EVS - Human Population and the Environment Question Bank

Environment Science and Engineering
Unit V -  Human Population and the Environment Question Bank

Part A
  1. Define the term population dynamics.
  2. What do you mean by population growth.
  3. Define immigration and emigration.
  4. What is meant by population explosion.
  5. What do you understand by Logistic growth.
  6. State any four factors that increase or decrease the population.
  7. What are the role of Empowered Action Group (EAG) in family welfare programme?
  8. What is meant by value of Education.
  9. What is meant by HIV?
  10. What is meant by AIDS?
  11. How AIDS can be controlled?
  12. List out the schemes for child welfare.
  13. What are the policies for women development?
  14. Suggest any four methods of staying healthy.
  15. List any four common violence against women.
Part B
  1. Explain briefly the population explosion.
  2. Explain in detail about family welfare programme,training and development.
  3. Explain in detail about population growth.
  4. Discuss Environment and Human Health.
  5. Explain the value of education.
  6. Explain briefly on Human Rights.
  7. Explain HIV/AIDS
  8. Explain the various policies and programmes for woman and child development.
  9. Explain the role of IT in environment engineering with case study.
  10. Explain J-Curve,S-Curve and Survivorship curves.

EVS - Social Issues and the Environment Question Bank

Environment Science and Engineering
Unit IV - Social Issues and the Environment

1.Define sustainable development.
2.What is rainwater Harvesting ?
3.Define green house effect.
4.What is acid rain?
5.Define the term environment ethics.
6.Define global warming.
7.What is acid deposition ?
8.What are the damages caused by acid rain?
9.What is wasteland reclamation.
10.What is consumerism?
11.Name any four environment protection acts.
12.What are the effects of global warming?
13.Give some example of green house gases.
14.What are the important causes of climate change?
15.What is ozone layer depletion?
16.What is meant by ISO 14000?

Part B
  1. Explain the agenda for sustainable development.
  2. Explain in detail about global warming.
  3. Explain wasteland reclamation.
  4. Discuss nuclear accidents and holocaust.
  5. Give a detailed account of ozone layer depletion.
  6. Explain briefly on the Indian Environmental Acts.
  7. Explain watershed management.
  8. Explain rain water harvesting.
  9. Explain resettlement and rehabilitation issues.
  10. Explain the urban problems related to energy.
  11. How is acid rain formed? Explain its impact on Environment.
  12. How is environment protected through Legislation? Explain.

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Only 100 Sms Per Day - New Rule by TRAI - Applicable to all Indian Mobile Networks

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) has decided to cap the number of text messages that you can send every day at 100.

Even though you have High Balance you cant send a single sms more than 100.

The new set of rules has ostensibly been framed to check telemarketers from bombarding you with unwanted messages from sauna belts to real estate deals but This will definitely hurt the students who generally depends on SMS chatting for communication with their friends. 

Notwithstanding opposition from telecom operators, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has made it clear that it is not going to withdraw its move to restrict SMS to 100 per day per SIM for all subscribers. The restriction on SMS, however, will not be applicable on festival days such as Diwali and Eid.
"In order to curb the menace of pesky calls and messages, as of now, this (limit of hundred SMS per day per SIM) will be applicable to all users. If in future some problem arises, we will see the things," reports quote a Trai source as saying.
The cap on SMS is scheduled to come into effect from September 27.

The TRAI has come under fire from all corners for its move to restrict the number of SMS. The Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) recently called upon the telecom regulator to reconsider its decision. The COAI said that such restrictions could challenge the “fundamental rights” of a subscriber.
The restriction on SMS is likely to disappoint youth, who extensively use short text messages for communication. All the telecom operators offer SMS packs under which subscribers can avail more than 100 free or cheap SMS per day. These SMS packs are highly popular for their ultra low prices, as they are normally under Rs. 100. Moreover, the cap is going to hurt the mobile users, who cannot afford smartphones such as BlackBerry for instant messaging.
Earlier, the TRAI announced Per Day Per Sim (PDPS) rule under which telecom service providers were asked to withdraw their SMS service packs that allow customers to send over 100 SMS per day. The body then said that the move would help prevent telemarketers from bombarding subscribers with spam calls and SMS.

Source : http://www.thinkdigit.com/Mobiles-PDAs/TRAI-refuses-to-pull-100-SMS-per_7620.html

Electronic Device and Circuits - More Important Questions

These are the List of the Question that are repeatedly asked in Anna University Examination.

  1. Explain the construction,operation and characteristics of PN Junction Diode.
  2. Explain the working principle of half wave / full wave rectifier and derive the expression for ripple factor,efficiency,Vdc,Irms,Idc,Vrms and TUF.
  3. Explain the alpha numberic display config using LEDs and describe its working.
  4. Explain construction and working of LCD.
  5. Draw and Explain the input and output characteristics of a transistor in CE/CB/CC configuration.
  6. Explain the Switching Characteristics of transistor.
  7. Explain the operation of power transistor.
  8. Explain the operation of optocoupler.
  9. Construction , Operation and Characteristics of JFET.
  10. Construction , Operation and Characteristics of MOSFET.
  11. Explain the working of Darlington connection.
  12. Explain the performance of FET as VVR.
  13. Explain Differential Amplifier.
  14. Working of colpit's oscillator and derive frequency.
  15. Explain feedback topologies(VT series,VT shunt,CT series,CT shunt)
  16. Explain schmitt trigger
  17. Explain UJT based Sawtooth oscillator.
  18. Explain working of Astable and Bistable multivibrator.

Colpitts Oscillator - Lecture Notes and Analysis

Contents :
  • Colpitt's Oscillator
  • Equivalent Circuit
  • Operation
  • Analysis
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantage
  • Application

Electromagnetic Theory - Unit 3 - Question Bank

1.Define magnetic field strength.

The magnetic field strength (H) is a vector having the same direction as magnetic flux density. H=B/µ

2.Write down the expression for magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil.

H = I/2a.

3.Write he expression for field intensity due to a toroid carrying a filamentary current I

H=NI / 2ïR

4.Give the relation between magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity.

B =µ H

5.Define inductance.

The inductance of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the linking magnetic flux to the current producing the flux. L = Nφ / I

6.Give the formula to find the force between two parallel current carrying conductors.

F=µI 1I2/ 2ðR

7.Give the expression for torque experienced by a current carrying loop situated in a magnetic field.

T = IABsinθ

8.What is torque on a solenoid?

T = NIABsin θ

9.Write the expression for energy density in electrostatic field.

W=1 / 2 εE2

10.What is the expression for energy stored in a magnetic field?

W = ½ LI2

11.What is energy density in magnetic field?

W = ½ µH2

12.Distinguish between solenoid and toroid.

Solenoid is a cylindrically shaped coil consisting of a large number of closely spaced turns of insulated wire wound usually on a non magnetic frame. If a long slender solenoid is bent into the form of a ring and there by closed on itself it becomes a toroid.

13.What is lorentz force?

Lorentz force is the force experienced by the test charge .It is maximum if the direction of movement of charge is perpendicular to the orientation of field lines.

14.State Biot –Savarts law.

It states that the magnetic flux density at any point due to current element is proportional to the current element and sine of the angle between the elemental length and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

dB=µ Idl sinθ / 4πr2

15.State amperes circuital law.

Magnetic field intensity around a closed path is equal to the current enclosed by the path.


16.Give the force on a current element.

dF = BIdlsinθ

17.Define magnetic vector potential.

It is defined as that quantity whose curl gives the magnetic flux density.

B=▼ x A=µ / 4πJ/r dv web/m2

18..Define magnetic moment.

Magnetic moment is defined as the maximum torque per magnetic induction of flux density. m=IA

19.Give the relation between electric field intensity and electric flux density.

D=Eε C/m2

 20. Define current density.

Current density is defined as the current per unit area. J= I/A Amp/m2


1. Calculate field using Ampere’s Circuital law for infinitely long solenoid

2. Determine the Magnetic flux density B caused by a finite length current filament of length ‘L’ on the z-axis at a distance ‘d’ from the origin.

3. Explain how to calculate field using Ampere’s Circuital Law for symmetrical current distribution for infinitely long filament carrying current I

4. Explain how to calculate field using Ampere’s Circuital Law for symmetrical current  distribution for coaxial cable.
      a) state and explain ampere’s Law
     b) A current filament of 5.0 A in the ay direction is parallel to the y axis at x = 2m, z = - 2m. Find H at the origin.

5. Define and explain Vector Magnetic Potential.

6. A circular loop of radius ‘b’ in the XY plane and carries a current ‘I’, as depicted in figure. Obtain an expression for the magnetic flux density at a point on the positive z  axis.

7. Apply Ampere’s Circuital Law to the perimeter of a differential surface element and obtain the point form of ampere’s circuital Law.

Electromagnetic Theory - Unit 2 - Question Bank


1.State coulombs law.

Coulombs law states that the force between any two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It is directed along the line joining the two charges.

F=Q1Q2/ 4 πεr2

2.State Gauss law for electric fields

The total electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that surface.

3.Define electric flux.

The lines of electric force is electric flux.

4.Define electric flux density.

Electric flux density is defined as electric flux per unit area.

5.Define electric field intensity.

Electric field intensity is defined as the electric force per unit positive charge.

E =F/ Q =Q/4 πεr2 V/m

6.Name few applications of Gauss law in electrostatics.

Gauss law is applied to find the electric field intensity from a closed surface.

      e.g. Electric field can be determined for shell, two concentric shell or cylinders

7.State Gauss law for magnetic field.

The total magnetic flux passing through any closed surface is equal to zero.

B.ds =0

8.Define potential difference.

Potential difference is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge from one point to another point in an electric field.

9.Define potential.

Potential at any point is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to that point in an electric field.

V=Q / 4 πεr

10.Give the expression for electric field intensity due to a single shell of charge

E = Q / 4 πεr 2

11.Give the expression for potential between two spherical shells

V= 1/ 4 πε(Q1/a – Q2/b)

12.Give the relationship between potential gradiant and electric field.

E= - ▼V

13.What is electrostatic force?

The force between any two particles due to existing charges is known as electrostatic force, repulsive for like and attractive for unlike.

14.What are dielectrics?

Dielectrics are materials that may not conduct electricity through it but on applying electric field induced charges are produced on its faces .The valence electron in atoms of a dielectric are tightly bound to their nucleus.

15.What is a capacitor?

A capacitor is an electrical device composed of two conductors which are separated through a dielectric medium and which can store equal and opposite charges ,independent of whether other conductors in the system are charged or not.

16.Define dielectric strength.

The dielectric strength of a dielectric is defined as the maximum value of electric field that can b applied to the dielectric without its electric breakdown.

17.What meaning would you give to the capacitance of a single conductor?

A single conductor also possess capacitance. It is a capacitor whose one plate is at infinity.

18.Why water has much greater dielectric constant than mica.?

Water has a much greater dielectric constant than mica .because water ha a permanent dipole moment, while mica does not have.

19.What is a point charge?

Point charge is one whose maximum dimension is very small in comparison with any other length.

20.Define linear charge density.

It is the charge per unit length.

21 Define surface charge density.

It is the charge per surface area.

22.Write down the expression for capacitance between two parallel plates.

C=εA / d

23.What is meant by displacement current?

Displacement current is nothing but the current flowing through capacitor.

J= D / t

24.Write the boundary conditions at the interface between two perfect dielectrics.

i)The tangential component of electric field is continuous


ii)The normal component of electric flux density is continuous


25.Write poisson’s and laplace ’s equations.

Poisson ‘s eqn:

▼2V= - ρv / ε

Laplace’ s eqn:

▼2V= 0

26.What are the significant physical differences between Poisson ‘s and laplace ‘s equations.

Poisson ‘s and laplace ‘s equations are useful for determining the electrostatic potential V in regions whose boundaries are known. When the region of interest contains charges poissons equation can be used to find the potential. When the region is free from charge laplace equation is used to find the potential.


1. Discuss the properties and boundary conditions of dielectric materials.

2. Give and derive the expression for capacitance of coaxial cables with single and two dielectrics.

3. Write down the uniqueness theorem and explain.

4. Derive the expression for capacitance of a two-wire line.

5. Write the expression for Laplace and Poisson’s equation and derive it for various coordinate systems.

6. Deduce an expression for the joint capacitance of two capacitors, C1 and C2, (i) in series and (ii) in parallel. If C1 = 100 microfarad and C2 = 50 microfarad, calculate a) the joint capacitance and b) the total energy stored with a steady applied potential difference of 1000V.

7. In the case of a two concentric spherical shell capacitor, the radii of the two spheres differ by 4 cm, and the capacitance of the spherical conductor is 53.33 Pico farad. If the outer sphere is earthed, calculate the radius, assuming air as dielectric.

8. Obtain the boundary conditions on the interface of a dielectric and a conductor.

9. State and explain Uniqueness theorem.

10. Current density is given by J = (1/r) e-t ar A/m2. At t = 1s, calculate total outward current in a cylinder if r = 5m and also find the velocity with which the J moves at arbitrary radius ‘r’ (‘r’ = radius of cylinder).

Electromagnetic Theory - Unit 1 - Question Bank


1.State stokes theorem.

The line integral of a vector around a closed path is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of its curl over any surface bounded by the path

H.dl = (▼xH)ds

2.Define divergence.

The divergence of a vector F at any point is defined as the limit of its surface integral per unit volume as the volume enclosed by the surface around the point shrinks to zero.

3.State Divergence Theorem.

The integral of the divergence of a vector over a volume v is equal to the surface integral o f the normal component of the vector over the surface bounded by the volume.

4.What is the physical significance of div D ?

▼•D= ρv

The divergence of a vector flux density is electric flux per unit volume leaving a small volume. This is equal to the volume charge density.

5.State the condition for the vector F to be solenoidal.

▼•F =0

6. .State the condition for the vector F to be irrotational.

▼xF =0

7.Describe what are the sources of electric field and magnetic field?

Stationary charges produce electric field that are constant in time, hence the term electrostatics. Moving charges produce magnetic fields hence the term magnetostatics.


1. Derive electric field intensity at the given point due to line charge of infinite length.

2. State and prove divergence theorem for electric field.

3. Apply Gauss’s law to an unsymmetrical field.

4. Apply Gauss’s law to an
a) infinite line charge
b) infinite sheet of charge.

5. Define dipole. Derive the electric field intensity, E and the potential due to a dipole.

6. Obtain the expression for energy density in an electrostatic field.

7. Point charge 1mC and -2mC are located at (3,2,-1) and (-1,-1,4) respectively. Calculate the electric force on a 10nC charge located at (0,4,1) and electric field intensity at that point.

8. A circular ring of radius ‘a’ carries a uniform charge L C/m and is placed on the XY plane with the axis same as z axis. Find the  electric field intensity.

9. If G(r)= 10e-2z (r ar+az), determine the flux of G(r ) out of entire surface of the cylinder    r=1

10. Two point charges are located at points P1(-1, 0,0) and P2(1,0,0). The charge at P1 is 1C and the charge at P2 is -2 C. find the location on the X axis where a positive test  charge will not experience any force. Distance are in meters.

Theory of Computation Question Bank

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Department of computer science and engineering




1. What are the two types of line configuration?
2. What do you mean by error control?
3. Define flow control?
4. What is redundancy?
5. Write short notes on error correction?
6. Mention the types of error correcting methods.
7. What are the steps followed in checksum generator?
8. Define checksum.
9. Write short notes on CRC checker.
10. Write short notes on LRC.
11. List out the available detection methods.
12. Mention the types of errors and define the terms?
13. Distinguish between peer-to-peer relationship and a primary-secondary
14. What are the ways to address the framing problem?
15. What are the responsibilities of data link layer?
16. What are the functions of Application layer?
17. Define Bit stuffing.
18. What are the features provided by layering?
19. What are header and trailers and how do they get added and removed?
20. Group the OSI layers by function?
21. What are the two types of parity checks? Define it.
22. Draw a neat diagram of Internet protocol graph.


1. Explain in detail the error detection and error corrections. (16)
2. With a neat diagram explain in detail about the Network architecture. (16)
3. Discuss in detail about HDLC. (16)
4. (i)What is the difference between Internet architecture and OSI architecture? (8)
(ii) Explain about coaxial cable and fiber optics media for communication. (8)
5. Discuss about the links operated on the physical media in detail. (16)
6. Explain the different approaches of framing in detail. (16)
7. Discuss about different types of Issues in data link layer. (16)
8. (i)Write about channel access on links. (8)
(ii)Explain about FDMA and TDMA in detail. (8)
9. (i) A block of 32 bits has to be transmitted. Discuss how the thirty two bit block
is transmitted to the receiver using Longitudinal Redundancy Check. (4)
(ii) Consider a 32 bit block of data 11100111 11011101 00111001 10101001 that
has to be transmitted. If Longitudinal Redundancy Check is used what is the
transmitted bit stream? (6)
(iii)In the Hamming code, for a data unit of m bits how do you compute the
number of redundant bits ‘r’ needed? (6)



1. What is CSMA?
2. Explain CSMA/CD
3. Mention some of the physical properties of Ethernet.
4. What is the role of VCI?
5. What do you mean by error control?
6. What are the functions of bridges?
7. What is the size of Ethernet address?
8. What is the advantage of FDDI over a basic token ring?
9. List any two functions which a bridge cannot perform?
10. Mention the function of hub.
11. Mention different random access techniques?
12. List the two types of data frames in FDDI
13. What is the purpose of the NAV?
14. Name the four types of S frames.
15. What is the access method used by wireless LANs?


1. Explain the CSMA/CD algorthims of Ethernet. (8)
2. Explain in details about the access method and frame format used in Ethernet and
token ring. (16)
3. Name the four basic network topologies and explain them giving all the
relevant features (16)
4. (i) Explain the working of carrier sense multiple access protocol. (3)
( ii) How does a Token Ring LAN operates? Discuss. (6)
(iii) List and briefly discuss the two different basic transmission technologies
that can be used to set up wireless LAN’s. (7)
5. Explain the frame format, operation and ring maintenance feature of IEEE 802.5
MAC protocol. (16)
6. Briefly define key requirements for wireless LANs. (16)
7. Describe the FDDI frame format and explain. (16)
8. Discuss the MAC layer functions of IEEE 802.11. (8)
9. Explain in details the types of bridges. (8)



1. List the difference between circuit switching and Packet switching.
2. What are the different kinds of Multicast Routing?
3. Discuss the class field in IP address.
4. What is meant by circuit switching?
5. What is multicasting?
6. What is a hostid and netid?
7. How does a netid differ from a network address?
8. What is the purpose of subnetting?
9. Define Masking.
10. What is the difference between boundary level masking and non-boundary level
11. What is the function of router?
12. How does a router differ from a bridge?
13. Find the class of each addresses.
14. Why is adaptive routing superior to non adaptive routing?
15. What are the three main elements of distance vector algorithms.
16. What is address resolution?
17. What are the benefits of subnetting a network?
18. What are the metrics used by routing protocols?


1. Explain shortest path algorithm with a suitable illustration. (16)
2. Explain the distance vector routing algorithm.(16)
3. Mention the limitations of distance vector routing algorithm.(8)
4. Explain the building and distribution of link state packets in link state routing
5. Mention the limitations of link state routing algorithm.(8)
6. Explain link state routing and discuss its advantages over distance vector routing.(8)
7. Explain in details packet switching.(16)
8. Explain in details Datagram approach.(16)
9. Explain in details IP addressing methods.(16)
11. i. In classful addressing how is an IP address in class A, Class B and Class C
divided? (4)
ii. Given the address and the default class A mask, find the beginning
address (network address). (6)
iii. Given the address and the default class C mask, find the beginning
address (network address). (6)



1. What are the services provided by transport layer protocol?
2. What is the difference between network service and transport service?
3. List some of the Quality of service parameters of transport layer
4. What are the functions of transport layers?
5. What is transport entity?
6. What is segmentation?
7. What is the purpose of sequence control?
8. How transport layer performs Duplication control?
9. What are the service primitives in simple transport protocol?
10. What is the methods to improve Qos?
11. What is traffic shaping? Name two methods of shape traffic?
12. What is the use of sequence numbers?


1. Explain a congestion control algorithm. (16)
2. Explain the duties of Transport layer. (16)
3. Explain the TCP transmission policy, Congestion control. (8)
5. Explain the TCP header and working of the TCP protocol. (16)
6. Explain the various fields of TCP header with the help of a neat diagram.(16)
7. Explain the various steps that are followed in releasing a TCP connection. (16)
8. Explain the three way handshake protocol to establish the transport level
connection. (8)
9. Discuss about congestion control in frame relay. (16)
10. Discuss the various issues of transport layer in details. (16)



1. Discuss the three main divisions of the DNS.
2. What role does the DNS resolver play in the DNS system?
3. How does a DNS Resolver bootstrap the domain name lookup process?
4. Define SMTP.
5. Define the term domain.
6. What are the two parts of addressing system in SMTP?
7. Discuss MIME.
8. What are the services provided by user agent?
9. What are the four properties of HTTP?
10. What are the four groups of HTTP header?
11. What are categories of web documents?
12. What are basic functions of email system?
13. What is WWW?
14. What is the web browser?
15. What is a post office protocol?
16. Compare the HTTP and FTP.
17. What is mailing list?
18. What are the two main categories of DNS messages?
19. Define cryptography.
20. What are the two categories of cryptography methods? What is the main difference
between the categories?
21. What are the advantages of public key encryption/decryption?


1. Explain DNS with reference to its components and working. (16)
2. Explain the message transfer using simple mail transfer protocol. (8)
3. Explain the final delivery of email to the end user using pop3. (8)
4. Write short notes on email services of the application layer. (8)
5. Explain in details WWW. (8)
6. Explain the architecture and services of e-mailing system. (16)
7. What are the two categories of encryption/decryption methods? What is the main
difference between the categories. (8)
8. With a relevant example discuss how the domain space is divided. (6)
ii. Distinguish between a fully qualified domain name and a partially qualified
domain name. Give relevant example. (6)
iii. List the various risks faced by messages that are transmitted over the internet. (4)
9. i. Discuss how simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) works? Can multimedia
messages be transmitted using SMTP? Discuss. (10)
ii Is common gateway interface a languages. Discuss. (6)


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Department of Computer Science and Engineering


Question Bank


PART - A (2 Marks)

1. Define Software Engineering.
2. What is meant by Software engineering paradigm?
3. What are the Advantages of incremental model?
4. Write any two characteristics of software as a product.
5. Identify in which phase of the software life cycle the following documents are delivered.
i) Architectural design
ii) Test plan
iii) Cost estimate
iv) Source code document
6. Which process model leads to software reuse? Why?
7. What are the various activities in WINWIN Spiral Model?
8. What are the various elements that a computer based system makes use of?
9. Give at least two reasons for prototyping is problematic.
10. Mention the Advantage and Disadvantage of waterfall model.
11. Distinguish between process and methods.
12. Differentiate System and Computer based System.
13. Define software process. State the important features of a process.
14. Distinguish between verification & validation.
15. Define System Modeling.
16. What are the four types of changes are encountered during the support
17. State the System Engineering Hierarchy.
18. Mention some of the factors to be considered during System Modeling.
19. Define Verification &Validation.
20. What are the phases encompassed in the RAD model?
21. List the task regions in the spiral model.

PART- B (16 Marks)

1. (i) What are the major differences between system engineering and software engineering? State
explains the stages that distinguish the two. [8]
(ii)Explain with two examples of software development projects would be amenable to
evolutionary prototyping. Why is evolutionary prototyping suitable in these cases? [8]

2. Explain Water fall Model. What are the problems that are sometimes encountered when the waterfall model
is applied? [16]

3. (i) Which is more important-the product or process? Justify your answer. [8]

(ii) With suitable illustration explain SPIRAL model evolutionary software
development. [8]

4. (i) Explain the Evaltionary and Incremental Model. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages? [8]
(ii) Write a short notes an System engineering and Computer based System. [8]

5. Explain System Engineering hierarchy.What are the restraining factors to construct a system
model? [16]

6. (i) Explain Component Based Development model in detail. [8]
(ii) How do you differentiate software engineering from system engineering? [8]

7. Explain in detail the following s/w process models with a neat diagram.
i) Evolutionary process model. [8]
ii) Incremental Process model. [8]

8. Explain the spiral model? What is the task region in the spiral model? How does the customer wins by
getting the system or product that satisfy the majority of the customer’s needs and the developer wins by
working to realistic and achievable budgets and deadline? [16]

9. What are the necessities of Life cycle model? Elaborate on the various issues of Software life cycle. [16]

10. (i) How does system engineering differ from software engineering? Also write brief notes on computer
based system and system engineering hierarchy. [8]

(ii) Differentiate product engineering and business engineering overview [8]

11. Explain the process model that combines the element of waterfall and iterative fashion. [16]

12. Explain briefly about the following (i) business process engineering (ii) product engineering
13.Explain briefly about the following (i) Computer based system(ii) System engineering process


PART-A (2 Marks)

1. What is requirement engineering?
2. What is meant by feasibility study?
3. What is meant by requirement validation?
4. What is meant by Requirement management?
5. What is meant by software prototyping?
6. Mention any two non-functional requirements on software to be developed.
7. Differentiate data flow diagram and state transition diagram.
8. Define cardinality and Modality of a relation.
9. Compare evolutionary and throw away prototyping?
10. Define the term product and process in software engineering?
11. List out the elements of analysis model?
12. What are all the information in data dictionary?
13. Why modularity is important in data dictionary?
14. Specify at least four questionnaire which supports to select the prototyping approach.
15. What is known as SRS review? How is it conducted?
16. Distinguish between expected requirements and excited requirements.
17. What is meant by software prototyping?
18. What are the non-functional requirements of software?
19. What is data dictionary? How is it used in software engineering?
20. What is the role of data dictionary?
21. What is meant by Information flow Continuity?
22. Draw a DFD & CFD of a test monitoring system for Gas Turbine
23. Define Behavioral Modeling.
24. Draw the Context level DFD for the Safe home Software.
25. Define Data dictionary.
26. Define Process Specification.
27. What does data dictionary contains?
28. What is meant by Throw away Prototyping?
29. Why is it so difficult to gain a clear understanding of what the customer wants?
30. Create a data dictionary that provides with a precise definition of telephone number, it should indicate,
where and how this data item is used and supplementary information that is relevant to it?
31. What is the purpose of domain analysis?
32. What is the major distinction between user requirements and system requirements?
33. What is QFD?
34. What is ERD?
35. What is DFD?
36. What are the problems makes elicitation difficult?
37. Why requirements elicitation process is difficult?

PART-B (16 Marks)

1. Explain software prototyping? What are the various prototyping methods and tools? [16]

2. (i) Why is traceability an important aspect of requirement management? Why context system models are
useful for requirements validation? [8]
(ii) What is requirement engineering? State its process and explain requirements elicitation problem. [8]

3. Explain with example diagram the functional and behavioral modeling. How do we model the software’s
reaction to some external event? [16]

4. (i) How to select the appropriate prototyping approach? Explain. [8]

(ii) Explain about the cardinality and modality with suitable example. [8]

5. Explain in detail about all modeling technique in software requirements. [16]

6. (i) Explain about rapid prototyping techniques. [8]

(ii) Differentiate functional and nonfunctional requirements. [8]

7. Why customer iteration is difficult process? Explain one formal procedure used for customer interaction.
8. Draw an ER and DFD diagram for university information System. [16]

9. (i) Describe the primary difference between structured analysis and object oriented analysis. [6]
(ii) Write a detailed note on scenario based modeling. [10]

10. (i) Compare functional and behavioral models. [4]
(ii) With a suitable diagram explain the elements of the analysis model [4]
(iii) With an example explain about DFD. [8]

11. (i) Differentiate functional and non functional requirements and explain. [8]

(ii) Why the customer interaction is a difficult process? Explain one formal procedure used for
customer interaction. [8]

12. Draw an E-R diagram for university information system. Specify atleast four cardinality and
modality relationships in this. [8]

13. (i) Explain the feasibility studies. What are the outcomes? Does it have either implicit or explicit effects on software requirement collection? [8]

(ii) What is the prototyping technique? How prototype models are prepared for a software process?

14. (i) Discuss in detail the FAST method of Requirement elicitation with an example. [4]
(ii)What is software specification? [4]

(iii)Write short notes on data modeling? [4]

(iv)Discuss in detail the basic structure of analysis model. [4]

15. (i)Explain about the cardinality and modality with suitable example. [4]

(ii) What is Data dictionary? And explain data Modeling. [4]

(ii) What is the use of context diagram? Draw a Level-1 DFD and STD for photocopier software.


PART- A (2 Marks)

1. What are the common characteristics of design methods?
2. What are the different levels of abstraction?
3. What are the criteria for an effective modular system?
4. What are the elements of design model?
5. How the Architecture Design can be represented?
6. Define design process.
7. List the principles of a software design.
8. What is the benefit of modular design?
9. What is a cohesive module?
10. What are the different types of Cohesion?
11. What is coupling?
12. What are the various types of coupling?
13. What are the common activities in design process?
14. What are the benefits of horizontal partitioning?
15. What is vertical partitioning?
16. What are the advantages of vertical partitioning?
17. What are the various elements of data design?
18. List the guidelines for data design.
19. Name the commonly used architectural styles.
20. What is Transform mapping?
21. Define real time system.
22. Define real time Executives.
23. Define Baseline.
24. What is meant by fan-in, fan-out?

PART- B (16 Marks)

1. Explain the fundamental software design concepts in detail. [16]

2. Explain the following
(i) SCM repository [8]
(ii) SCM process [8]

3. (i) Draw a translating diagram for analysis model into a software design. Brief about each
translations. [8]

(ii) Give a complete template for documentation design specification. [8]

4. (i) How interrupts are handled in real time system? Explain. [8]
(ii) Explain in detail about the real time systems. . [8]

5. (i)Define the concept of cohesion and coupling. State the difference. [4]
(ii)Briefly explain the use of global variables in context of coupling cohesion? [4]
(iii)What are different types of architectural styles exist for software and explain any one software

6. What is transform mapping? Explain the process with an illustration. What is its strength and weakness?

7. i) Explain about the various design concepts considered during design? [8]
ii) Write short notes on user interface design process? [8]

8. What are the different types of architectural styles exist for software and explain any one software architecture in detail. [16]

9. i) Explain data architectural and procedural design for a software. [8]

ii) Describe the design procedure for data acquisition system. [8]

10. Describe decomposition levels of abstraction and modularity concepts in softwareDesign. [16]

11. i) Discuss in detail about the design process in software development process. [8]

ii) Justify “Design is not coding and coding is not design”. [8]

12. i) Explain in detail about the characteristics and criteria for a good design. [8]
ii) Describe the golden rules for interface design. [4]
(iii) What is the design document? [4]

PART- A (2 Marks)

1. What is a Real time system?
2. What is SCM?
3. What is SCI?
4. Define software testing?
5. Define Smoke Testing?
6. What are the objectives of testing?
7. Define White Box Testing.
8. What are the two levels of testing?
9. What are the various testing activities?
10. Write short note on black box testing.
11. What is equivalence partitioning?
12. What is Regression Testing?
13. What is a boundary value analysis?
14. What are the reasons behind to perform white box
15. What is cyclomatic complexity?
16. How to compute the cyclomatic complexity?
17. Distinguish between verification and validation.
18. What are the various testing strategies for
conventional software?
19. Write about drivers and stubs.
20. What are the approaches of integration testing?
21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of bigbang?
22. What are the benefits of smoke testing?
23. What are the conditions exists after performing
validation testing?
24. Distinguish between alpha and beta testing.
25. What are the various types of system testing?
26. What is BRO testing?
27. List out the data structure errors identified during unit
28. What is called as glass box testing? What is the
objective of this?
29. State the objectives and guidelines for debugging.
30. What do you mean by test case management?
31. What are the roles of cyclomatic complexity value in
software resting?
32. What is the need for cyclomatic complexity?

PART- B (16 Marks)

1. i) Explain the testing objectives and its principles. [8]
(ii) Explain the basis path testing in detail. [8]

2. (i) What is the need for software maintanance and maintenance report. [8]
(ii) What are the attributes of the good test? Explain the test case design. [8]

3. (i) What are all formulas for cyclomatic complexity? Calculate cyclomatic complexity for greatest of all
these numbers. [8]

(ii) How the RST condition is verified in black box testing? Explain with example. [8]

4. (i) What is the necessity of unit testing? Write down all unit test considerations. [8]
(ii) Explain about system testing. [8]

5. Write a note of
(i) Black box testing. [4]
(ii) Regression testing. [4]
(iii) White box testing [4]
(iv) Integration testing. [4]

6. Why is it so important to include boundary values in your black-box test data? Illustrate with examples
in which a test suite developed using black box techniques might give the impression that ‘everything is
OK”, while a test suite developed with whit box testing techniques (for example, branch coverage) might
uncover a fault and vice versa. [16]

7. (i) Discuss the differences between black box and white box testing . [8]

(ii) Explain the different integration testing approaches. [8]

8. (i)Discuss how these testing models may be used together to test a program schedule. [4]

(ii) What do you mean by system testing? Explain in detail [4]
(iii) Explain boundary value analysis. [4]

(iv) Justify the importance of testing process [4]

9. (i)Discuss in detail about alpha and beta testing. [8]
(ii)What do you mean by integration testing? Explain their outcomes. [8]

10. Explain the integration testing process and system testing process and discuss their outcomes:
(i) What do you mean by system testing? Give a case study of a system testing
for operating system? [8]
(ii). What do you mean by boundary value analysis? Give two examples of
boundary value testing. [8]

11. Explain automated testing tools. How test cases are generated? Discuss when to
stop testing? What is performance testing? Describe. [16]

13. What are the various testing strategies to software testing? Discuss them briefly. [16]

14.( i) Describe the testing objectives and its principles. [8]
(ii) Explain the basis path testing in detail. [8]

15. (i) What is need for software maintenance and maintenance report. [8]
(ii) What are the attributes of a good test. Explain the test case design. [8]

16. Explain the various types of black-box testing methods.

17. (i) Explain about system testing. [6]

(ii) What is the necessity of unit testing? Write down all unit test considerations. [10]

18. (i) What are all the formulas for cyclomatic complexity?Calculate cyclamatic complexity for
greatest of three numbers? [8]

(ii) How the RST (Reflexive, Symmetric, and Transitivity) is related to black box testing? [8]

20 i) Why Unit testing is important? Explain the concept of unit testing in detail.
ii) Write a note an regression testing.


PART- A (2 Marks)

1. What is meant by software project management?
2. What is meant by software management?
3. Define debugging.
4. What are the common approaches in debugging?
5. Write about the types of project plan.
6. Define measure.
7. Define metrics.
8. What are the types of metrics?
9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of size measure?
10. Write short note on the various estimation techniques.
11. What is the Objective of Formal Technical Reviews?
12. What is COCOMO model?
13. Give the procedure of the Delphi method.
14. What is the purpose of timeline chart?
15. What is EVA?
16. What are the metrics computed during error tracking activity?
17. Why software change occurs?
18. Write about software change strategies.
19. Define CASE Tools.
20. What is software maintenance?
21. Define maintenance.
22. What are the types of software maintenance?
23. What is architectural evolution?
24. How the CASE tools are classified?
25. What are the types of static testing tools?

PART- B (16 Marks)

1. i) Explain about CASE repository functions in detail. [6]
(ii) Discuss on the various method encountered in cost estimation.

2. (i) Explain in detail about Delphi technique. [6]
(ii) Discuss in detail about software software evaluation. 10]

3. (i)What are the different activities in project planning. 12]
(ii)What is error tracking? Discuss. [4]

4. (i) Brief about 3D function point measures. [8]
(ii) How to measure quality and defect removal efficiency. [8]

5. (i)How to compute a task set selector value for a project? [8]
(ii)Brief about taxonomy of case tools (at least eight) [8]

6. (i) What are the upper and lower CASE tools? What is the purpose of upper-CASE tools? [6]
(ii) Explain in detail the COCOMO model. [10]

7. (i) Describe about software equation. [8]
(ii) Describe about the constructive cost model in detail. [8]

8. (i) Explain in detail about the maintenance process [8]
(ii) Discuss in detail about software evolution. [8]

9. Describe two metrics which are used to measure the software in detail. Discuss clearly the advantages and disadvantages of these metrics. [16]

10. (i) Justify the statement “Software maintenance is costlier”. [8]

(ii)Discuss the concept of software maintenance process. [8]

11. (i) Brief about 3D function point measures. [8]

(ii) How to measure quality and defect removal efficiency (DRE). [8]

12. (i) How to compute Task Set Selector(TSS) value? Explain. [8]

(ii) Brief about taxonomy of CASE tools (at least eight) [8]

13. i) Explain the scheduling of software project. [8]

ii) Explain task network. Construct a schematic task network for concept development project.

14. i) How is earned value computed to assess the progress? [8]
ii) Explain the Constructive Cost model. [8]

15. Software project scheduling does not differ from scheduling of any other multitask engineering Projects. Discuss.

16. i) Explain the CASE repository functions in detail.
ii) Explain the various method encountered in cost estimation.

Data Structure and Algorithm Lab Updated Edition

Whats New ?

  • Tree Traversal Program Output Added.
  • BACKTRACKING ALGORITHM Program and Output Updated.
  • DIJKSTRA'S ALGORITHM Program and Output Updated.
  • PRIORITY QUEUE USING HEAPS Program and Output Updated.
  • Minor Mistakes changed.
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Java Programming - String Handling, Interface, Exception handling, Threading, Java Data Base connectivity

Thanks to :
                   Anna University Chennai

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Java Programming Fundamentals Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Yasser Jaffal,
                   Al-Quds University.

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Introduction to C++ - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :  
                     Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12

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Back Tracking and Dijkstra Algorithm Program with output

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Electrical Engineering Question Bank

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Part 1

1) Define coefficient of modulation and percentage modulation for an AM system.
2) Determine the improvement in noise figure for a receiver with an RF bandwidth equal to 200KHz
and an IF bandwidth equal to 10KHz.
3) A 20MHz carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal such that the peak frequency
deviation is 100KHz.Determine the modulation index and approximate
bandwidth of the FM signal if the frequency of the modulating signal is 50KHz.
4) How will you convert a frequency modulator into a phase modulator?
5) Why are synchronous modems required for medium and high speed applications?
6) What is μ-law companding?
7) Determine the bandwidth and baud for the FSK signal with a mark frequency of 49KHz and a
space frequency of 51KHz and a bit rate of 2Kbps.
8) Write the differences between PSK and FSK.
9) State the ‘run property’ of maximum length sequences.
10) How will you compact the effects of multi-path in a slow fading channel?


11) a) i) Define amplitude modulation. Derive the relation between the total transmitted power and
carrier power in an AM system when several
frequencies simultaneously modulate a carrier
ii) For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage
Vc=10Vp, a load resistance RL=10?, and a modulation coefficient m=1, determine
(1) Powers of the carrier, upper and lower side bands
(2) Total power of the modulated wave
(3) Total side band power
(4) Draw the power spectrum.
b) i) Draw the block diagram of an AM super heterodyne receiver and explain
function of each block.
ii) A super heterodyne radio receiver has a mixer that translates the carrier frequency ƒc to a fixed IF
frequency of 455KHz by using a local oscillator
of frequency ƒLO. The broadcast frequencies range from 540 to 1600KHz.
iii) Determine the range of tuning that must be provided in the local oscillator
(1) When ƒLO is higher than ƒc and
(2) When ƒLO is lower than ƒc.

12) a) Compare direct and indirect FM modulators. Draw the block diagram of a direct
FM transmitter and describe its operation.
b) Draw the circuit diagram of a radio detector for FM demodulation and explain. State the
advantages of a radio detector over slope detector and Foster-Seelay

13) a) i) Draw the block diagram of typical DPCM system and explain.
ii) In a binary PCM system, the output signal to quantization noise ratio is to be a minimum of 40dB.
Determine the number of required levels, and find the
corresponding out signal to quantization noise ratio.
b) i) Draw the eye diagram and explain its importance in data transmission.
ii) Write short notes on Vertical and Horizontal check Schemes for error detection.

14) a) Draw the block diagram of a QPSK transmitter and explain. Derive the bandwidth requirement
of a QPSK system
b) Draw the block diagram of a non-coherent receiver for detection of binary FSK signals and the
probability of symbol error for a non-coherent FSK system.

15) a) What is frequency hop spread spectrum? Explain the generation of slow frequency hop spread
M-ary FSK and fast frequency hop spread M-ary FSK . with appropriate diagrams
b) i) Compare Time division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access.
ii) A spread spectrum communication system has the following parameters:
Information bit duration Tb=4.095ms, PN chip duration Tc=1μs, the energy to
noise ratio Eb / No=10. Calculate the processing gain and Jamming margin.

Object Oriented Programming Question Bank




1. What are the basic concepts of OOP?
2. What are objects?
3. What is class?
4. What is encapsulation?
5. Compare and contrast the notions of struct and class in C++.
6. What are pointers? What are the advantages of using pointers in programming?
7. What are the programming paradigms currently available?
8. What are the benefits of OOP language?
9. What is the default access mode for class members?
10. What is data abstraction?
11. What are data members and member functions?
12. Give any four applications of OOP.
13. What is a scope resolution operator (::)?
14. What is function prototype?
15. What is an inline function?
16. What is a default argument?
17. How to access a class member?
18. How to create an object?
19. What is static data member?
20. How the objects are used as function argument?
21. Define const member.
22. Define pointers to members.
23. What is the use of member dereferencing operator?
24. Define local classes and nested classes.
25. What are friend functrions?


1. Write a program to illustrate the manipulation using pointer to objects and pointer to member of a
class. [16]
2. Explain with suitable program to demonstrate how a function can be overloaded in different
ways. [16]
3. Illustrate the use of friend function with example program [16]
4. Write a program to find maximum between two numbers using friend class. [16]
5. (i) Explain object oriented paradigm with all its essential elements. [12]
    (ii) state the merits and demerits of OOP. [4]
6. (i) Explain the usage of friend keyword with an example program. [8]
    (ii) Write a C++ program to illustrate static function. [8]
7. What are friend functions and friend classes? Write a normal function which adds objects of the complex
number class. Declare this normal function as friend of the complex class. [8]
8. (i) List the applications of OOP. [4]
    (ii) Discuss on basic concepts of OOP. [8]
    (iii) Give general structure of C++ program. [4]
9. (i) Write short notes on inline function and default arguments. [4+4]
    (ii) Explain with example how you can use a common friend function to exchange the private values of two
classes. [8]
10. (i) How can you design a class? How to access data members? How is the message communication done to
access data members of other classes? [8]
(ii) Write down the merits and demerits of OO methodologies. [6]


Thanks to :
                   S.Vinila JinnyLecturer, 
                   Dept. of CSE

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Anna University - III Semester Practical Schedule - October / November 2011

Principles of communication - Double Conversion Receiver & net receiver gain

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - Super Heterodyne Receiver - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of Communication - AM Reception - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - AM Transmitters - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - AM Modulators - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - Analysis of DSBFC - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - Principles of Amplitude Modulation - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - Analog & Digital Communication Introduction - Lecture Presentation

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Principles of communication - AM MODULATOR CIRCUITS AND AM TRANSMITTERS - Lecture Notes

Thanks to :
                   Lecturer Karthika S
                   Department of ECE,
                   SSN College of Engineering.

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Engineering Graphics - Question Bank

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                  Department of EEE.

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Engineering Graphics - Model Exam Question Bank

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                  Department of EEE.

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Engineering Graphics Set of Question Paper 2004 - 2011

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                  Department of EEE.

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