### CS2251 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Most Important Questions - 2014 Edition

Anna University, Chennai

Department of Computer Science Engineering

4th Semester

CS2251 Design and Analysis of Algorithms

Most Important Questions - 2014 Edition

(Regulation 2008)

UNIT I
1. Explain Towers of Hanoi problem and solve it using recursion.
2. Find the time complexity and space complexity of the following problems.
3. Factorial using Recursion.
4. Compute nth Fibonacci Number.
5. Compute xn or exponentiate (x,n).
6. mxn matrix multiplication , mxn matrix addition.
7 Sequential/linear search.
8. Describe best, worst and average case analysis with an example.

UNIT II
1. Explain the binary search algorithm with an example.
2. Explain mimmax problem using Divide and conquer technique. Compute its time complexity.
3. Explain merge sort with an example. Compute its time complexity.
4. Explain Quick sort with an example. Give its time complexity.
5. Solve the knapsack problem using greedy technique.
6. Explain Prim’s algorithm to construct Minimum cost spanning tree.
7. Explain Kruskal’s algorithm to construct Minimum cost spanning tree.
8. Explain Optimal Randomized algorithm to construct Minimum cost spanning tree.
9. Explain single source shortest path algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm).

UNIT III
1. Explain all pairs shortest path algorithm with an eg. Give its time complexity
2. What is multistage graph? Explain with an eg. Write the pseudo code for the finding the minimum cost path using forward approach.
3. What is multistage graph? Explain with an eg. Write the pseudo code for the finding the minimum cost path using backward approach.
4. Write an algorithm for 0/1 knapsack problem.
5. Write and explain an algorithm for BFS and DFS. Give an eg.
6. Give an algorithm to identify articulation points and to construct biconnected components.Explain with an eg.

UNIT IV
1. Explain N-Queens problem using Backtracking.
2. Explain Graph Coloring.
3. Explain sum of subsets.
4. Explain Hamiltonian cycles.
5. Solve Knapsack problem using backtracking.
6. Explain Traveling Salesperson problem using branch and bound techniques.

UNIT V
1. Explain the basic concepts of P, NP, NP-Complete and NP-Hard.
2. Prove a graph problem is NP-Hard.
3. Explain a NP-Hard Scheduling problem.
4. Explain a NP-Hard code generation problem.
5. Explain the concepts of Approximation algorithm.

## Anna University , Chennai computer Science Engineering Department  II Year CSE – IV sem CS2253 Computer Organization and Architecture Most Important Questions – 2014 Edition

### Unit 1

1. Explain the Differences between CISC & RISC
2. Explain the various Instruction types?
3. Write in detail about various addressing modes.
4. Explain the various generations of Computer
5. Explain the Booth’s algorithm for multiplication of signed two’s Complement numbers.                               6. Explain the multiple bus organization in detail.
7. Explain the floating point addition and subtraction
8. State the Non – restoring division technique
9. Draw and explain the flowchart of floating point addition process
10. Explain with a diagram the designs of a fast multiplier using carry save Adder circuit .Give the block diagram for a floating point adder / sub tractor unit and discuss its operation

### UNIT 2

1. Explain the concept of hardwired control unit (16)
2. Explain the concept of micro programmed control unit (16)
3. a. Sketch and explain the multiple bus organization (8)
b. Explain the execution of complete instruction (8)
4. Explain in detail about nano-programming (16)

### UNIT 3

1. Describe in detail about pipeline processing. (16)
2. a. Explain in detail about data hazards (10)
b. Briefly explain about different types of exception. (6)
3. Explain in detail about instruction hazards (16)
4. Explain in detail about the following
a) Influence on instruction set (8)
b) Data path considerations (8)

### UNIT 4

1. Illustrate the characteristics of some common memory technologies. (16)
2. (a)Describe in detail about associative memory. (8)
(b) Comparing paging and segmentation mechanisms for implementing the virtual memory. (8)
3. What is Memory Interleaving? Explain the addressing of multiple modules Memory system. (16)
4. Discuss the different mapping techniques used in cache memories and their relative merits and demerits. (16)
5. What do you mean by virtual memory? Discuss how paging helps in implementing virtual memory. (16)
6. (a) Discuss any six ways of improving the cache performance. (8)
(b) Illustrate memory read and write operation. (8)

### UNIT 5

1. Explain with the block diagram the DMA transfer in a computer System. (16)
2. (a) Describe in detail about IOP organization. (8)
(b) Describe the data transfer method using DMA. (8)
3. Write short notes on the following
(a) Magnetic disk drive (8)
(b) Optical drives (8)
4. Discuss the design of a typical input or output interface. (16)
5. What are interrupts? How are they handled? (16)

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### EC2255 Control Systems – Most Important Questions – 2014

#### (Regulation 2008)

Unit-1

1. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical system shown in fig .and determine the transfer function. (16)

2. Determine the transfer function Y2(S)/F(S) of the system shown in fig. (16)

3. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical rotational system shown in fig. Draw the Torque-voltage and Torque-current electrical analogous circuits. (16)

4. Determine the overall transfer function C(S)/R(S) for the system shown in fig. (16)

5. Obtain the closed loop transfer function C(S)/R(S) of the system whose block diagram is shown in fig. (16)

6. For the system represented by the block diagram shown in fig. Determine C1/R1and C2/R1. (16)

7. Obtain the closed loop transfer function C(S)/R(S) of the system whose block diagram is shown in fig. (16)

8. Find the overall gain of the system whose signal flow graph is shown in fig. (16)

9. Draw a signal flow graph and evaluate the closed loop transfer function of a system whose block is shown in fig. (16)

10. Derive the transfer function for Armature controlled DC servo motor. (16)

11. Derive the transfer function for Field controlled DC servo motor. (16)

Unit-2

1. (a) Derive the expressions and draw the response of first order system for unit step input. (8)

(b) Draw the response of second order system for critically damped case and when input is unit step. (8)

2. Derive the expressions for Rise time, Peak time, and Peak overshoot. (16)

3. A potential control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the

Response of the system for unit step input? (16)

4. Measurements conducted on a Servomechanism show the system response to be

c(t)=1+0.2 ê 60t-1.2 ê –10 t. when subjected to a unit step. Obtain an expression for closed loop transfer function. (16)

5. A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the

response c(t) to the unit step input. Given that ς =0.5.and also calculate rise time, peak time, Maximum overshoot and settling time. (16)

6. A unity feedback control system has an open loop transfer function G(S) = 10/S(S+2). Find the rise time, percentage over shoot, peak time and settling time. ( 16)

7. A closed loop servo is represented by the differential equation, where c is the

displacement of the output shaft, r is the displacement of the input shaft and ( e= r-c) Determine undammed natural frequency, damping ratio and percentage maximum overshoot for unit step input. (16)

8. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function

G(S) = 10(S+2)/ {S2 (S+1)}. Find (a) position, velocity and acceleration error constants.

(b) The steady state error when the input is R(S) where R(S) =3/S –2/S2 +1/3S3 (16)

9. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with unity feedback system is G(S) = 10/ S (0.1S+1).Evaluate the static error constants of the system. Obtain the steady state error of the system when subjected to an input given by the polynomial r(t) = a0 +a1t +a2 /2 t2 . (16)

Unit-3

1. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross over frequencies. G(S) = 10/ S(1+0.4S) (1+0.1S) (16)

2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is

G(S) = 1/ S(1+S)(1+2S) Sketch the Polar plot and determine the Gain margin and Phase margin. (16)

3. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin(S) = 0.75(1+0.2S)/ S (1+0.5S) (1+0.1S) (16)

4. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 10(S+3)/ S(S+2) (S2+4S+100) (16)

5. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function .and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.

G(S) = 10(S+2)(S+4)/ S (S2 -3S+10) (16)

6. Construct the polar plot for the function GH(S) =2(S+1)/ S2. Find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. (16)

7. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross over frequencies. G(S) =KS2 / (1+0.2S) (1+0.02S). Determine the value of K for a gain cross over frequency of 20 rad/sec. (16)

8. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.

G(S) = 400/ S (S+2)(S+10) (16)

9. A unity feed back system has open loop transfer function G(S) = 20/ S(S+2)(S+5). Using Nichol’s chart, determine the closed loop frequency response and estimate all the frequency domain specifications. (16)

10. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S) = 10(1+0.1S)/ S(1+0.01S) (1+S). (16)

11. Write the short notes on correlation between the time and frequency response? (16)

12. What is compensation? Why it is needed for control system? Explain the types of compensation? (16)

13. Realize the basic compensators using electrical network and obtain the transfer function. (16)

14. Design a suitable lead compensators for a system with unity feedback and having open loop transfer function G(S)= K/ {S(S+1) (S+4)} to meet the specifications. (i)Damping ratio=0.5

(ii) Undamped natural frequency. Wn =2 rad/sec. (16)

15. A unity feed back system has an open loop transfer function G(S)= K/ {S(S+1)(0.2S+1). Design a suitable phase lag compensators to achieve following specifications Kv= 8 and Phase margin 40 deg with usual notation. (16)

16. Explain the procedure for lead compensation and lag compensation? (16)

17. Explain the design procedure for lag- lead compensation. (16)

18. Consider a type 1 unity feed back system with an OLTF Gf(S) =K/{S (S+1) (S+4)}. The system is to be compensated to meet the following specifications Kv > 5sec and PM>43 deg. Design suitable lag compensators (16)

Unit-4

1. Using Routh criterion, determine the stability of the system whose Characteristics equation is S4+8S3+18S2+16S+5 =0. (16)

2. F(S)=S6 +S5-2S4-3S3-7S2-4S1-4 =0.Find the number of roots falling in the RHS plane and LHS plane. (16)

3. Draw the Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is

G(S) H(S) =K/{S (S+2) (S+10)}.Determine the range of K for which closed loop

System is stable. (16)

4. Construct Nyquist plot for a feedback control system whose open loop transfer function is given by G(S)H(S) =5/ S(1-S).comment on the stability of open loop and closed loop transfer function. (16)

5. Sketch the Nyquist plot for a system with the open loop transfer function G(S)H(S) =K({1+0.5S) (1+S)} /{ (1+10S) (S-1)). Determine the range of values of K for which the system is stable. (16)

Unit-5

1. Write notes on controllability and absorbability. (16)

2. Explain sampling theorem briefly and sample & hold operation. (16)

3. Explain stability analysis of sampled control system and Jury’s stability. (16)

4. Explain state space representation for descries time system. (8)

5. Explain state space representation for continues time system. (8)

6. Explain the solution for state equation for discrete time system. (8)

7. Explain the solution for state equation for continues time system (8)

8. Explain jury’s stability test. (16)

### EC2254 Linear Integrated Circuits Most Important Questions – 2014 Edition

#### (Regulation 2008)

Unit-1

1. Draw and explain about the equivalent circuit of OP-AMP.

2. Explain about DC characteristics of OP-AMP.

3. Explain in detail about slew rate of an OP-AMP

4. Explain in detail about Widlar current source.

5. Explain briefly about manufacturing process of monolithic ICs.

6. Explain briefly about construction of monolithic bipolar transistor.

7. What is current mirror? Explain

8. Discuss in detail about AC performance characteristics of an op-amp.

9. Explain in briefly about open loop and closed loop configurations.

10. Explain in detail about BJT differential amplifier with active loads.

11. Explain in detail about voltage sources and voltage references.

Unit-2

1. How op-amp can be used as an antilog amplifier?

2. Explain briefly about op-amp integrator.

3. Draw and explain about voltage to current converter.

4. With neat circuit diagram explain about instrumentation amplifier.

5. Explain briefly abut Schmitt trigger with neat diagram.

6. Explain the following in briefly (i). Precision diode (ii). Peak detector

7. Describe briefly about clippers and clampers.

Unit-3

1.Describe the application of PLL.

2.Explain about the gilbert multiplier cell.

3.Derive the expression for voltage to frequency conversion factor.

4.With neat diagram explain the operating principles of PLL.

5.Explain briefly about application of analog multiplier ICs.

6.Explain briefly about Monolithic PLL IC 565.

7.Explain about the variable transconductance technique.

8.Explain about the analog multiplier using emitter coupled transistor technique.

Unit-4

1. Explain the operation of successive approximation type A/D converter,

2. What output voltage would be produced by a D/A converter whose output range is 0 to

10v and whose input binary number is (i).10(for a 2-bit D/A converter) (ii). 0110(for a 4- bit DAC)?

3. Briefly explain about dual slope A/D converter.(

4. What is delta sigma modulation? Explain the A/D conversion using delta modulator.

5. Explain briefly about the specifications of D/A And A/D converters. 6. Explain briefly about the weighted resister Type D/A converter.

7. Describe briefly about R-2R ladder and its types.

8. Discuss about switches for D/A converters briefly.

9. Explain briefly about flash type A/D converter.

Unit-5

1. Explain the operation of op amp as multivibrator.

2. Write short notes on operation of function generator.

3. Write short notes on

(i). Tuned amplifiers

(ii). Power amplifiers

4. Explain in detail about the function of 555 timer in monostable and derive the

expression for frequency of oscillation.

5. Explain the operation of switching regulator.

6. Explain the functional diagram of LM 380 power amplifier.

7. Explain the following in briefly

(i) Triangular wave generator

(ii) Sawtooth generator

8. Explain in detail about the functional diagram of ICL8038.

9. Explain in detail about the function of IC 723 general purpose regulators.

10. Explain the following in detail

(i) isolation amplifier

(ii) opto coupler

### EC2253 Electromagnetic Fields Most Important Questions – 2014 Edition #### Most Important Questions

Unit-1

1. State gauss law for the electric and magnetic fields. Derive its integral and differential forms. Make at least two conclusions

2. A positive charge Qv c/m3 occupies the volume of a sphere. At a point in the interior at a distance of r from the centre, a small probe of charge of +q is inserted. What is the force acting on the probe charge?

3. State ampere’s force law. How it is different from coulombs law?

4. Explain the tracing of a charged particle motion in x-y plane, in the region of crossed electric field B=B0 az.Assume that the charge q having mass m start at t=0 at that point with initial velocity v= vx ax + vyoay.What is the result for B0 = 0?

5. Prove that divergence of a curl of avector is zero,using stokes theorem

6. A magnetic field H= 3 cosx ax+z cosx ay,A/m for z 0

= 0 for z<0

is applied to a perfectly conducting surface in xy plane. Find the current density on the conductor surface

7. Let A=5 ax and B= 4 ax+ By. Find by such that, angle between A and B is 45. If B also has a term Bz az, what relationship must exist between by By and Bz

8. A uniform line charge =25 nc/m lies on the line, x=-3m and y=4m, in free space. Find the electric field intensity at a point(2,3,15)m

9. Two small identical conducting sphere have charges of 2nc and -1nc respectively. When they are separated by 4cm apart, find the magnitude of the force between them. If they are brought into contacts and then again separated by 4cm, find the force between them

10. Obtain the expressions for D and E using gauss’s law

Unit-2

1. Derive the expression for coefficient of coupling in terms of mutual and self inductances

2. An iron ring with a cross sectioned of 3 cm2 and a mean circumference of 15 cm is wound with 250 turns wire carrying a current of 0.3A. The relative permeability of the ring is 1500. Calculate the flux established in the ring

3. Obtain the expressions for D and E using Gauss’s law

4. Write short notes on faradays laws of electromagnetic induction

5. Derive the electrostatic boundary conditions at the interface of two dielectric media. If one of the medium is conductor, discuss the field pattern

6. Discuss electric field in free space, dielectric and in conductors

7. Derive the expression for curl H=J

8. Explain the concepts of scalar magnetic potential and vector magnetic potential

Unit-3

1. Using the concept of magnetic vector potential, derive Biot Savart’s law and amperes law

2. Find the magnetic flux density at the centre of a square of sides equal to 5 cm and carrying 10A of current

3. List the properties of dielectric materials

4. Derive the expression for coefficient of coupling in terms of mutual and self inductances

5. Derive the expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with two dielectric media

6. Derive an expression for inductance of a solenoid with N turns and l meter length carrying a current of I amperes

7. Explain in detail the principle of operation of a motor

8. Derive H due to a circular current loop and extend the same to compute H due to a long solenoid?

9. Derive the boundary relation at the boundary between a conductor and dielectric

Unit-4

1. Derive general field relations for time varying electric and magnetic fields using Maxwell’s equation

2. On the basis of the analysis of the transmission line compare circuit theory and field theory

3. With necessary explanation, derive the Maxwell’s equation in differential and integral forms

4. What do you mean by displacement current? Write down the expression for the total current density

5. Derive the expression for total power flow in coaxial cable

6. Derive Maxwell’s equations derived from amperes law in integral and point forms

7. Explain briefly about the motional emf and derive an expression for it

8. Discuss the pointing sector and pointing theorem

9. Define faradays laws. What are the different ways of emf generation? Explain with governing equation and suitable example for each

Unit-5

1. Derive wave equations in phasor form and also derive for 2. Explain about the propagation of EM waves in good conductor

3. Derive the transmission and reflection coefficients for the electromagnetic waves. Discuss the above for an open line and a short circuited line

4. Derive the electromagnetic wave equations

5. State pointing vector and establish its usage in EM wave analysis

6. Discuss the wave motion in good conductors

7. Explain the reflection of plane waves by a perfect dielectric

8. Derive the expression for input impedance and standing wave ratio of transmission lines

9. Define Brewster angle and derive its expression

10. Derive the relationship between electric and magnetic fields

### EC2252 Communication Theory – Most Important Questions 2014 Editions

#### Most Important Questions – 2014 Edition

UNIT-1 AMPLITUDE MODULATION

1. Explain the principles of operation of balanced modulator used for generating DSBSC

2. How SSB is generated? Explain

3. Explain in detail the methods of generating AM signal and derive the frequency spectrum of AM signal

4. Describe how AM generation is done using nonlinear circuits. Derive the output voltage expression for the circuit

5. Write short notes on VSB generation

6. Explain the working principles of linear modulators for generating AM.

7. Explain the principle of synchronous detection

8. Discuss the different distortions that occur in diode detectors

UNIT-2 ANGLE MODULATION

1. Derive an expression for a single tone FM signal and draw its frequency spectrum With a help of neat circuit explain Armstron method of generating FM signal
2. Explain the indirect method of generation of FM wave &any one method of demodulation of FM wave
3. Explain in detail the tansmission bandwidth of FM signal with diagrams
4. Explain how FM to PM and PM to FM is obtained
5. Explain the operation of direct FM tewrasmitter
6. Obtain the expession for narrow band and wide band FM
7. Explain how amplitude limiting is obtained in an FM ratio detectors
8. Explain the Wide Band Frequency Modulation
9. Explain the detection of FM using Foster Seely Discriminator

UNIT-3 NOISE PERFORMANCE OF DSB- SSB RECEIVERS

1. Explain the following terms 1) shot noise 2)noise temperature 3)noise figure
2. Derive the quadrature and in phase components of a narrow band process Explain how various noise are generated and method of representing them
3. Write short notes on noise temperature & noise figure
4. Derive the effective noise temperature of cascaded amplifier.
5. Explain the narrow band representation of noise in terms of envelope and phase components

UNIT-4 NOISE PERFORMANCE OF AM AND FM RECEIVERS

1. Derive the noise power spectral density of the FM demodulator and explain its performance with diagram
2. Explain the noise performance of AM system using envelope detection
3. Compare the performance of noise in AM & FM
4. Obtain the expresion for SNR in PM system
5. Obtain the expresion for SNR in AM system using envelope detector in the receiver

UNIT -5 INFORMATION THEORY

1. Derive the channel capacity of binary symmetric channel
2. Write a notes on binary symmetric channel ,discrete channel capacity , continous channel capacity &channel capacity theorem
3. Find the mutual information &channel capacity of the channel shown.
4. Give the algorithm for Shanon -Fano coding
5. Give the algorithm for Huffman coding

### EC2251 Electronic Circuits II – Most Important Questions – 2014 Editions

#### (Regulation 2008)

UNIT I

1. Explain about various feedback networks with diagrams

2. Determine the input and output resistance of current shunt feedback network

3. Discuss the Nyquist criterian for stability of feedback amplifiers.

4. What is the effect of negative feedback on distortion , noise, input and output impedance of feedback amplifiers?

5. Explain current series feedback amplifier with diagram

UNIT II

1. Explain about RC phase shift oscillator

2. Derive the frequency response of wien bridge oscillator

3. How clap oscillator differ from colpitts oscillator

4. Explain any one type of LC oscillator

5. Explain Armstrong oscillator and derive frequency of oscillation

UNIT III

1. Discuss about double tuned amplifier with diagram

2. Explain class C tuned amplifier with diagram

3. Explain Hazeltine Neutralization model

4. Explain in detail single tuned amplifier with diagrams

5. Derive the efficiency of class B tuned amplifier

UNIT IV

1. What is the response of low pass RC circuit for step , pulse and square inputs

2. Explain the working principle of Bistable multivibrator

3. Explain transistor switching times

4. Explain in detail about Astable multivibratior

5. Explain any one type of clippers

6. Explain about clampers

UNIT V

1. Explain about Miller integrator with diagrams

2. Discuss about current timebase circuit with suiable diagrams

3. Explain blocking LC oscillator with base timing

4. Explain about free running blocking oscillator

5. Explain the principle of Astable multivibrator with emitter base timing