CS 2202-Digital Principles and Systems Design Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai




1.Define the term digital.

The term digital refers to any process that is accomplished using discrete


2.What is meant by bit?

A binary digit is called bit

3.What is the best example of digital system?

Digital computer is the best example of a digital system.

4.Define byte?

A group of 8 bits.

5.List the number systems?

i) Decimal Number system ii) Binary Number system iii) Octal Number system

iv) Hexadecimal Number system

6.State the sequence of operator precedence in Boolean expression?

i) Parenthesis ii) AND

iii) OR

7.What is the abbreviation of ASCII and EBCDIC code?

ASCII-American Standard Code for Information Interchange. EBCDIC-Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information Code.

8.What are the universal gates?


9.What are the different types of number complements?

i) rs Complement

ii) (r-1)s Complement.

10.Why complementing a number representation is needed?

Complementing a number becomes as in digital computer for simplifying the subtraction operation and for logical manipulation complements are used.

11.How to represent a positive and negative sign in computers?

Positive (+) sign by 0

Negative (-) sign by 1.

12.What is meant by Map method?

The map method provides a simple straightforward procedure for minimizing Boolean function.

13.What is meant by two variable map?

Two variable map have four minterms for two variables, hence the map consists of four squares, one for each minterm

14.What is meant by three variable map?

Three variable map have 8 minterms for three variables, hence the map consists of 8 squares, one for each minterm

15.Which gate is equal to AND-inverter Gate?

NAND gate.

16.Which gate is equal to OR-inverter Gate?

NOR gate.

17.Bubbled OR gate is equal to-------------- NAND gate

18. Bubbled AND gate is equal to-------------- NOR gate

19.What is the use of Don‟t care conditions?

Any digital circuit using this code operates under the assumption that these unused combinations will never occur as long as the system


20.Express the function f(x, y, z)=1 in the sum of minterms and a product of maxterms?

Minterms=(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) Maxterms=Nomaxterms.

21.What is the algebraic function of Exclusive-OR gate and Exclusive-NOR gate?

F=xy1 + x1y

F=xy +x1y1

22.What are the methods adopted to reduce Boolean function?

i) Karnaugh map

ii) Tabular method or Quine mccluskey method iii) Variable entered map technique.

23.Why we go in for tabulation method?

This method can be applied to problems with many variables and has the advantage of being suitable for machine computation.

24.State the limitations of karnaugh map.

i) Generally it is limited to six variable map (i.e.) more then six variable involving expressions are not reduced.

ii) The map method is restricted in its capability since they are useful for simplifying only Boolean expression represented in standard form.

25.What is tabulation method?

A method involving an exhaustive tabular search method for the minimum expression to solve a Boolean equation is called as a tabulation method.

26.What are prime-implicants?

The terms remained unchecked are called prime-implecants. They cannot be reduced further.

27.Explain or list out the advantages and disadvantages of K-map method?

The advantages of the K-map method are

i. It is a fast method for simplifying expression up to four variables.

ii. It gives a visual method of logic simplification.

iii. Prime implicants and essential prime implicants are identified fast.

iv. Suitable for both SOP and POS forms of reduction. v. It is more suitable for class room teachings on logic


The disadvantages of the K-map method are

i. It is not suitable for computer reduction.

ii. K-maps are not suitable when the number of variables involved exceed four.

iii. Care must be taken to fill in every cell with the relevant entry, such as a 0, 1 (or) don‟t care terms.

28.List out the advantages and disadvantages of Quine-Mc Cluskey method?

The advantages are,

a. This is suitable when the number of variables exceed four. b. Digital computers can be used to obtain the solution fast.

c. Essential prime implicants, which are not evident in K-map, can be clearly seen in the final results.

The disadvantages are,

a. Lengthy procedure than K-map.

b. Requires several grouping and steps as compared to K-map. c. It is much slower.

d. No visual identification of reduction process.

e. The Quine Mc Cluskey method is essentially a computer reduction method.

29.Define Positive Logic.

When high voltage or more positive voltage level is associated with binary „1‟ and while the low or less positive level is associated with binary „0‟ then the system adhering to this is called positive logic.

30.Define Negative Logic.

When high voltage level is associated with binary „0‟ and while the low level is associated with binary „1‟ then the system adhering to this is called negative logic

31.List the characteristics of digital Ics i) propagation delay

ii) power dissipation iii) Fan-in

iv) Fan-out

v) Noise margin

32.What is propagation delay?

It is the average transition delay time for the signal to propagate from input to output when the signals change in value.

33.What is Noise margin?

It is the limit of a noise voltage, which may be present with out impairing the proper operation of the circuit.

34.What is power dissipation?

It is the power consumed by the gate, which must be available from the power supply.

35.Why parity checker is needed?

Parity checker is required at the receiver side to check whether the expected parity is equal to the calculated parity or not. If they are not equal then it is found that the received data has error.

36.What is meant by parity bit?

Parity bit is an extra bit included with a binary message to make the number of 1‟s either odd or even. The message, including the parity bit is transmitted and then checked at the receiving and for errors.

37.Why parity generator necessary?

Parity generator is essential to generate parity bit in the transmitter.

38.What is IC?

An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor crystal called a chip containing electrical components such as transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors. The various components are interconnected inside the chip to form an electronic circuit.

39.What are the needs for binary codes?

a. Code is used to represent letters, numbers and punctuation marks. b. Coding is required for maximum efficiency in single transmission. c. Binary codes are the major components in the synthesis (artificial

generation) of speech and video signals.

d. By using error detecting codes, errors generated in signal transmission can be detected.

e. Codes are used for data compression by which large amounts of data are transmitted in very short duration of time.

40.Mention the different type of binary codes?

The various types of binary codes are, f. BCD code (Binary Coded decimal). g. Self-complementing code.

h. The excess-3 (X‟s-3) code. i. Gray code.

j. Binary weighted code. k. Alphanumeric code.

l. The ASCII code.

m. Extended binary-coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC).

n. Error-detecting and error-correcting code. o. Hamming code.

41.List the advantages and disadvantages of BCD code?

The advantages of BCD code are

a. Any large decimal number can be easily converted into corresponding binary number

b. A person needs to remember only the binary equivalents of decimal number from 0 to 9.

c. Conversion from BCD into decimal is also very easy.

The disadvantages of BCD code are

a. The code is least efficient. It requires several symbols to represent even small numbers.

b. Binary addition and subtraction can lead to wrong answer. c. Special codes are required for arithmetic operations.

d. This is not a self-complementing code.

e. Conversion into other coding schemes requires special methods.

42.What is meant by self-complementing code?

A self-complementing code is the one in which the members of the number system complement on themselves. This requires the following two conditions to be satisfied.

a. The complement of the number should be obtained from that number by replacing 1s with 0s and 0s with 1s.

b. The sum of the number and its complement should be equal to decimal 9. Example of a self-complementing code is

i. 2-4-2-1 code.

ii. Excess-3 code.

43.Mention the advantages of ASCII code?

The following are the advantages of ASCII code

a. There are 27 =128 possible combinations. Hence, a large number of symbols, alphabets etc.., can be easily represented.

b. There is a definite order in which the alphabets, etc.., are assigned to each code word.

c. The parity bits can be added for error-detection and correction.

44.What are the disadvantages of ASCII code?

The disadvantages of ASCII code are

a. The length of the code is larger and hence more bandwidth is required for transmission.

b. With more characters and symbols to represent, this is not completely sufficient.

45.What is the truth table?

A truth table lists all possible combinations of inputs and the corresponding outputs.

46.Define figure of merit?

Figure of merits is defined as the product of speed and power. The speed is specified in terms of propagation delay time expressed in nano seconds.

Figure of merits=Propagation delay time (ns)*

Power (mw) It is specified in pico joules (ns*mw=PJ).

47.What are the two types of logic circuits for digital systems?

Combinational and sequential

48.Define Combinational circuit.

A combinational circuit consist of logic gates whose outputs at anytime are determined directly from the present combination of inputs without regard to previous inputs.

49.Define sequential circuits.

Their outputs are a function of the inputs and the state of memory elements. The state of memory elements, in turn, is a function of previous inputs.

50.What is a half-adder?

The combinational circuit that performs the addition of two bits are called a half-adder.

51.What is a full-adder?

The combinational circuit that performs the addition of three bits are called a half-adder.

52.What is half-subtractor?

The combinational circuit that performs the subtraction of two bits are called a half-sub tractor.

53.What is a full-subtractor?

The combinational circuit that performs the subtraction of three bits are called a half- sub tractor.

54.What is Binary parallel adder?

A binary parallel adder is a digital function that produces the arithemetic sum of two binary numbers in parallel.

55.What is BCD adder?

A BCD adder is a circuit that adds two BCD digits in parallel and produces a sum digit also in BCD.

56.What is Magnitude Comparator?

A Magnitude Comparator is a combinational circuit that compares two numbers, A and B and determines their relative magnitudes.

57.What is decoder?

A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from

n input lines to a maximum of 2n unique output lines.

58.What is encoder?

A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from

2nInput lines to a maximum of „n‟ unique output lines.

59.Define Multiplexing?

Multiplexing means transmitting a large number of information units over a smaller number of channels or lines.

60.What is Demultiplexer?

A Demultiplexer is a circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits this information on one of 2n possible output lines


61.Give the truth table for a half adder.





Sum ( S )

Carry ( C )

















62.Give the truth table for a half Subtractor.





Borrow( B )

Diffe ( D )

















63.From the truth table of a half adder derive the logic equation

S = X Y

C = X . Y

64. From the truth table of a half subractor derive the logic equation

D = X Y

B = X1 . Y

65.From the truth table of a full adder derive the logic equation

S = X Y Z

C = XY + YZ + XZ

66.What is code conversion?

If two systems working with different binary codes are to be synchronized in operation, then we need digital circuit which converts one system of codes to the other. The process of conversion is referred to as code conversion.

67.What is code converter?

It is a circuit that makes the two systems compatible even though each uses a different binary code. It is a device that converts binary signals from a source code to its output code. One example is a BCD to Xs3 converter.

68.What do you mean by analyzing a combinational circuit?

The reverse process for implementing a Boolean expression is called as analyzing a combinational circuit. (ie) the available logic diagram is analyzed step by step and finding the Boolean function

69.Give the applications of Demultiplexer.

i) It finds its application in Data transmission system with error detection.

ii) One simple application is binary to Decimal decoder.

70.Mention the uses of Demultiplexer.

Demultiplexer is used in computers when a same message has to be sent to different receivers. Not only in computers, but any time information from one source can be fed to several places.

71.Give other name for Multiplexer and Demultiplexer.

Multiplexer is other wise called as Data selector. Demultiplexer is otherwise called as Data distributor.

72.What is the function of the enable input in a Multiplexer?

The function of the enable input in a MUX is to control the operation of the


73.Give the truth table for a full Subtractor.






Borrow ( B


Diffe ( D )









































74.Give the truth table for a full adder.






Sum ( S )

Carry ( C )









































75.From the truth table of a full subtractor derive the logic equation

S = X Y Z

C = X1Y + YZ + X1Z

76.What is priority encoder?

A priority encoder is an encoder that includes the priority function. The operation of the priority encoder is such that if two or more inputs are equal to 1 at the same time, the input having the highest priority will take precedence.

77.Can a decoder function as a Demultiplexer?

Yes. A decoder with enable can function as a Demultiplexer if the enable line

E is taken as a data input line A and B are taken as selection lines.

78.List out the applications of multiplexer?

The various applications of multiplexer are a. Data routing.

b. Logic function generator. c. Control sequencer.

d. Parallel-to-serial converter.

79.List out the applications of decoder?

The applications of decoder are a. Decoders are used in counter system.

b. They are used in analog to digital converter.

c. Decoder outputs can be used to drive a display system.

80.List out the applications of comparators?

The following are the applications of comparator

a. Comparators are used as a part of the address decoding circuitry in computers to select a specific input/output device for the storage of data.

b. They are used to actuate circuitry to drive the physical variable towards the reference value.

c. They are used in control applications.

81.What are the applications of seven segment displays?

The seven segment displays are used in a. LED displays

b. LCD displays

82.What is digital comparator?

A comparator is a special combinational circuit designed primarily to compare the relative magnitude of two binary numbers.


clip_image001clip_image001[1]clip_image002clip_image002[1]clip_image003A B

n-bit comparator


Block diagram of n-bit comparator

83. List the types of ROM.

i) Programmable ROM (PROM)

ii) Erasable ROM (EPROM)

iii) Electrically Erasable ROM (EEROM)

84.Differentiate ROM & PLD‟s

ROM (Read Only Memory)

PLD‟s (Programmable Logic Array)

1.It is a device that includes both the

decoder and the OR gates with in a single

IC package

1.It is a device that includes both AND

and OR gates with in a single IC


2.ROM does not full decoding of the variables and does generate all the


2.PLD‟s does not provide full decoding of the variable and does not generate

all the minterms

85.What are the different types of RAM?

The different types of RAM are

a. NMOS RAM (Nitride Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM) b. CMOS RAM (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM)

c. Schottky TTL RAM


86.What are the types of arrays in RAM?

RAM has two type of array namely, a. Linear array

b. Coincident array

87.Explain DRAM?

The dynamic RAM (DRAM) is an operating mod, which stores the binary information in the form of electric charges on capacitors.

The capacitors are provided inside the chip by MOS transistors.

clip_image004Column (sense line)

Row (control line)

Storage capacitor

DRAM cell

The stored charges on the capacitors tend to discharge with time and the capacitors must be tending to discharge with time and the capacitors must be periodically recharged by refreshing the dynamic memory.

DRAM offers reduced power consumption and larger storage capacity in a single memory chip.

88.Explain SRAM?

Static RAM (SRAM) consists of internal latches that store the binary information. The stored information remains valid as long as the power is applied to the unit.

SRAM is easier to use and has shorter read and write cycle.

The memory capacity of a static RAM varies from 64 bit to 1 mega bit.

89.Differentiate volatile and non-volatile memory?

Volatile memory

Non-volatile memory

They are memory units which lose

stored information when power is turned off.

E.g. SRAM and DRAM

It retains stored information when power is turned off.

E.g. Magnetic disc and ROM

90.What are the terms that determine the size of a PAL?

The size of a PLA is specified by the a. Number of inputs

b. Number of products terms c. Number of outputs

91.What are the advantages of RAM?

The advantages of RAM are a. Non-destructive read out

b. Fast operating speed

c. Low power dissipation d. Compatibility

e. Economy

92.What is VHDL?

VHDL is a hardware description language that can be used to model a digital system at many level of abstraction, ranging from the algorithmic level to the gate level.

The VHDL language as a combination of the following language. a. Sequential language

b. Concurrent language c. Net-list language

d. Timing specification

e. Waveform generation language.

93.What are the features of VHDL?

The features of VHDL are

a. VHDL has powerful constructs. b. VHDL supports design library.

c. The language is not case sensitive.

94.Define entity?

Entity gives the specification of input/output signals to external circuitry. An entity is modeled using an entity declaration and at least one architecture body. Entity gives interfacing between device and others


95.List out the different elements of entity declaration?

The different elements of entity declaration are:

1. entity_name

2. signal_name

3. mode

4. in:

5. out:

6. input

7. buffer

8. signal_type

96.Give the syntax of entity declaration?

ENTITY entity_name is

PORT (signal_name: mode signal_type;

signal_names: mode signal_type;



signal_names: mode signal_type; END entity_name;

97.What do you meant by concurrent statement?

Architecture contains only concurrent statements. It specifies behavior, functionality, interconnections or relationship between inputs and outputs.

98.What are operates used in VDHL language?

There are different types of operators used in VHDL language

Logical operators : AND, OR, NOT, XOR, etc., Relational operator : equal to, <less than etc., Shift operators : SLL- Shift Left Logical,

ROR- Rotate Right Logical etc., Arithmetic operators: Addition, subtraction etc., Miscellaneous operators: <= assign to etc.,

99.Define VHDL package?

A VHDL, package is a file containing definitions of objects which can be used in other programs. A package may include objects such as signals, type, constant, function, procedure and component declarations

100.What is meant by memory decoding?

The memory IC used in a digital system is selected or enabled only for the range of addresses assigned to it .

101.What is access and cycle time?

The access time of the memory is the time to select word and read it. The cycle time of a memory is a time required to complete a write operation.

102.What is sequential circuit?

Sequential circuit is a broad category of digital circuit whose logic states depend on a specified time sequence. A sequential circuit consists of a combinational circuit to which memory elements are connected to form a feedback path.

103.List the classifications of sequential circuit. i) Synchronous sequential circuit.

ii) Asynchronous sequential circuit.

104.what is Synchronous sequential circuit?

A Synchronous sequential circuit is a system whose behavior can be defined from the knowledge of its signal at discrete instants of time.

105.What is clocked sequential circuits?

Synchronous sequential circuit that use clock pulses in the inputs of memory elements are called clocked sequential circuit. One advantage as that they don‟t cause instability problems.

106.What is called latch?

Latch is a simple memory element, which consists of a pair of logic gates with their inputs and outputs inter connected in a feedback arrangement, which permits

a single bit to be stored.

107.List different types of flip-flops. i) SR flip-flop

ii) Clocked RS flip-flop iii) D flip-flop

iv) T flip-flop v) JK flip-flop

vi) JK master slave flip-flop

108.What do you mean by triggering of flip-flop.

The state of a flip-flop is switched by a momentary change in the input signal. This momentary change is called a trigger and the transition it causes is said to trigger the flip-flop

109.What is an excitation table?

During the design process we usually know the transition from present state to next state and wish to find the flip-flop input conditions that will cause the required transition. A table which lists the required inputs for a given chance of state is called an excitation table.

110.Give the excitation table of a JK flip-flop





















111.Give the excitation table of a SR flip-flop





















112.Give the excitation table of a T flip-flop
















113.Give the excitation table of a D flip-flop
















114.What is a characteristic table?

A characteristic table defines the logical property of the flip-flop and completely characteristic its operation.

115.Give the characteristic equation of a SR flip-flop.


116.Give the characteristic equation of a D flip-flop.


117.Give the characteristic equation of a JK flip-flop.


118.Give the characteristic equation of a T flip-flop.


119.What is the difference between truth table and excitation table.

i) An excitation table is a table that lists the required inputs for a given change of state.

ii) A truth table is a table indicating the output of a logic circuit for various input states.

120.What is counter?

A counter is used to count pulse and give the output in binary form.

121.What is synchronous counter?

In a synchronous counter, the clock pulse is applied simultaneously to all flip-flops. The output of the flip-flops change state at the same instant. The speed of operation is high compared to an asynchronous counter

122.What is Asynchronous counter?

In a Asynchronous counter, the clock pulse is applied to the first flip-flops. The change of state in the output of this flip-flop serves as a clock pulse to the next flip-flop and so on. Here all the flip-flops do not change state at the same instant and

hence speed is less.

123.What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous counter?


Synchronous counter

Asynchronous counter


Clock pulse is applied


Clock pulse is applied to the first

flip-flop, the change of output is given as clock to next flip-flop


Speed of operation is high

Speed of operation is low.

124.Name the different types of counter.

a) Synchronous counter b) Asynchronous counter

i) Up counter

ii) Down counter

iii) Modulo – N counter iv) Up/Down counter

125.What is up counter?

A counter that increments the output by one binary number each time a clock pulse is applied.

126.What is down counter?

A counter that decrements the output by one binary number each time a clock pulse is applied.

127.What is up/down counter?

A counter, which is capable of operating as an up counter or down counter, depending on a control lead.

128.What is a ripple counter?

A ripple counter is nothing but an asynchronous counter, in which the output of the flip-flop change state like a ripple in water.

129.What are the uses of a counter?

i) The digital clock

ii) Auto parking control

iii) Parallel to serial data conversion.

130.What is meant by modulus of a counter?

By the term modulus of a counter we say it is the number of states through which a counter can progress.

131.what is meant by natural count of a counter?

By the term natural count of a counter we say that the maximum number of states through which a counter can progress.

132.A ripple counter is a ------------ sequential counter.

Ans: Synchronous.

133.What is a modulo counter?

A counter that counts from 0 to T is called as modulo counter.

134.A counter that counts from to T is called a modulo counter. True or False.

Ans: True

135.The number of flip-flops required for modulo-18 counter is ------- Ans: five.

136.Form the truth table for 3-bit binary down counter.









































137.What is a ring counter?

A counter formed by circulating a „bit‟ in a shift register whose serial output has been connected to its serial input.

138.What is BCD counter?

A BCD counter counts in binary coded decimal from 0000 to 1001 and back to 0000. Because of the return to 0000 after a count of 1001, a BCD counter does not have a regular pattern as in a straight binary counter.

139. What are the uses of a ring counter?

i) Control section of a digital system.

ii) Controlling events, which occur in strict time sequence.

140.What is a register?

Memory elements capable of storing one binary word. It consists of a group of flip-flops, which store the binary information.

141.What is Johnson counter?

It is a ring counter in which the inverted output is fed into the input. It is also know as a twisted ring counter.

142. What is a shift register?

In digital circuits, datas are needed to be moved into a register (shift in) or moved out of a register (shift out). A group of flip-flops having either or both of these facilities is called a shift register.

143. What is serial shifting?

In a shift register, if the data is moved 1 bit at a time in a serial fashion, then the technique is called serial shifting.

144. What is parallel shifting?

In a shift register all the data are moved simultaneously and then the technique is called parallel shifting.

145. Write the uses of a shift register.

i) Temporary data storage ii) Bit manipulations.

146. What is a cycle counter?

A cycle counter is a counter that outputs a stated number of counts and then


147. Define state of sequential circuit?

The binary information stored in the memory elements at any given time defines the “state” of sequential circuits.

148. Define state diagram.

A graphical representation of a state table is called a state diagram.

149. What is the use of state diagram?

i) Behavior of a state machine can be analyzed rapidly.

ii) It can be used to design a machine from a set of specification.

150. What is state table?

A table, which consists time sequence of inputs, outputs and flip-flop states, is called state table. Generally it consists of three section present state, next state and output.

151. What is a state equation?

A state equation also called, as an application equation is an algebraic expression that specifies the condition for a flip-flop state transition. The left side of the equation denotes the next state of the flip-flop and the right side; a Boolean function specifies the present state.

152.What is meant by race around condition?

In JK flip-flop output is fed back to the input, and therefore changes in the output results change in the input. Due to this in the positive half of the clock pulse if J and K are both high then output toggles continuously. This condition is known as race around condition.

153. How many bits would be required for the product register if the multiplier has

6 bits and the multiplicand has 8 bits?

The product register is 14-bit width with extra bit at the left end indicating a temporary storage for any carry, which is generated when the multiplicand is added to the accumulator.

154. What is SM chart?

Just as flow charts are useful in software design, flow charts are useful in the hardware design of digital systems. These flow charts are called as State Machine Flow Charts or SM charts. SM charts are also called as ASMC (Algorithmic State machine chart). ASM chart describes the sequential operation in a digital system.

155. What are the three principal components of SM charts?

The 3 principal components of SM charts are state box, decision box & Conditional output box.

156. What is decision box?

A diamond shaped symbol with true or false branches represents a decision box. The condition placed in the box is a Boolean expression that is evaluated to determine which branch to take in SM chart.

157. What is link path? How many entrance paths & exit paths are there in SM


A path through an SM block from entrance to exit is referred to as link path. An SM block has one entrance and exit path.

158. Differentiate ASM chart and conventional flow chart?

A conventional Flow chart describes the sequence of procedural steps and decision paths for an algorithm without concern for their time relationship.

The ASM chart describes the sequence of events as well as the timing relationships between the states of a sequential controller and the events that occur while going from one state to the next.

159. What is flow table?

During the design of synchronous sequential circuits, it is more convenient to name the states by letter symbols without making specific reference to their binary values. Such table is called Flow table.

160. What is primitive flow table?

A flow table is called Primitive flow table because it has only one stable state in each row.

161. Define race condition.

A race condition is said to exist in a synchronous sequential circuit when two or more binary state variables change, the race is called non-critical race.

162. Define critical & non-critical race with example.

The final stable state that the circuit reaches does not depend on the order in which the state variables change, the race is called non-critical race.

The final stable state that the circuit reaches depends on the order in which the state variables change, the race is called critical race.

163. How can a race be avoided?

Races can be avoided by directing the circuit through intermediate unstable states with a unique state – variable change.

164. Define cycle and merging?

When a circuit goes through a unique sequence of unstable states, it is said to have a cycle.

The grouping of stable states from separate rows into one common row is called merging.

165. Give state – reduction procedure.

The state – reduction procedure for completely specified state tables is based on the algorithm that two states in a state table can be combined in to one if they can be shown to be equivalent.

166. Define hazards.

Hazards are unwanted switching transients that may appear at the output of a circuit because different paths exhibit different propagation delays.

167. Does Hazard occur in sequential circuit? If so what is the problem caused?

Yes, Hazards occur in sequential circuit that is Asynchronous sequential circuit. It may result in a transition to a wrong state.

168. Give the procedural steps for determining the compatibles used for the purpose of merging a flow table.

The purpose that must be applied in order to find a suitable group of compatibles for the purpose of merging a flow table can be divided into 3 procedural steps.

i. Determine all compatible pairs by using the implication table. ii. Find the maximal compatibles using a Merger diagram

iii. Find a minimal collection of compatibles that covers all the states and is closed.

169. What are the types of hazards?

The 3 types of hazards are 1) Static – 0 hazards

2) Static – 1 hazard

3) Dynamic hazards

170.What is mealy and Moore circuit?

Mealy circuit is a network where the output is a function of both present state and input.

Moore circuit is a network where the output is function of only present state.

171.Differentiate Moore circuit and Mealy circuit?

Moore circuit

Mealy circuit

a. It is output is a function of present

state only.

b. Input changes do not affect the output.

c. Moore circuit requires more number of states for implementing same function.

a. It is output is a function of present

state as well as the present input.

b. Input changes may affect the output of the circuit.

c. It requires less numbers of states for implementing same


172. How can the hazards in combinational circuit be removed?

Hazards in the combinational circuits can be removed by covering any two min terms that may produce a hazard with a product term common to both. The removal of hazards requires the addition of redundant gates to the circuit.

173. How does an essential hazard occur?

An essential hazard occurs due to unequal delays along two or more

paths that originate from the same input. An excessive delay through an inverter circuit in comparison to the delay associated with the feedback path causes essential hazard.

174.what is Timing diagram?

Timing diagrams are frequently used in the analysis of sequential network. These diagrams show various signals in the network as a function of time.

175.What is setup and hold time?

The definite time in which the input must be maintained at a constant value prior to the application of the pulse is setup time

The definite time is which the input must not chance after the application of the positive or negative going transition of the pulse based on the triggering of the pulse.

176.Define bit time and word time.

The time interval between clock pulses is called bit time.

The time required to shift the entire contents of a shift register is called word


177.What is bi-directional shift register and unidirectional shift register?

A register capable of shifting both right and left is called bi-directional shift register.

A register capable of shifting only one direction is called unidirectional shift register.

178.Define equivalent state.

If a state machine is started from either of two states and identical output sequences are generated from every possible set of sequences, then the two states are said to be equivalent.

179.If a shift register can be operated in all possible ways then it is called as----------- Ans: Univerasal register: It can be operated in all possible modes with bi-

directional shift facility.

180.What is gate delay?

If the change in output is delayed by a time ε with respect to the input. We

say that the gate has a propagation delay of ε . Normally propagation delay for 0 to 1

output (ε 1) may be different than the delay for 1 to 0 changes (ε 2).

181.Define state reduction algorithm.

State reduction algorithm is stated as “Two states are said to be equivalent if, for each member of the set of inputs they give the same output and send the circuit either to the same state or to an equivalent state. When two states are equivalent,

one of them can be removed without altering the input-output relation.

182.What is meant by level triggering?

In level triggering the output of the flip-flop changes state or responds only when the clock pulse is present.

183.Write the uses of a shift register. i) Temporary data storage.

ii) Bit manipulations.

184. What is meant by flow table?

During the design of asynchronous sequential circuits, it is more convenient to name the states by letter symbols without making specific reference to their binary values. Such a table is called a flow table.

185. What are the problems involved in asynchronous circuits?

The asynchronous sequential circuits have three problems namely, a. Cycles

b. Races

c. Hazards

186. Define cycles?

If an input change includes a feedback transition through more than unstable state then such a situation is called a cycle.

187. Define primitive flow table?

A primitive flow table is a flow table with only one stable total state in each row. Remember that a total state consists of the internal state combined with the input.

188. Define merging?

The primitive flow table has only one stable state in each row. The table can be reduced to a smaller numbers of rows if two or more stable states are placed in the same row of the flow table. The grouping of stable states from separate rows into one common row is called merging.


1. Simplify the following Boolean function by using Tabulation method

F (w, x, y, z) =Σ (0,1,2,8,10,11,14,15)

Determination of Prime Implicants

Selection of prime Implicants

2. Simplify the following Boolean functions by using K’Map in SOP & POS.

F (w, x, y, z) =Σ (1,3,4,6,9,11,12,14)

• Find the Number of variable map

• Draw the Map

• Simplification of SOP & POS

3. Simplify the following Boolean functions by using K’Map in SOP & POS.

F (w, x, y, z) =Σ (1,3,7,11,15) + d(0,2,5)

• Find the Number of variable map

• Don’t care treat as variable X.

• Draw the Map

• Simplification of SOP & POS

4. Reduce the given expression. [(AB) 1+ A 1 +AB] 1

• Reduce the expression using Boolean algebra Laws and theorems

5. Reduce the given function minimum number of literals. (ABC) 1+ A 1)+AC

• Reduce the expression using Boolean algebra Laws and theorems


1. Design a combinational logic circuit to convert the Gray code into Binary code

• Truth table

• K’Map Simplification

• Draw the Logic Diagram

2. Draw the truth table and logic diagram for full-Adder

Truth table

K’Map Simplification

Draw the Logic Diagram

3. Draw the truth table and logic diagram for full-Subtractor

Truth table

K’Map Simplification

Draw the Logic Diagram

4. Explain Binary parallel adder.


Logic diagram

5. Design a combinational logic circuit to convert the BCD to Binary code

• Truth table

• K’Map Simplification

• Draw the Logic Diagram

1. Implement the following function using PLA.

A (x, y, z) = Σ m (1, 2, 4,

6) B (x, y, z) = Σ m (0, 1,

6, 7) C (x, y, z) = Σ m (2,


• K’Map Simplification

• PLA table

• PLA Logic Diagram

2. Implement the following function using PAL.

W (A, B, C, D) = Σ m (2, 12,


X (A, B, C, D) = Σ m (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,


Y (A, B, C, D) = Σ m (0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11,


Z (A, B, C, D) = Σ m (1, 2, 8, 12,


K’Map Simplification

PAL Logic diagram

3.Implement the given function using multiplexer

• Implementation table

• Multiplexer Implementation

4. Explain about Encoder and Decoder?

Definition Truth table Logic Diagram

5. Explain about 4 bit Magnitude comparator?

• Explanation

• Logic Diagram

1. Design a counter with the following repeated binary sequence:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

use JK Flip-flop.

• State diagram

• Excitation State table

• K’Map Simplification

• Logic diagram

2. Describe the operation of SR flip-flop

• Logic Diagram

• Graphical Symbol

• Characteristics table

• Characteristics equation

• Excitation Table

3. Design a sequential circuit using JK flip-flop for the following state table [use state diagram]



Next state



























State Diagram Excitation state table K’Map simplification Logic Diagram

4. The count has a repeated sequence of six states, with flip flops B and C repeating the binary count 00, 01, 10 while flip flop A alternates between 0 and 1 every three counts. Designs with JK flip-flop

• State diagram

• Excitation State table

• K’Map Simplification

• Logic diagram

5. Design a 3-bit T flip-flop counter

• State diagram

• Excitation State table

• K’Map Simplification

• Logic diagram


1. Design an Asynchronous sequential circuit using SR latch with two inputs A and B and one output y. B is the control input which, when equal to 1, transfers the input A to output y. when B is 0, the output does not change, for any change in input.

• State Table

• Primitive Flow Table

• Formal Reduction (Implication Method)

• Merging

• Reduced Table

• K’Map Simplification

• Logic Diagram

2. Give hazard free relation for the following Boolean function.

F (A, B, C, D) =Σ m (0, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12)

• K’Map simplification

• Create Hazard free link

3. Explain about Hazards?

• Explain Static Hazard

• Explain Dynamic Hazard

4. Explain about Races?

• Explain Critical Race

• Explain Non-Critical Race

5. Design T Flip flop from Asynchronous Sequential circuit?

• State Table

• Primitive Flow Table

• Formal Reduction (Implication Method)

• Merging

• Reduced Table

• K’Map Simplification

• Logic Diagram

BA 9210 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai







1. What is business strategy?

“Strategy is the determination of the basic long goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of the course of action and the allocation of the resources necessary for carrying out these goals”. It’s a comprehensive master plan stating how the corporation will achieve its mission and objectives of maximizes the competitive advantage and minimizes the competitive disadvantage.

2. What is strategic management?

Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determine the long-run performance of a corporation of includes environmental Scanning, strategy formulation strategy implementation and evaluation and control. The study of strategic management therefore emphasizes the monitoring and evaluating of external opportunities and threats in the light of corporation’s

strengths and weaknesses.

3. What is corporate strategy?

Corporate strategy describes a company’s overall direction in terms of its

general altitude towards growth and the management of its various businesses and product lines. Corporate strategy is composed of directional strategy, portfolio analysis and parenting strategy, corporate strategies typically fit within the three main categories of stability, growth and retrenchment.

4. Define Ethics?

Ethics specify what is good, true, fair, just, right and proper in business. Businesses his relate to the behavior of a business man in a business situation. They are concerned primarily with the impacts of decisions on people with in and without the organization. Business ethical behavior is conduct that is fair and just over and above the various rules and regulations.

5. What do you mean by strategic myopia?

While identifying the external strategic factors, the managers sometimes miss or ignore crucial new developments. Personal values and functional experiences of a corporation’s manager as well as the success of current strategies bias both their perception of what they important to monitor in the external environment and the interpretations of what they perceive. This willingness to reject unfamiliar as well as negative information is called strategic myopia.

6. What is core- competency?

Core-competencies are the things that a corporation can do exceedingly

well. It is the combination of an organization’s resources and capabilities if the

core competency of an organization is superior to that of its competitors it is called distinctive competency.

7. What is Distinctive competency?

Distinctive competencies are firm’s specific strengths that allow a company

to differentiate its products and achieve substantially lower costs than its rivals and thus gain competitive advantage competencies arise from two complementary sources resources and capabilities.

8. Define joint venture?

Joint ventures are partnerships in which two or more firms carryout a

specific project or corporate in a selected area of business. Joint ventures can be temporary or long term. Ownership of the firm remains unchanged. Every joint venture has a scheduled life-cycle, which will end sooner or later every joint venture has to be dissolved when it has outlived its life-cycle. Changes in the environment forces joint ventures to be redesigned regularly.

9. What is conglomerate diversification?

When firms create new businesses that are unrelated to its original business, it is called conglomerates diversification. The benefits of conglomerate diversification are reductions of risks, economics of large scale operations, financial stability, increase in profits and attain managerial competence.

10. What are barriers to Entry?

An entry barrier is un obstruction that make it difficult for a company to

enter an industry Established companies already operating in an industry often attempt to discourage the potential competitors by creation. High Entry barriers, such as rand Loyalty, absolute cost advantages, economics of scale customer switching cost, product differentiation etc.

11.Distinguish between hostile takeover and friendly takeover?

Takeover can be defined the ownership or control over the other firm. Of one firm acquires the ownership against the wishes of hi others management it is called hostile takeover. Of the acquisition is through the mutual consent of both the parties it is called friendly takeover.

12. What is Horizontal Expansion?

It’s a growth strategy. Of a firm fries to expand its business by creating

other firms in their same line of business it is called horizontal expansion. The aim of horizontal expansion is to increase market shane. To reduce cost of production

through large scale economic, to take advantage of synergy and to promote products and services more efficiently to a larger audience.

13. Define strategic Group?

Strategic group is a set of business units or firms that pursue similar

strategies with similar resources. Categorizing the firms in an industry into a set of strategic groups is very useful for the better understanding of the competitive environment. Because a corporation’s structure and culture reflect the kinds of strategies it follow. Companies or Business units belonging to a particular strategic group with in the same industry tend to be strong rivals and tend be more similar to each other than to competitors in other strategic group within the same industry.

14. Define corporate governance

Corporate governance refers to the relationship between the board of

Directors, top management and the investors or shareholders in defer mining the direction and performance of the corporation.

15. What is Backward integration?

When a company or firm acquire or create another firm which provides raw material component parts or other input for the original firm, it is called backward integration.

16. Define strategic outsourcing

Strategic outsourcing refers to the separation of some the company’s value creation activities with in the business and as letting them be performed by a specialist in that activity strategic outsourcing will lower the cost-structure of the company and increase its profitability. Moreover strategic outsourcing of non-core activities helps the company to focus management attention on those activities that one most important for its long term competitive position.

17. Distinguish between programs and procedures.

A program is a statement of the activities or steps needed to accomplish

single use plan of makes the strategy action-oriented of my involve restructuring the corporation changing the companies internal structure or beginning a new

research effort. Procedures are a system of sequential steps or techniques set describe in detail how a particular job or task is to be done. They typically detail the various activities that must be carried out for completion of the corporations programs.

18. What is Entrepreurial mode?

It is a type of strategic decision making. In this mode, the strategy is

developed by one powerful individual. The focus is on opportunities and problems are secondary, strategy is guided by the founders own vision or direction and is exemplified by large, bold decisions. The dominant goal is growth of the corporation.

19. What is Adaptive mode?

This is a decision making mode sometimes refereed to as “muddling

through”. This is characters by reactive solutions to exiting problems rather than a proactive search for new opportunities strategy is fragmented and is developed to move the corporation forward in incremental steps.

20. What is planning mode?

This mode of strategic decision making the systematic gathering of

appropriate information for situation malice, the generation of feasible alternative strategies. And the rational selection of the most appropriate strategy. This mode includes both the pro-active search for new opportunities and the reactive solution of exiting problems.


1. Explain Basic Elements of strategic Management process.

2. Describe about Corporate Governance Definition.

3. What are the Responsibilities of business.

4. Describe strategic planning process

5. Describe Michele porter’s Five forces model of Industry Analysis.

6. Explain the conceptual framework of Strategic Management Process. (OR) Explain the basic elements of Strategic Management process.

7. How do the terms mission, objectives, strategies, programs, budgets, procedures differ in the true sense? – Explain.

8. What are the different modes of Strategic decision-making and explain the process of strategic decision-making?

9. Explain in detail a formal Strategic planning process.

10. Explain the relationship between corporate Governance and Social responsibility. Take the case of an Indian company and elucidate.

11. What is Corporate Governance? Indicate how and why companies are embracing

Corporate Governance practices.

12. “Corporate Governance is not suitable for Indian Business environment” – Discuss.

13. What recommendations would you make to improve the effectiveness of today’s Boards

of Directors?

14. How are Companies fulfilling their Social responsibility?

15. Discuss the popular theories of Social Responsibility.



1. What is strategic Business unit?

Strategic business units are divisions or group of divisions composed of independent product-market segments that are given primary responsibility and authority for the management of their own function areas. An SBU may be of any size or level but it must have a unique mission, identifiable comfitures, an external market fours and control of its business functions. The idea is to decentralize on the basis of strategy elements.

2. Define Tactics.

A tactic is a specific operating plan defiling how a strategy is to be Implemented in firms of when and where it is to he put in to action. By nature tactics are narrower. In their scope and shorter in their time horizon than strategies. It is a link between the formulation and implementation of state.

3. What do you mean by hypercompetitive?

Hyper competition is a business situation in which the frequency, boldness, and aggressiveness of dynamic movement by the players accelerate to create a condition of constant disequilibrium and change market sterility is threatened by short product life cycle new ethnologic frequent entry by unexpected outsiders and repositioning by incumbents in other words environment escalates towards higher

and bigger revels of uncertainty dynamism heterogeneity of the players and hostslily.

4. What is task Environment?

Task environment includes those elements that directly affect the

corporation and in turn are affected by it. A corporations task environment can be thought of the industry with in which it operates. This task environment includes government local communities suppliers competitors employees labor unions special interest groups and trade associations.

5. What is industry Analysis?

Industry analysis refers to the in depth examination of key factors with in a corporation task environment. Both the societal and task environment must he monitored so that strategic factors that have a strong impact on the corporate success or failure can be defected.

6. Define strategic Alliance?

Strategic Alliance are co-operative agreements between different companies

that are actual or potential competitors companies enter in to strategic alliance may be a way of facilitating entry in to a market. Second many companies enter in to strategic alliances to share the fixed costs and associated risk that arise from the development of new products or processes Many alliances can be seen as away of bringing together complementary skills and assets that can not be easily developed by the company on it own.

7. What is environment scanning?

Environment scanning is the monitoring evaluating and disseminating of information from the external and infernal environments to key people within the

corporation. The external environment consists of variables that one outside the organization these are the opportunities and threats. The infernal environment consists of variables that are with in the organization itself. These are the strengths and weaknesses of organization.

8. Write the name of factors in task environment?

· Shareholders

· Suppliers

· Government

· Special interest group

· Employees/ Labour unions

· Competitors

· Creditors

· Trade associations

· Communities

9. What is societal Environment?

Societal environment includes the general forces that do not directly touch

on the short run activities of the organization but that can influence its long-run decisions. This include economic forces, technological forces, political legal forces and socio cultural forces Economic forces regulate the exchange of materials. Money, energy and information Technological forces generate problem solving Inventions political legal forces allocate power and provide constraining and protecting laws and regulations. Socio cultural forces regulate the values mores

and wisdoms of society.

10. What do you mean by strategy implementation?

Strategy implementation is the process by which strategies and policies one

put in to action through he developed of programs budgets and procedures. This process might involve changes with in the overall with the structure or management system of the entire organization or with in all of these areas.

11. What is an Entrepreneurial venture?

Entrepreneurial venture is any business whose primary goals profitability

and growth and that can be characterized by innovative strategic practices. The basic different between the small business from and the entrepreneurial venture not in the type of goods or services provided but in their fundamental views on growth and innovation. The key element of Entrepreneurial venture is a basic business

idea that has not yet been successfully tried and a gutsy entrepreneur who while working on borrowed capital and a shoestring budget creates a new business through a lot of trick and error and persistent hard work.

12. What do you mean by small business from?

Small business from is one that employs fewer than 500 people and that

generate sales of 20 million actually small business from is independently owned and operated not dominate in its field and does not concentrate in innovative


13. Who is an Entrepreneur?

Entrepreneur is defined a person who organizes and manages a business undertaking and who assumes risk for the sake if profit. He is the ultimate strategist and makes all the strategic as well as the operational decisions. Al the three levels of strategy-corporate, business and functional are the concerns of this founder and manager of a company.

14. What is Strategic piggybacking?

Strategic piggybacking refers to he development of a new activity for the

not-for-profit organization that would generate funds needed to make up the difference between revenues and expenses . its purpose is to help subsidize the primary service programs. It appears to be a form of concentric diversification but it is engaged in only for its money generating value

15. What is balanced score card?

The balance score card is a self of measures are directly half are directly

linked the company’s strategy allows managers to evaluate the company from four perspectives financial performance anisomery knowledge internal business processes learning growth.

16. Define Reengineering?

Reengineering is the fundamental re-thinking and radical redesign of

business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary

measures of performance such as quality, cost service and sped. The aim of reengineering is to improve the corporate performance.

17. what is re-Structuring?

Restructuring means streamlining the hierarchy of authority and reducing

the number of levels in their hierarchy to a minimum and then downsizing the workforce by reducing the number of employees to reduce operating cost. The aim of restructuring is to improve the corporate performance.

18. What is corporate Culture?

Corporate culture is the corporation of belief. Expectations and values

learned and shared by a corporate is members and transmitted from one generation of employees to another. The tern corporate culture generally reflects the values of the founder and the mission of the form at givens a company a sense of identity. Corporate culture has two distinct attributes, intensity and integration.

19. What is strategic Leadership?

Strategic leadership refers to a manager’s ability to articulates a strategic vision for the company and motivate others to me into that vision. The few

characteristics of good strategic leaders are

· Vision, eloquence and consistency

· Commitment

· Being cell informed

· Willingness to delegate and empower

· Astute use of power and

· Emotional intelligence

20. What is Entrepreneurship?

When internal new venturing place in an organizational the corporate managers must that the internal new vesturing process as a form of Entrepreneurship and the people who are leading the new ventures as entrepreneurs. That organizational structure control and culture must be designed to encourage creativity and give new-venture managers autonomy and freedom to develop and champion new products. This is called entrepreneurship.


1. Describe about the stages in the Industry Life cycle?

2. Describe the different attributes of national competitive advantage

3. What are the Generic Building blocks competitive advantage.

4. Define Functional Strategy and Explain various Functional Strategies in an organization?

5. Explain about corporate Strategy

6. . Discuss how a development in a Corporation’s societal (Macro) environment can affect

the corporation through its task environment.

7. What is relevance of the resource-based view of the firm to strategic management in a global environment?

8. How can a decision-maker identify strategic factors in the corporation’s external and

International environment?

9. If your organization could get accurate answers to 12 questions about its competitive environment, what questions would it ask?

10. Explain how value chain analysis could help in organizational analysis.

11. Explain the application of TOWS matrix in strategy formulation.

12. According to Porter, what determines the level of competitive intensity in an industry?

(OR) Explain the role of Porter’s approach in industry analysis.

13. What is SWOT analysis? Explain the components of SWOT analysis.

14. What are the generic building blocks of competitive advantage? Elaborate.

15. Elaborate on the sources of distinctive competencies.

16. Explain the impact of the Product life cycle on sources of competitive advantage.



1. What is Emotional Intelligence?

Emotional intelligence is a mix of psychological attributes that many strong and effective leaders possess. They are

· Self Awareness- the ability to understand one’s own moods emotions and

drivers, as well as their effect on others.

· Self Regulation-the ability to control or re-direct disruptive impulses or moods, that is to think before acting.

· Motivation: a passion for work that goes beyond money or status and a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence.

· Empathy: understanding the feelings and view points of subordinates and taking those into account when making decisions.

· Social skills: Friendliness with a purpose.

2. What is Organizational inertia?

Organizational inertia is the inability of the organization to adapt in a timely manner to new circumstances. This is on of the major reason that companies are often so slow to respond to new competitive conditions organizational inertia is

complex and has a number of underlying causes. One source is he power and influence of individual managers another source is the existing allure of the organization.

3. What is Competitive intelligence?

Competitive intelligence means gathering of information about the competitors.

4. Define Policy?

A policy is a broad guideline for decision making that links the formulation

of strategy with its implementation. Companies use form make decisions and take actions that support the corporations missions, objectives and strategies.

5. What is Budget?

A budget is a statement of a corporations programs in terms of dollars. Ic, in monetary terns. On planning and control, a budge lists the detailed cost of each program.

6. What is strategy formulation?

Strategy formulation is the development of long range plans for the effective management of environment opportunities and threats, taking into consideration corporate strengths and weaknesses. It includes defining the corporate Mission, specifying achievable objectives developing strategic and

`scatting policy guide lines.

7. What is a Mission?

An organizations mission is its purpose or the reason for its existence a well conceived mission statement defines the fundamental unique purpose that sets a company apart from other forms of its type and identifies the scope of the company’s operation interns of products offered and markets served. It puts into words not only what the company is now but, what it wants to become.

8. What are objectives?

Objectives are the end results of planned activity they state what is to be accomplished by when and should be quantified of possible. The achievement of corporate objectives should result in the fulfillment of the corporations mission.

9. What is Evaluation and control?

Evaluation and control is the process by which corporate activities and performance results are monitored so that actual performances can be companied with desired performance. Manager at all levels use resulting information to take corrective action and resolve problems.

10. What are the Responsibilities of the Board of Directors?

· Setting corporate strategy, overall direction mission or vision

· Succession: baring and firing the CEO and top management

· Controlling, monitoring, or supervising top management.

· Reviewing and approving the use of resources.

· Caring for stockholder interests

11. What are the responsibilities of the CEO

· Provide exclusive leadership and a strategic vision

· Manage the strategic planning process CEO articulates a strategic vision for

the corporation. CEO not only communication high performance standards, but also shows,

· Confiding in the followers abilities to meet these standards.

12. What are the four responsibilities of business

· Economic responsibility

· Legal Responsibility

· Ethical Responsibility

· Discretionary Responsibility

13. What is a strategic type?

Strategic type is a category of firms based on a common strategic

orientation and a combination of structure, culture and processes consistent with that strategy. There are 4 strategic types. Defenders, prospectors, Analyzers and Reactors.

14. What is a defender?

Defenders are Romanics with a limited product line. That fours on

improving the officered of their existing operations they wont try to innovate in new areas.

15. What are prospectors?

Prospectors are companies with fairly broad product line that fours on

product innovation and market opportunities. This sales orientation makes them somewhat inefficient. They tend to emphasis inactivity over efficiency.

16. What are analyzers?

Analyzers are companies that operate in at least different product market

areas, one stable and one variable. In the stable area efficiency is emphasized. In the variable area innovation is emphasized.

17. What are reactors?

Reactors are companies that lack a consistent strategy-structure-culture relationship. Their responses to environment presumes fend to be piece-meal strategic changes.

18. How do resources determine competitive advantage?

· Identify and classify the firms resources in terms of strengths and weaknesses.

· Combine the firms strengths into specific capabilities-these are corecompetitive

· Appraise the profit potential of there resources and competencies in terms of their potential for sustainable. Competitive advantaged the ability to harvest the profits resulting from the use of these resources and capabilities.

· Select the strategy that best exploits the firms resources and competencies relative to external opportunities.

· Identify resource gaps and invest in upgrade weaknesses.

19. What is durability?

Durability is the rate at which a firms underlying resources and capabilities depreciate or become obsolete. New technology can make a companies are competency obsolete or irrelevant.


1. Business units have a choice of three generic strategies. Explain these strategies.

2. What is the rationale of strategic alliance? Why do such alliances fail?

3. “Joint Ventures are emerging as the best tool for reaching new markets”. - Comment.

4. Explain in detail the corporate strategy in terms of directional strategies such as Growth, Stability and Retrenchment strategies.

5. What is Portfolio analysis? Explain the components of Portfolio analysis.

6. Define Functional strategy. Explain various functional strategies in an organization.

7. Define Portfolio strategy. Explain the ways of evaluating it.

8. Define corporate strategy. Explain the various types of corporate strategy.

9. Explain in detail the Strategic Choice process.

10. Explain in detail the strategies pursued by International companies.

11. “Balanced Scorecard is a superior performance measurement tool”.- Explain.



1. What is limitability?

Limitability is the rate at which a firms underlying resources and

capabilities or cores competencies can be duplicated by others. To the extent that a firms distinctive competency gives it competitive advantage in the market place. Expatiators. Will do what they can to skills and capabilities. A core competency can be easily limited to the extent that it is transparent transferable and replicable.

2. What is transparency?

Transparency is the spared with which other firms can understand the relationship of resources and capabilities supporting a successful firms strategy.

3. What is Transferability?

The ability of competitors to gather the resources and capabilities necessary to support a competitive challenge.

4. What Reliability?

The ability of competitors to use duplicated resources and capabilities to imitate the other success.

5. What is Value –Chain?

A Value chain is a linked set of value enacting activities beginning with

basic raw materials coming from suppliers, moving on to a series of value-added activities involved in producing and marketing a product or service and ending with distributors getting the final goods into the hands of the ultimate customer.

6. What is a Marketing mix?

The marketing mix is the particular combination of they variables under the corporations control that it can use to affect demand and to gain competitive advantage. These variables are products, promotion price and place.

7. What is product life cycle?

· Introduction

· Growth

· Maturity

· Decline

Product Life cycle is a graph showing time plotted against sales of a

product as it moves from introduction through growth and maturity to decline.

8. Differentiate between economics of scope and economics of scale?

Economics of scope means common parts of the manufacturing activities of various products are combined to gain economics even through small numbers of

each product are made. Economic of scale means units costs are reduced by making large numbers of the same products.

9. What is propitious niche?

Propitious niche is a company’s specific competitive that is so well suited to

the firms internal and external environment that other corporations are not likely to challenge or dislodge it.

10. What is Flanking Maneuver?

Rather than going straight for a competitive position of strength with a

frontal assault a firm may attack a part of the market, where the competitor is weak. This is called flanking maneuver.

11. What is Organization Development or OD?

OD is a complex educational strategy designed to increase organizational effectiveness and wealth through planned inventions by a consultant using theory and techniques of applied behavioral science.

12. What is Job Enrichment?

Job enrichment is a conscious effort to build into jobs a higher sense of

challenge and achievement. In a job enrichment program, the worker decides how the job is performed, planned and controlled and makes more decision concerning

the entire process job. Employee decide how the job will be performed and receive less direct supervision on the job. Consequently the employee receives a greater sense of accomplishment as well as more authority and responsibility and job satisfaction. This in turn contributes for batten employee performance and higher productivity.

13. What is organization structure?

Organizational structure is an established pattern of relationships among the component parts of an organization. Structure is made up of three component parts. Complexity, formalization and centralization. Complexity refers horizontal differentiation vertical differentiation and

location differentiation. Formalization refers to the degree to which the jobs with in the organization are standardized. High standardization of jobs results in less freedom and discretion. Centralization refers to the degree to which decision making is


14. What is Band Loyalty?

It is the buyers preference for the products of any established company. A company can create brand loyalty by providing high quality products, goods after sales service continuous advertising of its brand name and company name, patent protection of product, product innovation achieved through company research and

development programs.

15. What is Economics of Scale?

Economics scale another relative cost advantages associated with large

volumes of production that lower a company’s cost structure.

Sources of Scale Economics include.

· Cost reductions gained through mass producing a standardized output.

· Discounts on bulk purchases of raw materials and component parts.

· Advantages gained by spreading fixed phony cost over large production

· volume.

16. What is customer switching cost?

The costs arise open a customer switches from one company’s product to

another company is called customer switching cost switching from one product to another, costs the customer, time, money and energy. When the switching costs is high, customers can be locked into the product offerings of established companies. E.g. Microsoft’s windows Operating System.

17. What is a Fragmented Industry?

Fragmented Industry consists of a large number of small or medium sized companies none of which is in a position is determine Industry price.

18. What is a Consolidated Industry?

A consolidated industry is dominated by a small number of large companies and they any in a position to determine industry prices.

19. What is Bargaining power of buyers?

Bargaining power of buyers refers to the ability of buyers to bargain down

prices charged by companies or raise the cost of the product by demanding better quality product.

20. What is bargaining power of suppliers?

Bargaining power of suppliers refers to the ability of suppliers to raise

input prices or to raise the cost of the industry by providing poor quality inputs.


1. Explain about Business Level Strategy

2. Define directional strategy and Explain the dimensions of directional


3. Explain Non-For-profit strategies?

4. Explain Entrepreneurial venture

5. Explain innovation and sources of innovation

6. Describe the steps in strategic evaluation and control process.

7. Discuss the role of Corporate Culture in strategic management.

8. Explain the strategic management process in organizational life cycle.

9. How can a corporate keep sliding into the decline stage of the organizational life cycle?

10. Explain the steps in control process and various types of control system.

11. What are some ways to implement a retrenchment strategy without creating a lot of resentment and conflict with Labour unions?

12. How can corporate culture be changed?

13. Elaborate on the broad forms of organization structure.

14. Explain the primary measures of Corporate performance in strategic evaluation.

15. How should an owner-manager prepare a company for its movement in Organizational life cycle?

16. How do conflict and politics affect formulation and implementation of generic competitive strategies



1. Differentiate between product innovation and process innovation?

Product innovation is the development of products that are new to the world

or have superior attributes to existing products. Process innovation it the development of a new process for producing products and delivering them to customers. Product innovation creates value by creating new products that customers perceive as more desirable this increasing the company’s pricing option. Process innovation often allows a company to create more value by lowering production costs.

2. What is bench marking?

The process of measuring the company against the products. Practices and services of some of its most efficient global competitors.

3. What is technological Myopia?

When a company gets blinded by the wizardry of a new technology and

fails to examine whether there is customer demand for the product, it is called

Technological Myopia.

4. What is Product Proliferation?

Companies having broad product lines produce a range of products aimed at different in abet segment. Sometimes to reduce the threat of entry,they expand the range of products they make to fill a wide variety of riches. This creates a barrier to entry because potential competitors now find it harder to break into an industry in which all the riches are filled. This strategy of pursuing a broad product line to

Deter entry is known as product proliferation.

5. What is Location Economics?

Location economics are the economics benefits that arise from performing

a value creation activity in the optimal location for that activity wherever in the world that might be.

6. What is Licensing?

It is specialized from of licensing in which the franchisee not only sells intangible property to the franchisee but also insists that the franchises agree to abide by strict rules as to how it does business. The franchiser will also assist the franchisee to run the business on an on going basis and receives an royally payment.

7. What is a wholly owned subsidiary?

Wholly owned subsidiary is one in which the parent company owns 100 percent of the subsidiary stock. To establish a wholly owned subsidiary in a Foreign market. A company can either set up a completely now operation in that country or acquire an established host country company and use it to promote its products in the host market.

8. What is Full Integration?

A company achieves Full integration when it produces all of a particular

input needed for its process or disposes all of its output through its own operation.

9. What is Taper Integration?

Taper Integration occurs when a company buys from independent suppliers in addition to company owned suppliers or disposes of its output through independent outlets in addition to company owned outlets.

10. What is Diversification?

It is the process of adding new businesses to the company that are district

from its established operations. A diversified or multi business company is one that is involved in two or more district industries.

11. What is Economics of Scope?

That cost reductions associated with sharing resources across businesses.

12. What is bureaucratic cost?

The cost increases that arise in large complex organizations due to managerial in efficiencies. This is a function of 9i) no. of businesses in a company’s follows (ii) the extent of co-ordination required among the different businesses of the company in order to realize value from a diversification strategy.

13. What is bidding strategy?

The strategy adopted by the acquirer to reduce the price it must pay for the acquisition candidate. Hence the most effective thing an acquirer can do is make

only friendly take over bids.

14. What is mean by Management buyout (MBO) Selling of a business Unit to its management.

15. What do you mean by stakeholder?

Stakeholders are individuals of or groups with interest claim, or stake in the company in what it does and in how well it performs. They include stock holders, creditors, employees, customers the communities and the general public.

16. What are the different type of stakeholders?

Internal stakeholders are stakeholders and employees including executive officers, other managers and board members.

17. What is External stakeholders?

External stakeholders are all other individuals and group that have some claim on the company. Typically this group comprises customers, suppliers, oneditors, governments unions, local communities, and the general public.

18. What is PIMS?

It means profit impact on marketing strategy.

19. What is Standardization?

It refers to the degree to which a company specifies decision making and coordination processes so that employee behaviour becomes predictable.


1. What are the factors which affect a new ventures success?

2. What are the steps involved in Evaluation of Control

3. Explain corporate culture .

4. What are the different organization structure

5.Explain Strategy implementation

6. Explain strategic control

7. Distinguish between profit-making organizations and not-for-profit organization? Explain with suitable examples.

8. How should a small entrepreneurial company engage in environmental scanning? To what aspects of the environment should management pay most attention?

9. What considerations should small-business entrepreneurs keep in mind when they are deciding if a company should follow a growth or a stability strategy? (OR) What considerations should small-business entrepreneurs keep in mind when the company grows and develops over time?

10. Discuss the strategic issues in Not-for-profit organizations.

11. How can a company develop Corporate Entrepreneurship culture? (OR) How can a company develop an Entrepreneurial culture?

12. How does innovation occur in an organization? Identify the characteristics of innovative

organizations and what are the factors that limit an organization’s capacity to innovate?

13. What is technology research and how does it differ from market research?

14. In terms of Strategic Management, how does a new venture’s situation differ from that of

an ongoing small company?

15. What is the impact of strategic management on not-for-profit organization?

16. Define Innovation. What are the characteristics of an attractive industry from an

entrepreneur’s point of view?

17. What factors help determine whether a company should outsource a technology?