### Data Structure and Algorithm - Viva Questions

1. What is data structure?
A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored, but also their
relationship to each other. Advance knowledge about the relationship between data items allows
designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data.

2. List out the areas in which data structures are applied extensively?
1. Compiler Design,
2. Operating System,
3. Database Management System,
4. Statistical analysis package,
5. Numerical Analysis,
6. Graphics,
7. Artificial Intelligence,
8. Simulation

3. What are the major data structures used in the following areas : RDBMS, Network data
model and Hierarchical data model.
1. RDBMS = Array (i.e. Array of structures)
2. Network data model = Graph
3. Hierarchical data model = Trees

4. If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer
type will you use?
The heterogeneous linked list contains different data types in its nodes and we need a link, pointer to
connect them. It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. So we go for void pointer. Void
pointer is capable of storing pointer to any type as it is a generic pointer type.

5. Minimum number of queues needed to implement the priority queue?
Two. One queue is used for actual storing of data and another for storing priorities.

6. What is the data structures used to perform recursion?
Stack. Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its 'caller' so knows whom to
return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return
Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative (non-recursive) function. Even when such
equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used.

7. What are the notations used in Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions using prefix and
postfix forms?
Polish and Reverse Polish notations.

8. Convert the expression ((A + B) * C - (D - E) ^ (F + G)) to equivalent Prefix and Postfix
notations.
1. Prefix Notation: ^ - * +ABC - DE + FG
2. Postfix Notation: AB + C * DE - - FG + ^

9. Sorting is not possible by using which of the following methods? (Insertion, Selection,
Exchange, Deletion)
Sorting is not possible in Deletion. Using insertion we can perform insertion sort, using selection
we can perform selection sort, using exchange we can perform the bubble sort (and other similar
sorting methods). But no sorting method can be done just using deletion.

10. What are the methods available in storing sequential files ?
1. Straight merging,
2. Natural merging,
3. Polyphase sort,
4. Distribution of Initial runs.

11. List out few of the Application of tree data-structure?
1. The manipulation of Arithmetic expression,
2. Symbol Table construction,
3. Syntax analysis.

12. List out few of the applications that make use of Multilinked Structures?
1. Sparse matrix,
2. Index generation.

13. In tree construction which is the suitable efficient data structure? (Array, Linked list,
Stack, Queue)
Linked list is the suitable efficient data structure.

14. What is the type of the algorithm used in solving the 8 Queens problem?
Backtracking.

15. In an AVL tree, at what condition the balancing is to be done?
If the 'pivotal value' (or the 'Height factor') is greater than 1 or less than -1.

16. What is the bucket size, when the overlapping and collision occur at same time?
One. If there is only one entry possible in the bucket, when the collision occurs, there is no way to
accommodate the colliding value. This results in the overlapping of values.

17. Classify the Hashing Functions based on the various methods by which the key value is
found.
1. Direct method,
2. Subtraction method,
3. Modulo-Division method,
4. Digit-Extraction method,
5. Mid-Square method,
6. Folding method,
7. Pseudo-random method.

18. What are the types of Collision Resolution Techniques and the methods used in each of
the type?
1. Open addressing (closed hashing), The methods used include: Overflow block.
2. Closed addressing (open hashing), The methods used include: Linked list, Binary tree.

19. In RDBMS, what is the efficient data structure used in the internal storage
representation?
B+ tree. Because in B+ tree, all the data is stored only in leaf nodes, that makes searching
easier. This corresponds to the records that shall be stored in leaf nodes.

20. What is a spanning Tree?
A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. All the nodes of the graph appear on the
tree once. A minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge
weight between nodes is minimized.

21. Does the minimum spanning tree of a graph give the shortest distance between
any 2 specified nodes?
The Minimal spanning tree assures that the total weight of the tree is kept at its minimum.
But it doesn't mean that the distance between any two nodes involved in the minimumspanning
tree is minimum.

22. Which is the simplest file stru
cture? (Sequential, Indexed, Random)
Sequential is the simplest file structure.

23. Whether Linked List is linear or Non-linear data structure?
According to Access strategies Linked list is a linear one.
According to Storage Linked List is a Non-linear one.

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1. Data Structures
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Linked Lists: Chains of nodes where each node contains data and a reference (pointer) to the next node. Insertion and deletion can be O(1) with appropriate pointers, but access is O(n).

Stacks: Follows Last In First Out (LIFO) principle. Operations (push, pop) are O(1).

Queues: Follows First In First Out (FIFO) principle. Operations (enqueue, dequeue) are O(1).

Trees: Hierarchical data structure with a root node and child nodes. Examples include Binary Trees, Binary Search Trees (BST), AVL Trees, etc. Operations vary based on the type of tree.

Graphs: Networks consisting of nodes (vertices) and edges. Can be directed or undirected, cyclic or acyclic.

Hash Tables: Data structure that maps keys to values using a hash function. Average time complexity for insertion, deletion, and lookup is O(1), but worst-case can be O(n).

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