preference for an outcome

Expectancy: Probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome.

89. Porter and Lawler model

Amount of effort à depends on Value of reward + Amount of effort + Probability of actually getting a reward

90. Equity theory by J.Stacy Adams

Outcomes by a person = Outcomes by another person/ Inputs by another person

Individual’s subjective judgements about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs (which include many factors such as effort, experience and education) in comparison with the rewards of other.

91. Reinforcement theory : BK. Skinner

Positive reinforcement or behaviour modification.

“Individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results.

MC Gregor’s participation theory

(Theory X and Theory Y)

Theory X (Traditional theory) Negative assumptions about human behavior

(1) People are by nature indolent ( want to work as little as possible)

(2) People lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be directed by others.

(3) People are inherently self centered and indifferent to organizational needs and goals. (4) People are generally gullible (not sharp and bright).

This approach leads to

Close supervision, centralized structure, autocratic leadership and tight controls.

Management is responsible for organizing the elements of production Management involves directing their efforts, motivating and controlling them. Active intervention needed for accomplishing results.

Theory Y

(1) People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational goals. (2) The want to assume responsibility.

(3) They want their organization to succeed.

(4) People are capable of directing their own behavior. (5) They have need for achievement

This approach leads to

Ø Democratic leadership.

Ø Participation in decision making

Ø Self control

Ø Management by objectives

Ø Job enrichment

Ø Decentralization

Ø Employees are treated as naturally responsible and self motivated.

92.Mc clelland’s Needs theory of motivation:

Three basic motivating needs n/Pwr à Need for power

n/ Aff à Need for affiliation

n/ Ach à Need for achievement

Need for power : People with high need for power have a great concern for exercising influence and control –Forceful, outspoken, hard headed and demanding.

Need for affiliation: Usually derive pleasure from being loved and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected.

Need for achievement: Need for achievement have an intense desire for success and an equally intense fear of failure – risk taking, energetic and hardworking.

93. Leadership:

Ø Influence, art or process of enabling people to strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals.

Ø Ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.

94. Nature and Features

Ø Leadership is basically a personal quality

Ø Ability to form a group and enable them to follow his instructions without hesitation.

Ø Leadership pre supposes (assumes) a group of followers, who will follow

Ø Leadership is a process of inert- personal influence by which leader influences the followers in a situation to strive willingly towards realization of common goals.

Ø Community of interests between the leader and his followers.

Ø Continues process of influencing behavior.

Ø Leadership is exercised in a particular situation at a given point of time and under a specific set of circumstances.

Ø Leadership is a reciprocal relationship.

95. Leadership skills

1. Visionary skills 2. Communication skills 3. Sensitivity skills 4. Self awareness skills

96. Qualities of a good leader

1. intelligence 2. Physical features 3. Maturity 4. Vision and foresight 5.Inner motivation 6. Sense of responsibility 7. Empathy 8. Human relations attitude 9. Emotional balance

97. Autocratic or authoritarian leadership:

Leader centralizes power and decision making in himself. Commands complete control over subordinates.

Ø Strict autocrat leader: Penalties criticism and coercion

Ø Blue violent autocrat leader : Centralizes decision making power in him and offer positive motivation style in the room of taking in to account the feelings and needs of subordinates

Ø In competent autocrat leader : He adopts an autocratic style just to hide his incompetence.


Ø Provides strong motivation and reward to the self centered leader

Ø Permits quick decisions

Ø Incompetent subordinates can work, as their role in decision making is negligible

98. Democratic or Participative style:

Leaders take decision in consultation with the subordinates. Advantages:

Ø Provides subordinates to develop their potential abilities and greater responsibilities

Ø Improves job satisfaction & Morale of subordinates

Ø Subordinates participation would improve the quality of decisions.

99. Laiseez – Faire ( Free Rein Leadership)

Allows group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. The entire decision making power is entrusted to subordinates and leader do not direct them.


Higher involvement and responsibility

Career development is successful

100. Creativity

Ability to produce new and useful ideas through the combination of known principles and components in novel and non obvious ways.

101. Creative process

1. Saturation

2. Preparation

3. Frustration and incubation

4. Inspiration

5. Verification

Unit 5


102. Elements of control system –Stanley De J. Osberne

Ø Planning: Plan is a pre requisite for effective control

Ø Organizational structure: Clearly defining the duties and responsibilities of each individual.

Ø Proper operating policy: Policy in realistic and broad in scope based on calculated action.

Ø Delegation or decentralization of authority: People down the line must be given right to make normal decision and normal errors to accomplish the objectives set before.

Ø Up to date procedures: Maintenance of up to date procedures and ensuring that these procedures are followed.

Ø Communication: Appraisal of results and guide for forward planning

Ø Personal ability of the controller:

Ø Proper assignment of authority and responsibility

103.8 areas of control – Peter F Drukker

-Marketing, Innovation, Productivity, Human organization, financial resources, Physical resources, Profitability and Social responsibility.

104. Holden’s 13 areas of control

Policies, Organization, Personnel, wages and salaries, Cost, Methods and manpower, Capital expenditure, service dept. efforts, Line of products, Research & Development, foreign operations, External relations and over all control.

105. Functional budget: One that relates to a function of the business i.e. Sales, Promotion etc.

106.Master budget: It is the summary budget incorporating its component functional budgets consolidated department and functional budget.

107.Fixed budget: Budget designed to remain unchanged irrespective of the level of activity actually attained.

108.Flexible budget: Designed to adjust permitted cost levels to suit the level of activity actually attained.

109.Zero based budget: (ZBB) Each manager has to justify the resources for each activity afresh for the accomplishment of objectives.

110.CPM : Critical path method : It is similar to PERT in attempt to integrate all activities involved in a project.

111.The differences between PERT and CPM are

Ø CPM assumes that the duration of each activity is constant. PERT allows uncertainty in the duration of activities.

Ø PERT is event oriented, CPM is activity oriented.

Ø CPM assumes some previous work experience essential for the completion of each activity. For PERT previous work experience is not essential.

Ø Cost and time estimates are used in CPM, but only time estimate is used in PERT.

112.Network techniques:

PERT : Program evaluation and review techniques.

PERT is a time event network analysis system in which various event in a program or project are identified, with a planned time established for each. These events are placed in a network showing the relationship of each event to the others.

à Events

Circles are number in an order of occurrence

Arrow represents an activity

Three time estimates are used

1. Most likely time

2. Optimistic time

3. Pessimistic time

Critical path : The sequence of events which takes the longest time and which has Zero ( or the least) slack time.

Strengths :

Ø Forces the manager to plan

Ø Planning is done all the way down the line

Ø Concentrates attention on critical elements that may need correction

Ø Makes possible a kind of forward looking control

Ø Network systems with sub systems enables a manager to aim reports and pressure for action at the right spot.

113.Quality control: Group of voluntary representation from each departments, who are working on continuous improvement of performance.


It is a measure of how much input is required to produce a given input. productivity=output/ input


The government attitude towards the business has undergone a drastic change beginning from the later years of eighties. This change can be seen from the various policies announced by the government particularly.

Ø Industrial policy statement

Ø Long term fiscal policy

Ø Exim policy

115. Liberalisation:

It eliminates licensing quantitative restrictions and other regulatory and discretionary controls.

The liberalization has enormously expanded the scope of the private sector. Now only a small number a industries are reserved. The liberalization of the policies towards foreign capital and technology and import liberalization have given further growth and competition.