**AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS**

**ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CHENNAI :: CHENNAI 600 113**

**CURRICULUM 2010**

**B.E. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING CURRICULA AND SYLLABI FOR III**

**SEMESTER III**

(Applicable to the students admitted from the Academic year 2010 – 2011 onwards)

SL. | COURSE | COURSE TITLE | L | T | P | C | ||

No. | CODE | |||||||

THEORY | ||||||||

1. | 181301 | Transforms and Partial Differential | 3 | 1 | 0 | 4 | ||

Equations | ||||||||

2. | 131301 | Measurements and Instrumentation | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

3. | 131302 | Electromagnetic Theory | 3 | 1 | 0 | 4 | ||

4. | 185302 | Environmental Science and Engineering | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

5. | 131303 | Electronic Devices and Circuits | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

6. | 131304 | Data Structures and Algorithms | 3 | 1 | 0 | 4 | ||

PRACTICAL | ||||||||

1. | 131351 | Electron Devices and Circuits Laboratory | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2 | ||

2. | 131352 | Data Structures and Algorithms | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2 | ||

Laboratory | ||||||||

3 | 131353 | Measurements & Instrumentation | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2 | ||

Laboratory | ||||||||

TOTAL | 18 | 3 | 9 | 27 |

181301 TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS | 3 1 0 4 |

(Common to all branches) | |

OBJECTIVES |

The course objective is to develop the skills of the students in the areas of Transforms and Partial Differtial Equations. This will be necessary for their effective studies in a large number of engineering subjects like heat conduction, communication systems, electro-optics and electromagnetic theory. The course will also serve as a prerequisite for post graduate and specialized studies and research.

**1.**

**FOURIER SERIES**

**9**

Dirichlet’s conditions – General Fourier series – Odd and even functions – Half range sine series – Half range cosine series – Complex form of Fourier Series – Parseval’s identify – Harmonic Analysis.

**2.**

**FOURIER TRANSFORM**

**9**

Fourier integral theorem (without proof) – Cosine transforms – Properties – Transforms of – Parseval’s identity.

Fourier transform pair – Sine and simple functions – Convolution theorem

**3.**

**PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS**

**9**

Formation of partial differential equations - Lagrange’s linear equation - Solution of standard types of first order partial differential equations – Linear partial differential equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients.

**4.**

**APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS**

**9**

Solutions of one dimensional wave equation – One dimensional equation of heat conduction – Steady state solution of two-dimensional equation of heat equation (Insulated edges excluded) – Fourier series solutions in cartesian coordinates.

**5.**

**Z -TRANSFORM AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS**

**9**

Z-transform - Elementary properties – Inverse Z – transform – Convolution theorem - Formation of difference equations – Solution of difference equations using Z - transform.

**TUTORIALS= 15**

**Total = 60**

**TEXTBOOKS**

- Grewal B.S, ‘Higher Engineering Mathematics’, 39
^{th}Edition, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 2007

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Bali.N.P. and Manish Goyal ‘A Textbook of Engineering Mathematics’, Seventh Edition, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

2. Ramana.B.V. ‘Higher Engineering Mathematics’ Tata Mc-GrawHill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.

3. Glyn James ‘ ADVANCED MODERN ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS’, Third edition – Pearson education – 2007.

4. ERWIN KREYSZIG ‘ ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS’ Eighth Edition – WILEY INDIA – 2007.

**131301 MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION**

**3 0 0 3**

**AIM**

To provide adequate knowledge in electrical instruments and measurements techniques.

**OBJECTIVES**

To make the student have a clear knowledge of the basic laws governing the operation of the instruments, relevant circuits and their working.

i. Introduction to general instrument system, error, calibration etc.

ii. Emphasis is laid on analog and digital techniques used to measure voltage, current, energy and power etc.

iii. To have an adequate knowledge of comparison methods of measurement.

iv. Elaborate discussion about storage & display devices.

v. Exposure to various transducers and data acquisition system.

**1.**

**INTRODUCTION**

**9**

Functional elements of an instrument – Static and dynamic characteristics – Errors in measurement – Statistical evaluation of measurement data – Standards and calibration.

**2.**

**ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS**

**9**

Principle and types of analog and digital voltmeters, ammeters, multimeters – Single and three phase wattmeters and energy meters – Magnetic measurements – Determination of B-H curve and measurements of iron loss – Instrument transformers – Instruments for measurement of frequency and phase.

**3.**

**COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS**

**9**

D.C & A.C potentiometers, D.C & A.C bridges, transformer ratio bridges, self-balancing bridges. Interference & screening – Multiple earth and earth loops - Electrostatic and electromagnetic interference – Grounding techniques.

**4.**

**STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES**

**9**

Magnetic disk and tape – Recorders, digital plotters and printers, CRT display, digital CRO, LED, LCD & dot matrix display – Data Loggers

**5.**

**TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS**

**9**

Classification of transducers – Selection of transducers – Resistive, capacitive & inductive transducers – Piezoelectric, optical and digital transducers – Elements of data acquisition system – A/D, D/A converters – Smart sensors.

**L = 45 Total = 45 Periods**

**4**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. E.O. Doebelin, ‘Measurement Systems – Application and Design’, Tata McGraw Hill publishing company, 2003.

2. A.K. Sawhney, ‘A Course in Electrical & Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation’, Dhanpat Rai and Co, 2004.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. A.J. Bouwens, ‘Digital Instrumentation’, Tata McGraw Hill, 1997.

2. D.V.S. Moorthy, ‘Transducers and Instrumentation’, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, 2007.

3. H.S. Kalsi, ‘Electronic Instrumentation’, Tata McGraw Hill, II Edition 2004.

4. Martin Reissland, ‘Electrical Measurements’, New Age International (P) Ltd., Delhi, 2001.

5. J. B. Gupta, ‘A Course in Electronic and Electrical Measurements’, S. K. Kataria & Sons, Delhi, 2003.

**131302**

**ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY**

**3 1 0 4**

**AIM**

This subject aims to provide the student an understanding of the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their applications in Electrical Engineering.

**OBJECTIVES**

To impart knowledge on

i. Concepts of electrostatics, electrical potential, energy density and their applications.

ii. Concepts of magnetostatics, magnetic flux density, scalar and vector potential and its applications.

iii. Faraday’s laws, induced emf and their applications.

iv. Concepts of electromagnetic waves and Poynting vector.

**1.**

**INTRODUCTION**

**8**

Sources and effects of electromagnetic fields – Vector fields – Different co-ordinate systems- vector calculus – Gradient, Divergence and Curl - Divergence theorem – Stoke’s theorem.

**2.**

**ELECTROSTATICS**

**10**

Coulomb’s Law – Electric field intensity – Field due to point and continuous charges – Gauss’s law and application – Electric potential – Electric field and equipotential plots – Electric field in free space, conductors, dielectric -Dielectric polarization - Dielectric strength - Electric field in multiple dielectrics – Boundary conditions, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations – Capacitance- Energy density.

**3.**

**MAGNETOSTATICS**

**9**

Lorentz Law of force, magnetic field intensity – Biot–savart Law - Ampere’s Law – Magnetic field due to straight conductors, circular loop, infinite sheet of current – Magnetic flux density (B) – B in free space, conductor, magnetic materials – Magnetization – Magnetic field in multiple media – Boundary conditions – Scalar and vector potential – Magnetic force – Torque – Inductance – Energy density – Magnetic circuits.

**4.**

**ELECTRODYNAMIC FIELDS**

**8**

Faraday’s laws, induced emf – Transformer and motional EMF – Forces and Energy in quasi-stationary Electromagnetic Fields - Maxwell’s equations (differential and integral forms) – Displacement current – Relation between field theory and circuit theory.

**5.**

**ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES**

**9**

Generation – Electro Magnetic Wave equations – Wave parameters; velocity, intrinsic impedance, propagation constant – Waves in free space, lossy and lossless dielectrics, conductors-skin depth, Poynting vector – Plane wave reflection and refraction – Transmission lines – Line equations – Input impedances – Standing wave ratio and power.

**L = 45 T = 15 Total : 60 Periods**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Mathew N. O. SADIKU, ‘Elements of Electromagnetics’, Oxford University press Inc. First India edition, 2007.

2. Ashutosh Pramanik, ‘Electromagnetism – Theory and Applications’, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2006.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Joseph. A.Edminister, ‘Theory and Problems of Electromagnetics’, Second edition, Schaum Series, Tata McGraw Hill, 1993.

2. William .H.Hayt, ‘Engineering Electromagnetics’, Tata McGraw Hill edition, 2001.

3. Kraus and Fleish, ‘Electromagnetics with Applications’, McGraw Hill International Editions, Fifth Edition, 1999.

**185302**

**ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING**

**3 0 0 3**

(Common to EEE, EIE, ICE, Biotech, Chemical, Fashion, Plastic, Polymer & Textile)

**AIM**

The aim of this course is to create awareness in every engineering graduate about the importance of environment, the effect of technology on the environment and ecological balance and make him/her sensitive to the environment problems in every professional endeavour that he/she participates.

**OBJECTIVES**

· At the end of this course the student is expected to understand what constitutes the environment, what are precious resources in the environment, how to conserve these resources, what is the role of a human being in maintaining a clean environment and useful environment for the future generations and how to maintain ecological balance and preserve bio-diversity.

**INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES 9**

Definition, Scope and Importance – Need For Public Awareness – Forest Resources:-Use and Over - Exploitation, Deforestation, Case Studies, Timber Extraction, Mining, Dams and their Ground Water, Floods, Drought, Conflicts Over Water, Dams - Benefits and Problems – Mineral Resources:- Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People – Water Resources:- Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation, Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources, Case Studies – Food Resources: World Food Problems, Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing, Effects of Modern Agriculture, Fertilizer- Pesticide Problems, Water Logging, salinity, Case Studies – Energy Resources:- Growing Energy Needs, Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources, Use of Alternate Energy Sources, Case Studies – Land Resources:- Land as a Resource, Land Degradation, Man Induced Landslides, Soil Erosion and Desertification – Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources – Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles. Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets – River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain.

**ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY**

**9**

Concepts of an Ecosystem – Structure and Function of an Ecosystem – Producers, Consumers and Decomposers – Energy Flow in the Ecosystem – Ecological Succession – Food Chains, Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids – Introduction, Types, Characteristic Features, Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: Genetic, Species and Ecosystem Diversity – Biogeographical Classification of India – Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use, Productive Use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Option Values – Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels – India as a Mega-Diversity Nation – Hot-Spots of Biodiversity – Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss, Poaching of Wildlife, Man-Wildlife Conflicts – endangered and Endemic Species of India – Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity.

Field Study of Common Plants, Insects and Birds - Field Study of Simple Ecosystems – Pond, River, Hill Slopes, etc.

**ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION**

**9**

Definition – Causes, Effects and Control Measures of:- (A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal Pollution

(G) Nuclear Hazards – Soil Waste Management:- Causes, Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:- Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and

Landslides. | |

Field Study of Local Polluted Site – Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural | |

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT | 9 |

From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development – Urban Problems Related To energy – Water conservation, Rain Water Harvesting, Watershed Management – Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People, Its Problems and Concerns, Case Studies – Environmental Ethics:- Issues and Possible Solutions – Climate Change, Global Warming, Acid Rain, Ozone Layer Depletion, Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust, Case Studies – Wasteland Reclamation – Consumerism and Waste Products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation – Public Awareness.

**HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT**

**9**

Population Growth, Variation Among Nations – Population Explosion – Family Welfare Programme – environment and Human Health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV /AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health – Case Studies.

**L = 45 TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Masters, G.M., “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science”, Pearson Education Pvt., Ltd., 2

^{nd}Edition, 2004.2. Miller, T.G. Jr., “Environmental Science”, Wadsworth Pub. Co.

3. Townsend C., Harper, J. and Begon, M., “Essentials of Ecology”, Blackwell Science, 2003.

4. Trivedi, R.K., and Goel, P.K., “Introduction to Air Pollution”, Techno- Science Publications.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. | Erach, B., “The Biodiversity of India”, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, India. |

1. | Trivedi, R.K., “Handbook of Environmental Law’s, Rules, Guidelines,Compliances |

and Standards”, Vol - I and II, Envio Media. | |

2. | Cunningham., Cooper, W.P. and Gorhani, T.H., “Environmental Encyclopedia”, Jaico |

Publishing House, Mumbai, 2001. |

4. Wages, K.D., “Environmental Management”, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 1998.

**131303**

**ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS**

**3 0 0 3**

**AIM**

To study the characteristics and applications of electronic devices.

**OBJECTIVES**

To acquaint the students with construction, theory and characteristics of the following electronic devices:

i) p-n junction diode

ii) Bipolar transistor

iii) Field effect transistor

iv) LED, LCD and other photo electronic devices

v) Power control / regulator devices

**1. PN DIODE AND ITS APPLICATIONS**

**9**

PH junction diode-VI characteristics – Rd, temperature effects – Drift ad diffusion currents – switching – Rectifiers: HWR, FWR, BR, filters-Zener diode – VI characteristics, Regulators (series and shunt), LED, LCD characteristics and applications.

**2. BJT AND ITS APPLICATIONS**

**9**

Junction transistor – Transistor construction – Input and output characteristics – CE, CB and CC configurations – hybrid model – Analytical expressions – switching – RF application – Power transistors – Opto couplers.

**3. FET AND ITS APPLICATIONS**

**9**

FET – VI characteristics, VP, JFET – small signal model – LF and HF equivalent circuits – CS and CD amplifiers –cascade and cascade – Darlington connection – MOSFET - Characteristics – enhancement and depletion

**4. AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS**

**9**

Differential amplifiers: CM and DM – condition for ofc-feedback amplifiers – stability – Voltage / current, series / shunt feedback – oscillators – LC, RC, crystal

**5. PULSE CIRCUITS**

**9**

RC wave shaping circuits – Diode clampers and clippers – Multivibrators – Schmitt triggers – UJT based saw tooth oscillators.

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOK**

1.Paynter, “Introductory lectronic devices and circuits, 2006, PHI 2.David Bell “Electronic Devices and Circuits” 2007, PHI

**REFERENCES**

1.Theodre F.Boghert, “Electronic Devices & Circuits” Pearson Education, VI Edition, 2003

2. Rashid, “Microelectronic circuits” Thomson Publication, 1999

3. B.P.Singh & Rekha Sing, “Electronic Devices and Integrated Circuits” Pearson Education, 2006.

131304 | DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS | 3 1 0 4 |

(Common to EEE, EIE & ICE) |

**Aim:**To master the design and applications of linear, tree, and graph structures. To

**understand various algorithm design and analysis techniques.**

**UNIT I**

**LINEAR STRUCTURES**

**9**

Abstract Data Types (ADT) – List ADT – array-based implementation – linked list implementation – cursor-based linked lists – doubly-linked lists – applications of lists – Stack ADT – Queue ADT – circular queue implementation – Applications of stacks and queues

**UNIT II**

**TREE STRUCTURES**

**9**

Need for non-linear structures – Tree ADT – tree traversals – left child right sibling data structures for general trees – Binary Tree ADT – expression trees – applications of trees – binary search tree ADT

**UNIT III**

**BALANCED SEARCH TREES AND INDEXING**

**9**

AVL trees – Binary Heaps – B-Tree – Hashing – Separate chaining – open addressing – Linear probing

**UNIT IV**

**GRAPHS**

**9**

Definitions – Topological sort – breadth-first traversal - shortest-path algorithms – minimum spanning tree – Prim's and Kruskal's algorithms – Depth-first traversal – biconnectivity – euler circuits – applications of graphs

UNIT V | ALGORITHM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS | 9 |

Greedy | algorithms – Divide and conquer – Dynamic programming – backtracking – |

branch and bound – Randomized algorithms – algorithm analysis – asymptotic notations – recurrences – NP-complete problems

**L : 15 TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS**

- M. A. Weiss, “Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C”, Pearson Education Asia, 2002.

- ISRD Group, “Data Structures using C”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2006.

**REFERENCES**

- A. V. Aho, J. E. Hopcroft, and J. D. Ullman, “Data Structures and Algorithms”, Pearson Education, 1983.

- R. F. Gilberg, B. A. Forouzan, “Data Structures: A Pseudocode approach with C”, Second Edition, Thomson India Edition, 2005.

- Sara Baase and A. Van Gelder, “Computer Algorithms”, Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2000.

- T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, "Introduction to algorithms", Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Ltd, 2001.

131351 | ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LABORATORY | L T P C |

(B.E. (EEE), B.E. (E&I) and B.E. (I & C) | 0 0 3 2 | |

(Revised) |

- Characteristics of Semiconductor diode and Zener diode.

- Characteristics of Transistor under common emitter, common collector and common base configurations.

- Characteristic of FET.

- Characteristic of UJT.

- Characteristics of SCR, DIAC and TRIAC.

- Photo diode, phototransistor Characteristics and study of light activated relay circuit.

- Static characteristics of Thermistors.

- Single phase half wave and full wave rectifiers with inductive and capacitive filters.

- Differential ampliers using FET.

- Study of CRO.

- Series and Parallel reasonance circuits.

- Realization of Passive filters.

**P:**

**45 Total : 45**

**12**

**REQUIREMENT FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS**

S.No. | Description of Equipment | Quantity | Quantity | Deficiency | |

required | available | % | |||

1. | Regulated Power Supply | 15 | |||

2. | Dual Tree CRO (20 MHz) | 15 | |||

3. | Function Generator | 15 | |||

4. | 3 ^{1/2} Digit digital multimeter | 10 | |||

5. | Bread Boards | 40 | |||

6. | Transistor | 25 Nos. | |||

7. | JFET | 10 Nos. | |||

8. | Diode | 10 Nos. | |||

9. | Zener Diode | 5 Nos. | |||

10. | UJT | 5 Nos. | |||

11. | Photo Diode | 5 Nos. | |||

12. | Photo Transistor | 5 Nos. | |||

13. | Thermistors | 5 Nos. | |||

14. | OP-amp | 10 Nos. | |||

15. | Milli Ammeter (0-100mA) | 15 Nos. | |||

16. | Micro Ammeter (0-50µA) | 10 Nos. | |||

17. | Low range voltmeter (0-30V) | 10 Nos. | |||

18. | Resistor of various ranges | 50 Nos. | |||

19. | Capacitors of various ranges | 50 Nos. | |||

20. | Connecting wires | Sufficient Nos | |||

**13**

131352 | DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS LABORATORY | 0 0 3 2 |

(Common to EEE, EIE& ICE) |

**Aim:**

To develop skills in design and implementation of data structures and their applications.

1. Implement singly and doubly linked lists.

2. Represent a polynomial as a linked list and write functions for polynomial addition.

3. Implement stack and use it to convert infix to postfix expression

4. Implement array-based circular queue and use it to simulate a producer-consumer problem.

5. Implement an expression tree. Produce its pre-order, in-order, and post-order traversals.

6. Implement binary search tree.

7. Implement insertion in AVL trees.

8. Implement priority queue using heaps

9. Implement hashing techniques

10. Perform topological sort on a directed graph to decide if it is acyclic.

11. Implement Dijkstra's algorithm using priority queues

12. Implement Prim's and Kruskal's algorithms

13. Implement a backtracking algorithm for Knapsack problem

14. Implement a branch and bound algorithm for traveling salesperson problem

15. Implement any randomized algorithm.

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**REQUIREMENT FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS**

S.No. | Description of Equipment | Quantity | Quantity | Deficiency |

required | available | % | ||

Hardware Required | ||||

1. | Computer(Pentium 4) | 40 Nos with | ||

one server | ||||

2. | Dot matrix printer | 3 Nos | ||

3. | Laser Printer | 2 Nos | ||

4. | UPS (5 KVA) | 2 | ||

Software Required | ||||

5. | Turbo C | 40 Nodes | ||

**14**

131353 | MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY | 0 0 3 2 |

AIM |

The aim of this lab is to fortify the students with an adequate work experience in the measurement of different quantities and also the expertise in handling the instruments involved.

**OBJECTIVE**

To train the students in the measurement of displacement, resistance, inductance, torque and angle etc., and to give exposure to AC, DC bridges and transient measurement.

1. Study of displacement and pressure transducers

2. AC bridges.

3. DC bridges.

4. Instrumentation amplifiers.

5. A/D and D/A converters.

6. Study of transients.

7. Calibration of single-phase energy meter.

8. Calibration of current transformer.

9. Measurement of three phase power and power factor.

10. Measurement of iron loss.

**P = 45 Total = 45**

**15**

**Detailed Syllabus**

**1(a) Study of Displacement Transducer - LVDT**

**Aim**

To study the operation of LVDT

**Objectives**

1. To study the basic principle of LVDT.

2. Study of signal conditioning circuit.

3. Study of LVDT as transducer.

**Exercise**

- Draw the characteristic curve for a given LVDT.

- Find the residual voltage.

- Fluid the non-electrical quantity displacement interms of voltage.

Equipment | ||

1. | LVDT kit | – 1 No |

2. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

1(b) | Study of Pressure Transducer | |

Aim | ||

To study the operation of bourdon tube |

**Objectives**

1. To study the basic principle of Bourdon tube.

2. Study of Bourdon tube as transducer.

**Exercise**

1. Draw the characteristic curve for a given Bourdon tube i.e. pressure vs. o/p (V or I).

2. Measure the non-electrical quantity pressure interms of voltage or current.

**Equipment**

1. Bourdon pressure transducer kit – 1 No

2. | Foot pump | – 1 No |

3. | Voltmeter | – 1 No |

4. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

**16**

**2.**

**AC BRIDGES**

**a) Maxwell’s Inductance – Capacitance Bridge**

**Aim**

To find the unknown inductance and Q factor of a given coil.

**Objective**

1. To find the unknown inductance of the given coil using bridge circuit.

2. To study that Maxwell inductance, capacitance bridge is suitable for the measurement of law Q coils.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters.

2. Fluid Q factor of the coil.

3. Fluid unknown Inductance.

Equipment | ||

1. | Maxwell’s inductance Capacitance Bridge kit – 1 No | |

2. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

3. | Unknown Inductance | – 1 No |

**b) Schering Bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the unknown capacitance using Schering bridge.

**Objective**

1. To measure the unknown capacitance.

2. To study about dissipation factor.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters.

2. Find the dissipation factor.

3. Fluid the unknown capacitance.

**Equipment**

1. | Schering Bridge kit | – 1 No |

2. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

3. | Unknown capacitance | – 1 No |

**17**

**3.**

**DC Bridges**

**a) Wheat Stone Bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the given medium resistance using Wheatstone Bridge.

**Objective**

1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalanced condition.

2. To study the sensitivity of bridge.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge for the given parameters.

2. Find the unknown resistance.

3. Find the sensitivity of Bridge.

**Equipment**

1. | Wheat stone Bridge kit | – 1 No |

2. | Unknown resistance | – 1 No |

3. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

**b) Kelvin’s Double bridge**

**Aim**

To measure the given low resistance using Kelvin’s double bridge method.

**Objective**

1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalance condition.

2. To study the sensitivity of bridge.

**Exercise**

1. Design a bridge for the given parameters.

2. Find the unknown low resistance.

3. Find the sensitivity of bridge.

**Equipment**

1. | Kelvin Double bridge kit | – 1 No |

2. | Unknown resistance | – 1 No |

3. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

**18**

**4.**

**Instrumentation Amplifier**

**Aim**

To study the working of instrumentation amplifier.

**Objective**

1. To study the characteristic of operational amplifier.

2. To study the use of operational amplifier as instrumentation amplifier.

**Exercise**

1. Measure the output voltage for varying input voltage.

2. Calculate the output voltage theoretically.

3. Calculate the error.

**Equipment**

1. | Operational Amplifier – 1 No | |

2. | Resistors | – 1 No |

3. | RPS | – 1 No |

4. | Voltmeter | – 1 No |

5. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

5(a) | A/D Converter | |

Aim |

To design and test a 4 bit A/D converter

1. Successive approximation type

2. Ramp type

**Objective**

1. To study the converstion of analog I/P voltage to digital o/p volage.

2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier

**Exercise**

1. Given 4 bit analog input is converterd to digital output

2. Verify the practical output with theoretical output

**Equipment**

1. | IC 741 | – 1 No |

2. | DC trainer kit | – 1 No |

3. | RPS | – 1 No |

4. | Resistor | – 1 No |

5. | CRO | – 1 No |

**19**

**(b) D/A Converter**

**Aim**

To design and test a 4 bit D/A converter

1. Weighted resistor technique

2. R-2R ladder network

**Objective**

1. To study the conversion of binary voltage to analog o/p voltage

2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier

**Exercise**

1. Given 4 bit binary input is converted to analog output

2. Verify the practical o/p with theoretical o/p

**Experiment**

1. | IC 741 | – 1 No |

2. | DC Trainer kit – 1 No | |

3. | RPS | – 1 No |

4. | Resistor | – 1 No |

5. | CRO | – 1 No |

6. | Study of Transients |

**Aim**

To study the transient response of the given system

**Objective**

- To study the transient behaviour of the given system

- To study the effects of transients

**Exercise**

- Draw the response curve for the given system

- Find the time when the error is minimum

Equipment | ||

1. | Resistance | – 1 No |

2. | Capacitance | – 1 No |

3. | RPS | – 1 No |

4. | Voltmeter | – 1 No |

5. | Multimeter | – 1 No |

**20**

**7. Calibration of Single-Phase Energy Meter**

**Aim**

To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power factors

**Objectives**

1. To study the working of energy meter

2. Too accurately calibrate the meter at unity and other power factor

3. To study the % of errors for the given energy meters

**Exercise**

1. Measure the experimental energy consumed

2. Calculate the theoretical energy

3. Calculate the percentage of error

4. Draw the calibration curve

**Equipment**

1. | Energy meter | – 1 No |

2. | Wattmeter | – 1 No |

3. | Stop watch | – 1 No |

4. | M.I Ammeter | – 1 No |

5. | M.I Voltmeter | – 1 No |

**21**

**8.**

**Calibration of Current Transformer**

**Aim**

To study the working of current transformer

**Objective**

1. To study the current transformation concept

2. To study the efficiency of a given current transformer

3. To study the loss components in the circuit

**Exercise**

1. Draw the curve primary current Vs secondary current

2. Observe the o/p for lamp load

3. Calculate the efficiency

**Equipment**

1. | Current Transformer – 1 No | |

2. | Lamp Load | – 1 No |

3. | Voltmeter | – 1 No |

4. | Ammeter | – 1 No |

9. | Measurement of 3 Phase Power And Power Factor | |

Aim | ||

To conduct a suitable experiment on a 3-phase load connected in star or delta to | ||

measure the three phase power and power factor using 2 wattmeter method. |

**Objectives**

1. To study the working of wattmeter

2. To accurately measure the 3 phase power

3. To accurately measure the powerfactor

4. To study the concept of star connected load and delta connected load

**Exercise**

1. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive inductive load.

2. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive capacitive load.

**Equipment**

1. | 3 phase Auto transformer | – 1 No | |

2. | M.I Ammeter | – 1 No | |

3. | M.I Voltmeter | – 1 No | |

4. | Wattmeter | – 1 No |

**22**

**10. Measurement of Iron Loss (Maxwell Bridge)**

**Aim**

To determine the iron losses in magnetic material using bridge method

**Objective**

1. To study about hysterisis loss

2. To study about eddy current loss

**Exercise**

1. Measure the current

2. Calculate iron loss

3. Calculate AC permeability

4. Draw phasor diagram

**Equipment**

1. | Maxwell bridge set up | – 1 No |

2. | Ring specimen | – 1 No |

3. | Ammeter | – 1 No |

4. | Galvanometer | – 1 No |