Circuit Theroy Model Question paper

Anna University
Circuit Theory - Model Question Paper
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Circuit Theroy June 2010 Question Paper - Second Semister

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Engineering CHEMISTRY QUESTION BANK for Semester 2 common for all department



1.      What are the types of electrolytes?  Give an example for each type.
2.      What is the difference between metallic and electrolytic conduction?
3.      What are single and Std. Electrode potentials?
4.      What is Nernst equation?  Discuss the terms involved.
5.      Calculate the electrode potential of Zinc electrode dipped in 0.1M zinc sulphate solution at 250 C.
6.      Bring out the symbolic representation of SHE.  What are its limitations?
7.      What are secondary reference electrodes?  Discuss about a calomel electrode.
8.      Give  the symbol, diagram and reactions of a calomel electrode.
9.      Define emf series.  Bring out any  four elements and their E0 values.
10.  How will you predict the spontaneity of a reaction using emf series?
11.  Zinc displaces H2 from HCl but Cu does not.  Why?
12.  What is galvanic series?  What are the  significance of it?
13.  Discuss the rules to be followed while representing a cell.
14.  What is the difference between electrochemical and electrolytic cells?
15.  What is potentiometric titration?
16.  What is conductometric titration?
17.  What is standard electrode?
18.  Define ion selective electrodes?
19.  What are the conditions for a cell to be a reversible one?
20.  Differentiate electrolytic and electrochemical cell.

1.      Define corrosion
2. Why do metals undergo corrosion?
3.  What are the types of corrosion?
4. What are the consequences of corrosion?
5. What is Pilling bedworth rule?
6. What is H2 embrittlement?
7. Write the elemental reactions involved during electrochemical corrosion.
8. What type of corrosion takes place when a Zinc rod dipped in HCl solution?
9. What is galvanic corrosion?  Discuss
10. What is pitting corrosion?  Why is it severe?
11. Differentiate chemical and electrochemical corrosion
12. How does purity of a metal influence corrosion?
13. How do pH of the environment affect corrosion of a metal?
14. How is corrosion minimized by proper designing of equipment?
15. What is cathodic protection?  Discuss
21.  What is the purpose of using Mg bars in ships?
22.  What is the role of hydrazine and sodium sulphite in corrosion control?
23.  What are anodic inhibitors?  Give any two examples with the mode of action
24.  What are vapour phase inhibitors?  Give an example.
25.  Define a paint. 
26.  What is the role of drying oil in a paint?  Discuss
27.  What are plasticisers?  Give examples.
28.  What are acid pickling and alkali cleaning?
29.  What is electroless plating? 
30.  What are the constituents of electrolytic bath used for electroless plating?
31.  Bring out the reactions taking place during electroless plating
32.  What are the advantages of electroless plating?

1.      State phase rule
2.      Define phase.
3.      What is meant by the term component?
4.      Define degree of freedom.
5.      A system consists of benzene and water.  What is the number of phases?
6.      A gaseous mixture consists of  N 2, H2 and NH3 in equilibrium. What is the number of phases?
7.      How many components are present when NH4Cl is heated in a closed vessel?
8.      A gaseous mixture contains NH3 , HCl in the molar ratio of 1:2. Whatr is the number of components of the system?
9.      Give the number of components of the system:
(i)    Fe (s)  +  H2O(g)  à   FeO(s)   +   H2 (g)
(ii)   CaCO3(s)    <=>    CaO(s)  +  CO2(g)
10.  What is invariant system?
11.  Give an example for invariant system.
12.  Calculate the number of phases present in the systems:
(i)  MgCO3(s)     <=>    MgO (s)     +     CO2(g)
(ii) Rhombic sulphur(s)     <=>  Monoclinic sulphur(s)
(iii)NH 4Cl(s)   <=>      H3(g)    +   HCl(g)
(iv) I2(s)            <=>      I2(g)
(v)  Ice(s)          <=>   water(l)        <=>        Water vapour(g)
13.  What is the degree of freedom of the following systems?
      (i )   NaCl (s) <=>   NaCl-water(aq)    <=>    Water-vapour(g)
(ii)                A gas in equilibrium with its solution in a liquid.
(iii)               A solution of a solid in a liquid in equilibrium with solvent vapour.
(iv)              Two partially misicible liquids in the absence of vapour.
(v)                I2(s)      <=>      I2(g)  
14.  What is condensed  phase rule? What is the number of degrees of freedom at the eutectic point for a two component system?
15.  What is thermal analysis. Draw the cooling curves of  a pure substance and a mixture and discuss.
16.  What is the effect of pressure on the melting point of ice?
17.  What is metastable equilibrium?
18.  What is triple point?
19.  What is eutectic composition of lead-silver system?
20.  Discuss the significance of eutectics.
21.  What is meant by congruent melting point?
22.  How many phases and components are existing at triple point in ice – water – water vapour system.
23.  State the conditions under which two substances can form a simple eutectic.
24.  Define eutectic point.
25.  Eutectic is a mixture and not a compound explain.
26.  What is eutectic alloy?
27.  Mention some important properties of alloys.
28.  What are Stainless steels?
29.  What are solders?
30.  What is meant by phase diagram? With the help of phase diagrams explain the following terms. (i) meta state equilibrium   (ii) Eutectic point.
31.  Explain the differences among melting point, eutectic point and triple point.  Give examples.
32.  PCl5 (s)      à       PCl3 (l)     +       Cl2 (g) .   Write the number of  phases, components and degree of freedom for this system.
33.  Mention the merits and demerits of phase rule.
34.  What are the main purpose of alloying steel.
35.  Give the composition of Nichrome and Alnico.
36.  What is 18/8 Stainless Steel.
37.  What is the basic differences between brass and bronze?
38.  What are solders?  Give examples.



1.      What is coal? How is it formed?
2.      Name the different varieties of coal.
3.      What is calorific value? Mention its units.
4.      Define GCV and LCV of a fuel.
5.      What is meant by the term fixed carbon?
6.      How is coke superior to coal?
7.      Distinguish between proximate and ultimate analysis of coal.
8.      Give the characteristics of metallurgical coke.
9.      What is meant by hydrogenation of coal?
10.  Define octane number.
11.  How will you improve the octane number?
12.  What is leaded petrol? Mention its advantages and disadvantages.
13.  Define cetane number.
14.  How is cetane number improved?
15.  Distinguish between petrol and diesel.
16.  What is aviation gasoline? How is it obtained?
17.  Give the composition of water gas.
18.  Write the composition of producer gas.
19.  Explain how water gas is superior to producer gas.
20.  What is flue gas?
21.  Mention the uses of flue gas analysis.
22.  Name the reagents used for absorbing CO2,CO and O2 during flue gas analysis by Orsat apparatus.


  1. Explain emission spectra.
  2. What is an absorption spectrum?
  3. What are the differences between molecular spectra and atomic spectra?
  4. State Beer-Lamberts law. Write its mathematical form.
  5. What are the limitations of Beer-Lamberts law?
  6. What are the sources of UV light in UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
  7. What is a colorimeter?
  8. Mention the important components of a colorimeter.
  9. What are applications of colorimetry?
  10. Mention the advantages of colorimetry.
  11. What is flame photometry? Name few metals which can be easily detected by this method.
  12. What are the important processes that occur in the flame emission spectroscopy?
  13. What are chromophores? What are auxochromes? Give some examples.
  14. Define bathochromic shift and hypsochromic shift.
  15. What is hypochromic effect and  hyperchromic effect?
  16. How are IR spectral range subdivided?
  17. How will you calculate the number of vibrational modes of a compound?
  18. What is finger print region? Mention its importance.
  19. What is group frequency region? Mention its importance.
  20. Give any two applications of UV spectroscopy.



1.      Define EMF.  How is it determined?
2.      Differentiate the following  ; a) Reversible and irreversible cells
b) Electrolytic and electrochemical cells
3.      Derive Nernst equation? What are the applications?
4.      With a neat sketch explain the principle, working of SHE.
5.      Explain the concept of secondary reference electrode, taking calomel electrode as example.
6.      Justify the ‘V’ shaped graph obtained from conductometric acid base titrations.
7.      Bring out the significance of potentiometer titration in redox reactions.
8.      What is the procedure for determining the endpoint for a precipitation reaction using potentiometric titrations?
9.      What is EMF series? What are the applications?
10.  How will you measure pH of a solution using ion selective glass electrodes?

1.      What are the  constituents of paints?  Discuss the functions with examples.
2.      Explain the preparation of metals for coating
3.      Discuss electroless plating in detail taking Ni as example.
4.      Explain the mechanism of chemical corrosion
5.      Explain the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion
6.      Discuss the factors influencing corrosion
7.      Explain the corrosion control by proper selection of metal and designing.
8.      Explain cathodic protection in detail
9.      What is differential aeration corrosion?  Explain with four examples.
10.  Write briefly about gold electroplating?
11.  Compare different types of corrosion inhibitors.

      1. Draw a neat phase diagram and explain the lead-silver system? Briefly write
about Pattinson’s process.
  1. Explain the application phase rule to a one component system.
  2. How will you construct a phase diagram by thermal analysis?
  3. Define phase rule and condensed phase rule. Explain the terms involved.
  4. Write note on heat treatment of steel.
  5. What are the non ferrous alloys? Give their properties.
  6. Define the term “Alloy” and bring out the effect of alloying of metals with        examples.  Explain about stainless steel.

1.      Describe proximate analysis. What is the significance of it?
2.      Bring out the importance of ultimate analysis.
3.      In what ways Otto Hoffmann method is advantageous than the traditional method.  Explain the various products and the recovery process.
4.      Explain synthesis of petrol by Bergius process.
5.      What is  Fishcer Tropsch process. What are the advantages of the process?
6.      What is Knocking? Explain about the mechanism of anti - knocking ?
7.      What is Water gas? How is it manufactured?
8.      How is producer gas manufactured? Give its composition and uses.
9.      Write a brief note on CNG and LPG.
10.  Discuss the points to be taken care in calculation of minimum air requirement for the complete combustion.
11.  How is flue gas analysed using Orsat’s apparatus?

1.      Derive Beer – Lamber’s law. What are the reasons for the deviations from Beer’s law?
2.      Explain photoelectric colorimeter with suitable diagram.
3.      Draw the schematic diagram of a flame photometer and explain its working.
4.      Explain the working of atomic absorption spectrometer..How will you determine nickel using AAS?
5.      Give an account on principle, application and intstrumentation of UV-Visible spectroscopy.
6.      Give an account on principle, application and intstrumentation of IR spectroscopy Explain stretching and bending vibrations.

Engineering Chemistry – II Question Bank - Includes All Unit.

1.State single electrode potential
2.State standard electrode potential
3.What is reference electrode
4.Define electrode potential
5.what is an ion selective electrode
6.How is Ph of a solution determined using glass electrode
7.Mention the significance of emf series.
8.How will you predict the spontanenity of a redox system using emf
9.What is redox titration give example.
10.Define emf
11.List the factors affecting emf of a cell
12.Mention the advantages of conductometric titration
13.Write the limitations of hydrogen electrode
14.Write the conditions for an electrochemical cell to act as an standard cell
15.Mention the advantages of potentiometric titration


1.Derive Nernst equation and mention its significance
2.Define emf.How can it be measured potentiometrically
3.What are reference electrode.Describe calomel electrode with a neat diagram
4.Explain the conductometric titration of strong acid by strong base
5.Explain the principle involved in potentiometric titration.Write an experimental procedure for
carrying out the titration of redox raction.
6.Explain the measurement of PH of a solution using glass electrode
7.Difference between reversible and irreversible cell
8.What is irreversible cell explain the irreversibility taking a suitable example
9.Describe the importance of electrode potential
10.Ion-selective electrode explain its principle and working
11.Difference between electrolytic and electrochemical cell
12.What is the concentration of Ni2+ in the cell at 25°c,if the emf of the cell is 0.601 v?
Ni (s)/ Ni2+(C=?)//Cu2+(0.75)/Cu(s)
Given.E°= Ni (s)/ Ni2+=0.25v, E°= Cu2+/Cu(s) =0.34 v
13.Calculate the emf of the cell Zn/Zn 2+ (0.1M) //Ag+ (0.1M)/Ag ;E°cell=1.56 v
14.Consider the cell reaction
Zn(s)+Fe2+(0.005M)↔Zn2+(0.01M) +Fe(s)
Given that the standard emf of the cell at 298K is 0.323 v i)construct the cell ii)calculate emf of the cell

1.Define corrosion
2.State pilling bedworth rule
3.What is differential aeration
4.Explain galvanic corrosion with example
5.What is meant by pitting corrosion
6.Name the factors influencing corrosion
7.Write the effect of pH of conducting medium on corrosion of metals.
8.How does magnesium corrode faster than iron
9.Mention the principle involved in impressed cathodic current protection method of prevention of
10.Zinc is more readily corrode when coupled with copper than with lead.Why?
11.What is inhibitors and mention their types.
12.What is the role of pigment in paint?Give two examples.
13.What is the functions of driers in the paint?
14.What are the objectives of electroplating on non-metals
15.What is electroless plating
16.How is Ni plating done by electroless plating?

1.Mechanism of chemical corrosion and also explain the nature of oxide film formed over the metal
2.Mechanism of electrochemical corrosion
3.Briefly explain about differential aeration corrosion
4.Explain inhibition of corrosion by sacrificial anodic protection and impressed cathodic current
protection method
5.Explain the factors influencing the rate of corrosion
6.What are inhibitors?How are they classified with suitable example
7.Discuss the mechanism of drying of oil paint.
8.State the constituents of oil paints with examples and their functions.
9.What are the main objectives of electroplating .Give an account of the method used in
electroplating of gold.
10.What is electroless plating?Write short note on electroless nickel plating and discuss its application
11.Difference between electroplating and electroless plating


1.What is metamorphism or coalification of coal?
2.Difference between proximate and ultimate analysis
3.What is metallurgical coke?
4.Mention the characteristics of metallurgical coke.
5.How coke is superior to coal?
6.What is drawback of presence of Sulphur in the coal?
7.What is meant by refining of petroleum?
8.What is cottrell’s process in crude oil refining.
9.Define cracking.What is the necessity of cracking?
10.Difference between the thermal and catalytic cracking.
11.What is meant by hydrogenation of coal?
12.Define the term knocking.
13.How will you improve the anti-knocking characteristics of diesel
14.Define octane number.How it can be improved?
15.Define cetane number.How it can be improved?
16.What is leaded petrol.Give its significance in automobiles.
17.What is producer gas and water gas
18.Give the composition and uses of producer gas
19.Give the composition and uses of water gas
20.What is CNG?Mention it primary components.
21.Define calorific value of a fuel
22.Define GCV and LCV of a fuel.
23.Give the Dulong’s formula for the calculation of GCV and NCV
24.Mention the uses of flue gas analysis


1.Explain the proximate analysis of coals?Write its significance
2.Write brief note on ultimate analysis of coal
3.How is metallurgical coke manufactured by Otto-Hoffman oven
4.What is meant by crude petroleum?Discuss the principle steps in the refining of crude petroleum
5.Explain the fixed bed catalytic cracking for the manufacture of gasoline
6.Explain the moving bed catalytic cracking for the manufacture of gasoline.
7.Describe the manufacture of gasoline by Fisher-Tropsch method.
8.How will you obtain synthetic petrol by Bergius process
9.What is water gas?How it is manufactured?Give the chemical reaction taking place in different
10.How is producer gas manufactured?state its composition and uses?
11.What are LPG and CNG?Discuss the advantages of LPG over gaseous fuel and CNG over LPG
12.Explain the causes,mechanism and prevention of knocking of petrol in I.C. engine
13.List out the difference between petrol and diesel as I.C. engine fuels
14.With a neat diagram explain the analysis of flue gas by Orsat apparatus and mention the
precautions to be followed during the analysis.
15. A sample of coal was found to contain the following,C=81%,H=4%,O=2%,N=10%,S=2% and the
remaining being ash.Estimate the quantity of minimum air required for the complete combustion of 3
kg of the sample.
16.The percentage composition by volume of a producer gas is
CH4=3.6%,CO=25%,H2=10%,CO2=10.8%N2=50.7%.Calculate the theoretical quantity of air required per
m3 of the gas.
17.Calculate the volume of air required for complete combustion of 100 m3 of a gaseous fuel having
the following analysis composition by volume H2=50%,CH4=36%,N2=1.5%,CO=6%,C2H4=4%,CO2=2.5%
18.A gaseous fuel has the following composition by volume H2=12%,CH4=2%,CO=24%,CO2=5%O2=2%
and the rest N2.Calculate the volume of air needed for the complete combustion of 100 m3of the fuel.
19.A sample of coal was found to have the following percentage composition.
C=75%,H2=5.2%,O2=12.8%,S=1.2% and the rest ash.Calculate the amount of air needed for the
complete combustion,if 1 kg of the coal is burnt with 30% excess air.
20.Calculate the volume of air required for the complete combustion of 1 m of the gaseous fuel having
the following composition by volume H2=50%,CH4=36%,N2=1.5%,CO=6%,C2H4=4%, H2O vapour=2.5.


1.State phase rule.
2.Define phase with example
3.Define component with example
4.What is meant by degree of freedom?
5.What is phase diagram?Mention its types.
6.Write the uses of phase diagram
7.What is meant by metastable equilibrium
8.State reduced phase rule
9.Mention the uses of cooling curves
10.What is eutectic point
11.Differentiate melting point,eutectic point and triple point
12.What is pattinson’s process?
13.Mention the uses of eutectic system
14.Mention the merits of phase rule
15.Explain the limitation of phase rule
16.How many phases,components are existing at triple point in ice-water-water vapour system
17.Calculate the number of phases present in the following system
a)NH4 Cl(s)↔NH3(g) + HCl(g)
b)An emulsion of oil in water
c) MgCO3(s)↔ MgO(s) +CO2
d)Ice(s)↔Water(l)↔water vapours(g)
18.Calculate the number of phases and components present in following system
CuSO4(s)+5H2O(l)↔ CuSO4.5H2O(s)


1.State phase rule and explain the terms involved in it
2.Draw a neat phase diagram of water system and explain the curves,areas and points in it
3. Draw a neat phase diagram and explain the lead-silver system briefly write about pattinsons’s
4.What is thermal analysis.Draw the cooling curves of a pure substance and a mixture and discuss
5.What are the merits and demerits of phase rule
6.How is silver separated from argentiferous lead?Explain with the help of phase diagram?
7.What is metastable equilibrium? Explain this state in water system.

1.Define alloy
2.Mention the properties of alloys
3.Give any two uses of brass and bronze
4.Mention any five purpose of making alloys
5.Give composition and uses of nichrome
6.What is heat treatment of alloys
7.What are the objectives of heat treatment
8.Define the terms Annealing,Hardening,Tempering,Normalising
9.What is alnico
10.Give the percentage composition of bronze
11.Give anytwo uses of brass and bronze

1.What are the main purpose of alloying steel.
2.Write note on heat treatment of steel
3.What are alloys?Write the chemical composition and uses of Heat treatable stainless stell and non
heat treatable stainless steel
4.Discuss the composition,characteristics and uses of non ferrous alloy such as bronze.
5.Mention the composition,properties and uses of nichrome
6.How are the properties of metals improved by alloy formation.

1.State Lambertz law
2.State Beer-Lambertz law
3.What is colorimeter.
4.A solution of thickness 2 cm transmits 40% incident light.Calculate the concentration of the solution
given that ε=6000 dm3 mol-1 cm-1
5.What is principle involved in flame photometry.
6.IR spectra us often characterized as molecular finger prints.justify
7.What are chromphore?give example
8.What are auxochrome?give example
9.Define the bathochromic shift
10.What are the various type of electronic transition taking place in UV spectroscopy
11.What is finger print region and mention its uses.
12.Calculate the number of IR bands (mode of vibrations)for CH4,C2H6,C6H6,H2O,CO2
13.Write the basic principle of atomic absorption spectroscopy.
14.Mention the application of AAS
15.What are the source of IR radiation in IR spectrophotometer
16.Difference between flame photometery and AAS
17.Write the application of IR spectroscopy
18.Mention the limitation of flame photometry.


1.Derive Beer-Lambert’s law and write all the limitations observed in the quantitative analysis
2.Explain briefly colorimetry with neat diagram
3.Explain briefly the principle and instrumentation of flame photometry
4.Mention the applications of UV spectroscopy
5.What is IR spectroscopy?Explain the different region of IR.
6.What is the principle of flame photometry?How do you estimate sodium using flame photometry?
7.Explain the main features of working of UV-visible spectrometer with a neat block diagram.
8.Give a neat sketch of atomic absorption spectrometer and explain the components.
9.Explain the estimation of nickel by AAS
10.Explain the principle,instrumentation and application of IR spectroscopy
11.Explain the electronic transition caused by energy absorbed in the UV region
12.Give the possible stretching and bending vibrations of the following CO2,H2O,-CH2

Engineering Chemistry – II - Corrosion - Unit 2 - Questions

1. Define the term corrosion and differentiate it from erosion
2. Discuss the different types of corrosion that we commonly come across.
3. Discuss the importance of design and material selection in controlling
4. State two conditions for electrochemical corrosion to occur
5. Indicate the principles of cathodic protection?
6. Discuss about the use of inhibitors in corrosion control?
7. What is cathodic protection? Under what conditions is this protection
more useful?
8. Explain with suitable examples the corrosion due to differential aeration
and dry corrosion?
9. Explain the two important factors that influence the corrosion of metals?
10. Mention the theories of corrosion and explain any one of them in detail.
11. What are the differences between EMF and Galvanic Series?
12. List the discrepancies of EMF series
13. What is meant by electrochemical corrosion?
14. What is the mechanism by which rusting occurs?
15. Distinguish between wet and dry corrosion
16. A copper equipment should not possess a steel component. Why?
17. State Pilling Bedworth rule.
18. How does the corrosion product influence further corrosion.
19. What are the factors that influence corrosion?
20. How is the metallic surface prepared by various methods before
21. Explain why magnesium corrodes faster when it is in contact with
copper than when it is in contact with iron.
22. How is Ni plating done by electroless plating?
23. Explain the control of corrosion by the use of sacrificial anodes and by
impressed current cathodic protection.
24. Mention any two differences between electroplating and electroless
25. Bolt and nut made of the same metal is preferred in practice. Why?
26. What is cathodic protection?
27. Discuss the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion.
28. What is paint? What are the constituents and functions of paints?
29. Write in detail about the galvanic corrosion and differential aeration
30. What are corrosion inhibitors? Classify different types of inhibitors with
31. Describe briefly the important parameters involved in electroplating.
32. What is corrosion? What is rust?
33. Why does corrosion of water filled steel tanks occur below water line?
34. Discuss the mechanism of chemical and electrochemical corrosion.
35. Write a note on pitting corrosion, stress corrosion and cathodic
36. What is a sacrificial anode? Give two examples.
37. Define corrosion and explain the various factors influencing corrosion of
a metal.
38. What is pitting corrosion?
39. Write a brief note on Differential aeration corrosion.
40. Discuss how the nature of the metal influences the rate of corrosion.
41. Explain the process of electroplating with a suitable example. Mention
the uses of electroplating.
42. Explain electrochemical theory of corrosion with suitable example.
43. What are the conditions for electrochemical corrosion?
44. How is pilling Bedworth ratio related to the protective capacity of an
oxide layer?
45. What is a sacrificial anode? How does it protect a submerged pipeline?
46. What is electro less plating? Explain electro less plating of nickel with
relevant equations and mention its advantages over electroplating.
47. What are the factors affecting electroplating?
48. Explain electroplating of Gold with a neat flow chart.
49. What are the important constituents of paint? Explain the function of
50. What is meant by throwing power of the plating bath?
51. What are the disadvantages of electro less plating?
52. What are the limitations of electro plating?
53. What is the relation between %P and property of electro less plated
54. What are the applications of electro less plating?
55. How can galvanic corrosion be prevented?
56. If the SVR of Ni, Cr, and W are 1.6, 2.0 and 3.6 respectively, arrange
them in descending order of activity.
57. What type of corrosion will occur on a piece of iron covered with dust?
58. Why does any impure metal corrode faster than pure metal under
identical conditions?
59. What are the draw backs of cathodic protection?
60. Will a piece of steel covered with ice undergo corrosion? Why?