MG1401– Total Quality Management Two Marks And Sixteen Marks Questions With Answers

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MG1401– Total Quality Management

Unit I

1. Define Total Quality?

TQM is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is the art of

managing the whole to achieve excellence. It is defined both a philosophy and a set

of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization

2. Define Quality?

Quality = Performance x Expectations

3. What are the Dimensions of Quality?

Performance

Features

Conformance Reliability Durability Service Response Aesthetics Reputation.

4. Give the Basic Concepts of TQM?

A committed and involved management to provide long- term top- to-

bottom organizational support. An unwavering focuses on the customer, both

internally and externally. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force. Continuous improvement of the business and production process. Treating suppliers as partners. Establish performance measures for the processes.

5. State Deming Philosophy?

Create and publish the aims and purposes of the organization.

Learn the new philosophy.Understand the purpose of inspection.

Stop awarding business based on price alone. Improve constantly and forever the system. Institute training. Teach and institute leadership. Drive out fear, Create trust and Create a climate for innovation. Optimize the efforts of teams, groups and staff areas. Eliminate exhortations for the work force. Eliminate numerical quotes for the work force.Eliminate management by objective. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Encourage education and self- improvement for everyone.

Take action for accomplish the transformation.

6. Give the Principles of TQM?

1. Constancy of purpose: short range and long range objectives aligned

2. Identify the customer(s); Customer orientation

3. Identification of internal and external customers

4. Continuous improvement

5. Workflow as customer transactions

6. Empower front- line worker as leader

7. Quality is everybody’s business

8. Customer orientation to child care services, a marketing perspective

9. Barriers that exist to a customer orientation

7. Give the Obstacles associated with TQM Implementation?

I. Lack of management commitment Inability to change organizational culture

II. Improper planning Lack of continuous training and education

III. Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals and

IV. departments Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data and

V. results. Paying inadequate attention to internal and external customers. VI. Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork.

8. Give the Analysis Techniques for Quality Costs?

I. Trend Analysis

II. Pareto Analysis

9. Define Quality Costs?

Quality Costs are defined as those costs associated with the nonachievement of

product or service quality as defined by the requirements established by the organization and its contracts with customers and society.

10. Give the primary categories of Quality cost?

I. Preventive cost category

II. Appraisal cost category

III. Internal failure cost category

IV. External failure cost category

11. Give the sub-elements of Preventive cost category?

I. Marketing/Customer/User

II. Product/Service/Design development

III. Purchasing

IV. Operations/

V. Quality Administration

VI. Other Prevention Costs

12. Give the sub-elements of Appraisal cost category?

I. Purchasing appraisal cost

II. Operations appraisal cost

III. External appraisal cost

IV. Review of test and application data

V. Miscellaneous quality evaluations

13. Give the sub-elements of Internal failure cost category?

i. Product or Service Design costs (Internal)

ii. Purchasing failure costs iii. Operations failure costs

14. Give the sub-elements of External failure cost category?

I. Complaint investigations of customer or user service

II. Returned goods

III. Retrofit and recall costs

IV. Warranty claims

V. Liability costs

VI. Penalties

VII. Customer or user goodwill

VIII. Lost sales

IX. Other external failure costs

15. Give the typical cost bases?

I. Labor

II. Production

III. Unit

IV. Sales

16. How will you determine the optimum cost? a. Make comparison with other organizations b. Optimize the individual categories

c. Analyze the relationships among the cost categories

17. State the Quality Improvement Strategy?

Reduce failure costs by problem solving Invest in the “right” prevention

activities

Reduce appraisal costs where appropriate and in a statistically sound manner Continuously evaluate and redirect the prevention effort to gain further quality improvement.

18. Define Quality Planning?

A quality plan sets out the desired product qualities and how these are

assessed and define the most significant quality attributes. It should define the quality

assessment process. It should set out which organizational standards should be applied and, if necessary, define new standards.

19. Give the Objectives of TQM?

a. To develop a conceptual understanding of the basic principles and methods

associated with TQM;

b. To develop an understanding of how these principles and methods have been put into effect in a variety of organizations;

c.To develop an understanding of the relationship between TQM principles and the theories and models studied in traditional management;

d. To do the right things, right the first time, every time.

20. Give the Quality Hierarchy?

1. Inspection

2. Quality Control (QC)

3. Quality Assurance (QA)

4. Total Quality Management

Inspect products. Detection Finding &

Fixing Mistakes.

21. What is needed for a leader to be effective?

To be effective, a leader needs to know and understand the following:

People, paradoxically, need security and independence at the same time. People are

sensitive to external rewards and punishments and yet are also strongly self- motivated. People like to hear a kind word of praise People can process only a few facts at a time; thus, a leader needs to keep things simple. People trust their gut reaction more than statistical data People distrust a leader’s rhetoric if the words are inconsistent with the leader’s actions.

22. What is the important role of senior management?

Listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits,

focus groups and surveys. Communication. To drive fear out of the organization,

break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change and in general, change the culture.

23. What are the general duties of a quality council?

i. Develop, with input from all personnel, the core values, vision statement,

mission statement, and quality policy statement. ii. Develop the strategic long-

term

plan with goals and the annual quality improvement program with objectives. iii. Create the total education and training plan.

iv. Determine and continually monitor the cost of poor quality.

v. Determine the performance measures for the organization, approve those for the functional areas, and monitor them.

vi. Continually, determine those projects that improve the processes, particularly those that affect external and internal customer satisfaction.

vii. Establish multifunctional project and departmental or work group teams and monitor their progress.

viii. Establish or revise the recognition and reward system to account for the new way of doing business.

24. What does a typical meeting agenda contain after establishing the TQM?

Progress report on teams

Customer satisfaction report

Progress on meeting goals New project teams Recognition dinner Benchmarking report


Unit II

25. What are the various quality statements?

Vision Statement

Mission Statement

Quality Policy Statement

26. Give the basic steps to strategic quality planning?

I. Customer needs

II. Customer positioning

III. Predict the future

IV. Gap analysis

V. Closing the gap

VI. Alignment

VII. Implementation

27. What is a quality policy?

The Quality Policy is a guide for everyone in the organization as to how they

should provide products and service to the customers. The common characteristics

are Quality is first among equals. Meet the needs of the internal and external customers. Equal or exceed the competition. Continually improve the quality. Include business and production practices. Utilize the entire work force.

28. What is a mission statement?

The mission statement answers the following questions: who we are, who are the

customers, what we do, and how we do it.

29. What is a vision statement?

The vision statement is a declaration of what an organization should look like five to

ten years in a future.

30. What are the important factors that influenced purchases?

I. Performance

II. Features

III. Service IV. Warranty V. Price

VI. Reputation

31. Give the need for a feedback in an organization?

Discover customer dissatisfaction. Discover relative priorities of quality.

Compare performance with the competition. Identify customer’s needs. Determine opportunities for improvement.

32. List the tools used for feedback?

Comment cards

Surveys

Focus groups

Toll- free telephone lines

Customer visits

Report cards The internet Employee feedback

American Customer Satisfaction Index

33. What are the activities to be done using customer complaints?

a. Investigate customer’s experience by actively soliciting feedback, both

positive and negative, and then acting on it promptly.

b. Develop procedures for complaint resolution that include empowering front- line personnel.

c. Analyze complaints, but understand that complaints that do not always fit into neat categories.

d. Work to identify process and material variations and then eliminate the root

cause. “More inspection” is not corrective action.

e. When a survey response is received, a senior manager should contact the customer and strive to resolve the concern.

f. Establish customer satisfaction measures and constantly monitor them.

g. Communicate complaint information, as well as the results of all investigations and solutions, to all people in the organization.

h. Provide a monthly complain report to the quality council for their evaluation and, if needed, the assignment of process improvement teams.

i. Identify customer’s expectations beforehand rather than afterward through

complaint analysis.

34. What are the elements of customer service?

a. Organization

b. Customer care

c. Communication

d. Front- line people

e. Leadership

35. Define customer retention?

Customer retention represents the activities that produce the necessary

customer satisfaction that creates customer loyalty, which actually improves the bottom line. It is the nexus between the customer satisfaction and the bottom line.

36. Define Employee Involvement?

Employee involvement is a means to better meet the organization’s goals

for quality and productivity at all levels of an organization.

37. State Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

Level 1 : Survival

Level 2 : Security Level 3 : Social Level 4 : Esteem

Level 5 : Self-actualization

38. State Frederick Herzberg’s Two- factor theory?

Herzberg found that people were motivated by recognition, responsibility,

achievement and the work itself.

39. What does an employee want?

I. Interesting work

II. Appreciation

III. Involvement IV. Job security V. Good pay

VI. Promotion/growth

VII. Good working conditions

VIII. Loyalty to employees

IX. Help with personal problems

X. Tactful discipline

41. Define Empowerment?

Empowerment means invest people with authority. Its purpose is to tap the

Enormous reservoir of creativity and potential contribution that lies within every worker at all levels. Empowerment is an environment in which people have the

ability, the confidence, and the commitment to take the responsibility and ownership to improve the process and to initiate the necessary steps to satisfy customer

requirements within well-defined boundaries in order to achieve organizational values and goals.

42. What are the three conditions necessary to create the empowered environment?

i. Everyone must understand the need for change.

ii. The system needs to change for the new paradigm iii.The organization must enable its employees.

43. What are the types of teams? i. Process improvement team ii.Cross- functional team

iii. Natural work teams

iv.Self- directed/self- managed work teams

44. What are the characteristics of successful teams?

a. Sponsor

b. Team charter

c. Team composition d. Training

e. Ground rules

f. Clear objectives g. Accountability

h. Well-defined decision procedures i. Resources

j. Trust

k. Effective problem solving

l. Open communications m. Appropriate leadership n. Balanced participation o. Cohesiveness

45. What are the decision- making methods?

a) Nondecision

b) Unilateral decision c) Handclasp decision

d) Minority- rule decision e) Majority- rule decision f) Consensus

46. What are the stages of team development?

i. Forming

ii. Storming iii. Norming iv. Performing v. Adjourning

47. Give some common team problems?

d. Floundering

e. Overbearing participants

f. Dominating participants

a. Reluctant participants

b. Unquestioned acceptance of opinions as facts

c. Rush to accomplish

d. Attribution

e. Discounts and “plops”

f. Wanderlust : digression and tangents

g. Feuding team members

48. What are the common barriers to team progress?

i. Insufficient training

ii. Incompatible rewards and compensation

iii. First- line supervisor resistance

iv. Lack of planning

v. Lack of management support vi. Access to information systems vii. Lack of union support

49. Give the steps involved in training process?

1st. Make everyone aware of what the training is all about.

2nd. Get acceptance.

3rd. Adapt the program.

4th. Adapt to what has been agreed upon.

50. Define Recognition and Reward?

Recognition is a form of employee motivation in which the organization

publicly acknowledges the positive contributions an individual or team has made to the success of the organization. Reward is something tangible to promote desirable

behavior. Recognition and reward go together to form a system for letting people know they are valuable members of the organization.

51. What are the types of appraisal formats?

i. Ranking

ii. Narrative

iii. Graphic

iv. Forced choice

52. What are the benefits of employee involvement?

Employee Involvement improves quality and increases productivity because

Ø Employees make better decisions using their expert knowledge of the process.

Ø Employees are more likely to implement and support decisions they had a part

in making.

Ø Employees are better able to spot and pinpoint areas for improvement.

Ø Employees are better able to take immediate corrective action.

Ø Employee involvement reduces labor/management hassle by more effective

Communications and cooperation.

Ø Employee involvement increases morale by creating a feeling of belonging to the organization.

Ø Employees are better able to accept change because they control the work

Environment.

Ø Employees have an increased commitment to unit goals because they are involved.

53. What are the basic ways for a continuous process improvement?

Ø Reduce resources

Ø Reduce errors

Ø Meet or exceed expectations of downstream customers

Ø Make the process safer

Ø Make the process more satisfying to the person doing it.

54. What are the three components of the Juran Trilogy?

Ø Planning

Ø Control

Ø Improvement

55. What are the steps in the PDSA cycle?

The basic Plan-Do-Study-Act is an effective improvement technique.

I. Plan carefully what is to be done

II. Carry out the plan

III. Study the results

IV. Act on the results by identifying what worked as planned and what

didn’t.

56. What are the phases of a Continuous Process Improvement Cycle?

a) Identify the opportunity

b) Analyze the process

c) Develop the optimal solutions

d) Implement

e) Study the results

f) Standardize the solution g) Plan for the future

57. Define 5S?

5S Philosophy focuses on effective work place organization and standardized work

procedures. 5S simplifies your work environment, reduceswaste and non- value

activity while improving quality efficiency and safety. Sort – (Seiri) the first S

focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the workplace.

Set In Order (Seiton) is the second of the 5Ss and focuses on efficient and effective storage methods. Shine: (Seiso) Once you have eliminated the clutter and junk that

has been clogging your work areas and identified and located the necessary items, the next step is to thoroughly clean the work area. Standardize: (Seiketsu) Once the

first three 5S’s have been implemented, you should concentrate on standardizing best

practice in your work area. Sustain: (Shitsuke) This is by far the most difficult S to implement and achieve. Once fully implemented, the 5S process can increase morale, create positive impressions on customers, and increase efficiency and organization.

58. What is a Kaizen?

Kaizen is a Japanese word for the philosophy that defines management’s

role in continuously encouraging and implementing small improvements involving

everyone. It is the process of continuous improvement in small increments that make the process more efficient, effective, under control and adaptable.

i. Long-term commitment ii. Trust

iii. Shared vision

60. What are the three types of sourcing?

a) Sole sourcing

b) Multiple sourcing

c) Single sourcing

61. What are the ten conditions for the selection and evaluation of suppliers? I. The supplier understands and appreciates the management philosophy of the organization.

II. The supplier has a stable management system.

III. The supplier maintains high technical standards and has the capability of dealing with future technological innovations.

IV. The supplier can supply precisely those raw materials and parts required by the purchaser, and those supplied meet the quality specifications.

V. The supplier has the capability to produce the amount of production needed or can attain that capability.

VI. There is no danger of the supplier breaching corporate secrets.

VII. The price is right and the delivery dates can be met. In addition, the supplier is easily accessible in terms of transportation and communication.

VIII. The supplier is sincere in implementing the contract provisions.

IX. The supplier has an effective quality system and improvement program such as ISO/QS 9000.

X. The supplier has a track record of customer satisfaction and organization

Credibility.

62. What are the four phases of inspection?

i. 100% inspection

ii. Sampling iii. Audit

iv. Identity check

63. What are the objectives of Performance measures?

i. Establish baseline measures and reveal trends.

ii. Determine which processes need to be improved. iii. Indicate process gains and losses.

iv. Compare goals with actual performance.

v. Provide information for individual and team evaluation. vi. Provide information to make informed decisions.

vii. Determine the overall performance of the organization.

particular process?

i. Quantity

ii. Cost iii. Time

iv. Accuracy v. Function

vi. Service

vii. Aesthetics

65. Give the six basic techniques for presenting performance measures?

a) Time series graph

b) Control chart

c) Capability index

d) Taguchi’s Loss Function e) Cost of poor quality

f) Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award


Unit III

66. Give the seven tools of quality?

i. Pareto Diagram

ii. Process Flow Diagram

iii. Cause-and- Effect Diagram iv. Check Sheets

v. Histogram

vi. Control Charts

vii. Scatter Diagrams

67. Define Statistics?

Statistics is defined as the science that deals with the collection,

tabulation,analysis, interpretation, and presentation of quantitative data.

68. What is a measure of central tendency?

A measure of central tendency of a distribution is a numerical value that

describes the central position of the data or how the data tend to build up in the center.

69. What is Measures of dispersion?

Measures of dispersion describe how the data are spread out or scattered on

each side of the central value. The measures of dispersion used are range and standard

deviation.

70. What is a normal curve?

The normal curve is a symmetrical, unimodal, bell-shaped distribution withthe

mean, median and mode having the same value.

71. What is the use of the control chart?

The control chart is used to keep a continuing record of a particular quality

characteristic. It is a picture of process over time.

72. Give the objectives of the attribute charts?

i. Determine the average quality level.

ii. Bring to the attention of management any changes in the average. iii. Improve the product quality.

iv. Evaluate the quality performance of operating and management personnel. v. Determine acceptance criteria of a product before shipment to the customer.

73. Define Six Sigma Problem Solving Method?

Define - improvement opportunity with an emphasis on increasing customer

satisfaction.

Measure - determine process capability (Cp/ Cpk) & dpmo

Analyze - identify the vital few process input variables that affect key product output variables (“Finding the knobs”).

Improve - Make changes to process settings, redesign processes, etc. to reduce the number of defects of key output variables.

Control - Implement process control plans, install real- time process

monitoring tools,standardize processes to maintain levels.

74. What are the new seven management tools?

i. Affinity Diagram

ii. Interrelationship Digraph iii. Tree Diagram

iv. Matrix Diagram

v. Prioritization Matrices

vi. Process Decision Program Chart vii. Activity Network diagram


Unit IV

75. Define Benchmarking?

Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure

themselves against the best industry practices. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. It is a tool for continuous improvement.

76. Enumerate the steps to benchmark?

a) Decide what to benchmark

b) Understand current performance c) Plan

d) Study others

e) Learn from the data f) Use the findings

77. What are the types of benchmarking?

i. Internal

ii. Competitive iii. Process

78. What is a QFD?

Quality Function Deployment is a planning tool used to fulfill

customer expectations. It is a disciplined approach to product design, engineering, and production and provides in- depth evaluation of a product.

79. What are the benefits of QFD?

i. Customer driven

ii. Reduces implementation time iii. Promotes teamwork

iv. Provides documentation

80. What are the steps required to construct an affinity diagram?

i. Phrase the objective

ii. Record all responses iii. Group the responses

iv. Organize groups in an affinity diagram

81. What are the parts of house of quality?

i. Customer requirements

ii. Prioritized customer requirements iii. Technical descriptors

iv. Prioritized technical descriptors

v. Relationship between requirements and descriptors vi. Interrelationship between technical descriptors

82. How will you build a house of quality?

a) List customer requirements

b) List technical descriptors

c) Develop a relationship matrix between WHATs and HOWs\

d) Develop an interrelationship matrix between HOWs e) Competitive assessments

f) Develop prioritized customer requirements g) Develop prioritized technical descriptors

83. Define FMEA?

Failure Mode Effect Analysis is an analytical technique that combines the

technology and experience of people in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product or process and planning for its elimination.

84. What are the stages of FMEA?

1. Specifying possibilities a. Functions

b. Possible failure modes c. Root causes

d. Effects

e Detection/Prevention

2. Quantifying risk

a. Probability of cause b. Severity of effect

. Effectiveness of control to prevent cause d. Risk priority number

3. Correcting high risk causes a. Prioritizing work

b. Detailed action

c. Assigning action responsibility

d. Check points on completion

4. Revaluation of risk

85. What are the goals of TPM?

The overall goals of Total Productive Maintenance, which is an extension of TQM are

i. Maintaining and improving equipment capacity ii. Maintaining equipment for life

iii. Using support from all areas of the operation iv. Encouraging input from all employees

v. Using teams for continuous improvement

86. Give the seven basic steps to get an organization started toward TPM?

a) Management learns the new philosophy

b) Management promotes the new philosophy

c) Training is funded and developed for everyone in the organization

d) Areas of needed improvement are identified e) Performance goals are formulated

f) An implementation plan is developed

g) Autonomous work groups are established

87. What are the major loss areas?

i. Planned downtime

ii. Unplanned downtime

iii. Idling and minor stoppages

iv. Slow-downs

v. Process nonconformities vi. Scrap


Unit V

88. Give the ISO 9000 Series of Standards?

i. ISO 9000, “Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards Guidelines for Selection and Use”.

ii. ISO 9001, “Quality S ystems – Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation & Servicing”.

iii. ISO 9002, “Quality Systems – “Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation & Servicing”.

iv. ISO 9003, “Quality Systems – “Model for Quality Assurance in Final

Inspection and Test”.

v. ISO 9004-1, “Quality Management and Quality System Elements –

Guidelines”.

89. What is the need for ISO 9000?

ISO 9000 is needed to unify the quality terms and definitions used by

industrialized nations and use terms to demonstrate a supplier’s capability of controlling its processes.

90. Give some other quality systems?

i. QS-9000 ii. TE-9000 iii. AS9000

91. Enumerate the steps necessary to implement the Quality Management System?

i. Senior management commitment

ii. Appoint the management representative iii. Awareness

iv. Appoint an implementation team v. Training

vi. Time schedule

vii. Select element owners

viii. Review the present system ix. Write the documents

x. Install the new system xi. Internal audit

xii. Management review xiii. Preassessment

xiv. Registration

92. What are the three sections of QS-9000?

i. Common requirements, which include the exact text of ISO 9001 and the addition of automotive/heavy trucking requirements.

ii. Additional requirements covering production part approval process, continuous improvement and manufacturing capabilities.

iii. Customer-specific requirements.

93. What are the ISO/QS 9000 elements?

i. Management responsibility

ii.The Quality system iii. Contract review iv. Design control

v.Document and data control vi. Purchasing

vii.Control of customer-supplied product viii. Product identification and traceability ix. Process control

x.Inspection and testing

xi. Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment xii.Inspection and test status

iii. Control of nonconforming product xiv. Corrective and preventive action

xv.Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery xvi. Control of quality records

xvii.Internal quality audits xviii. Training

xix. Servicing xx.Statistical techniques

94. Give the objectives of the internal audit?

a) Determine the actual performance conforms to the documented quality systems.

b) Initiate corrective action activities in response to deficiencies. c) Follow up on noncompliance items of previous audits.

d) Provide continued improvement in the system through feedback to management.

e) Cause the auditee to think about the process, thereby creating possible improvements.

95. What are the requirements of ISO 14001?

i. General requirements ii. Environmental policy

iii. Planning

iv. Implementation and operation

v. Checking and corrective action vi. Management review

96. What are the benefits of ISO 14000?

a. Global

i. Facilitate trade and remove trade barriers

ii. Improve environmental performance of planet earth

iii. Build consensus that there is a need for environment management and a common terminology for EMS.

b. Organizational

i. Assuring customers of a commitment to environmental management

ii. Meeting customer requirements

iii. Maintaining a good public / community relations image

iv. Satisfying investor criteria and improving access to capital v. Obtaining insurance at reasonable cost

vi. Increasing market share that results from a competitive advantage vii. Reducing incidents that result in liability

viii. Improving defense posture in litigation ix. Conserving input materials and energy

x. Facilitating the attainment of permits and authorization xi. Improving industry/government relations

97. What are the four elements for the checking &

corrective action of ISO 14001?

a) Monitoring and measuring

b) Nonconformance and corrective and preventative action c) Records

d) EMS audit

98. What are the seven elements for the implementation & operations of ISO 14001?

a) Structure and responsibility

b) Training, awareness and competency c) Communication

d) EMS documentation

e) Documentation control f) Operational control

g) Emergency preparedness and response

99. What are the four elements for the planning of ISO 14001?

a) Environmental aspects

b) Legal and other requirements c) Objectives and targets

d) Environmental Management Programs

100. Give the types of Organizational Evaluation Standards?

i. Environmental Management System ii. Environmental Auditing

iii. Environmental Performance Evaluation

101. Give the types of Product Evaluation Standards?

i. Environmental Aspects in Product Standards ii. Environmental Labeling

iii. Life-C ycle Assessment

104. Define Quality Audits?

Quality Audits examine the elements of a quality management system in order to evaluate how well these elements comply with quality system requirements.

105. Analyze TQM?

Total Made up of the whole. Quality Degree of excellence a product or service provides.

Management Act, art or manner of handling, controlling, directing etc.

106. Give the usage of an effective recognition and reward system?

-Serves as a continual reminder that the organization regards quality and productivity as important.

-Offers the organization a visible technique to thank high achievers for outstanding

performance.

-Provides employees a specific goal to work toward. It motivates them to improve the process.

-Boosts morale in the work environment by creating a healthy sense of competition among individuals and teams seeking recognition.

107. How will you improve the performance appraisal system?

Use rating scales that have few rating categories.

Require work team or group evaluations that are at least equal in emphasis to individual-focused evaluations.

Require more frequent performance reviews where such reviews will have a dominant emphasis on future planning.

Promotion decisions should be made by an independent administrative process that draws on current-job information and potential for the new job.

Include indexes of external customer satisfaction in the appraisal process. o Use peer and subordinate feedback as an index of internal customer satisfaction.

Include evaluation for process improvement in addition to results.

108. What are the typical measurements frequently asked by managers and teams?

Human Resource Customers Production

Research & Development

Suppliers Marketing/Sales Administration

109. What are the criteria to evaluate the performance measures?

-Simple

- Few in number

- Developed by users

- Relevance to customer

-Improvement

- Cost

- Visible

- Timely

- Aligned

-Results

110. Give the usage of C&E diagrams?

-Analyze actual conditions for the purpose of product or service quality improvement, more efficient use of resources, and reduced costs.

-Eliminate conditions causing nonconformities and customer complaints.

-Standardize existing and proposed operations.

-Educate and train personnel in decision-making and corrective-action activities.

111. Define Six Sigma?

Six-Sigma is a business process that allows organizations to drastically improve their bottom line by designing and monitoring every day business activities in ways that minimize waste and resources while increasing customer satisfaction. It is achieved

through continuous process measurement, analysis & improvement.

112. What are the various histogram shapes?

-Symmetrical

-Skewed right

-Skewed left

-Peaked

-Flat

-Bimodal

-Plateau distribution

-Comb distribution

-Double peaked distribution

113. Differentiate Population & Sample?

Population represents the mathematical world and Sample represents the real world. A population frequency distribution is represented by a smooth curve whereas a sample frequency distribution is represented by a histogram.

114. Give the sources of variation?

ï Equipment ï Material

ï Environment ï Operator

115. Define Run chart?

A run chart is a very simple technique for analyzing the process in the development stage or, for that matter, when other charting techniques are not applicable.

16 Mark Questions


Unit-I

1. Explain the Dimensions of Quality?

- Performance

- Features

- Conformance

- Reliability

- Durability

- Service

- Response

- Aesthetics

- Reputation

2. Explain Deming Philosophy?

-Create and publish the aims and purposes of the organization.

-Learn the new philosophy.

-Understand the purpose of inspection.

-Stop awarding business based on price alone.

-Improve constantly and forever the system.

-Institute training.

-Teach and institute leadership.

-Drive out fear, Create trust and Create a climate for innovation.

-Optimize the efforts of teams, groups and staff areas.

-Eliminate exhortations for the work force.

-Eliminate numerical quotes for the work force.

-Eliminate management by objective.

-Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship.

3. Explain the Analysis Techniques for Quality Costs?

i. Trend Analysis ii. Pareto Analysis

4. Describe the primary categories of Quality cost?

i. Preventive cost category ii. Appraisal cost category

iii. Internal failure cost category

iv. External failure cost category

5. Explain the important role of senior management?

-Listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups and surveys.

-Communication.

-To drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system

roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change and in general, change the culture.

6. Explain the various quality statements?

Vision Statement Mission Statement Quality Policy Statement

7. Discuss the basic steps to strategic quality planning?

i. Customer needs

ii. Customer positioning iii. Predict the future

iv. Gap analysis

v. Closing the gap vi. Alignment

vii. Implementation

8. Explain the elements of customer service?

" Organization

" Customer care

" Communication

" Front-line people


Unit II

9.Explain Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

Level 1 : Survival Level 2 : Security Level 3 : Social

Level 4 : Esteem

Level 5 : Self-actualization

10. Explain the types of teams?

i. Process improvement team ii. Cross-functional team

iii. Natural work teams

iv. Self-directed/self-managed work teams

11. Explain the characteristics of successful teams?

a. Sponsor

b. Team charter

c. Team composition

d. Training

e. Ground rules

f. Clear objectives g. Accountability

h. Well-defined decision procedures i. Resources

j. Trust

k. Effective problem solving l. Open communications

m. Appropriate leadership n. Balanced participation o. Cohesiveness

12. Explain the stages of team development?

i. Forming ii. Storming iii. Norming

iv. Performing v. Adjourning

13. Explain the three components of the Juran Trilogy?

i. Planning ii. Control

iii. Improvement

14 .Explain the steps in the PDSA cycle?

The basic Plan-Do-Study-Act is an effective improvement technique.

1st. Plan carefully what is to be done

2nd. Carry out the plan

3rd. Study the results

4th. Act on the results by identifying what worked as planned and what didn’t.

15. Explain the phases of a Continuous Process Improvement Cycle?

a) Identify the opportunity b) Analyze the process

c) Develop the optimal solutions

d) Implement

e) Study the results

f) Standardize the solution

16. Explain 5S? Sort – (Seiri)

Set In Order (Seiton)

Shine: (Seiso) Standardize: (Seiketsu) Sustain: (Shitsuke)

17. Explain the three types of sourcing?

a) Sole sourcing

b) Multiple sourcing

c) Single sourcing


UNIT III

18. Discuss the seven tools of quality?

i. Pareto Diagram

ii. Process Flow Diagram

iii. Cause-and-Effect Diagram

iv. Check Sheets v. Histogram

vi. Control Charts

vii. Scatter Diagrams

19. Explain the Six Sigma Problem Solving Method?

a. Define b.Measure c.Analyze

d.Improve e.Control

20. What are the new seven management tools?

i. Affinity Diagram

ii. Interrelationship Digraph iii. Tree Diagram

iv. Matrix Diagram

v. Prioritization Matrices

vi. Process Decision Program Chart

vii. Activity Network diagram

21. What are the characteristics of successful teams?

a. Sponsor

b. Team charter

c. Team composition d. Training

e. Ground rules

f. Clear objectives

g. Accountability

h. Well-defined decision procedures i. Resources

j. Trust

k. Effective problem solving l. Open communications

m. Appropriate leadership

n. Balanced participation o. Cohesiveness


UNIT IV

22. Explain the steps to benchmark?

a) Decide what to benchmark

b) Understand current performance c) Plan

d) Study others

e) Learn from the data f) Use the findings

23. Explain the types of benchmarking?

i. Internal

ii. Competitive iii. Process

24. Explain the parts of house of quality?

i. Customer requirements

ii. Prioritized customer requirements iii. Technical descriptors

iv. Prioritized technical descriptors

v. Relationship between requirements and descriptors vi. Interrelationship between technical descriptors

25. Explain the stages of FMEA?

1. Specifying possibilities a. Functions

b. Possible failure modes

c. Root causes d. Effects

e. Detection/Prevention

2. Quantifying risk

a. Probability of cause b. Severity of effect

26. How will you build a house of quality?

a) List customer requirements

b) List technical descriptors

c) Develop a relationship matrix between WHATs and HOWs\

d) Develop an interrelationship matrix between HOWs e) Competitive assessments

f) Develop prioritized customer requirements g) Develop prioritized technical descriptors


UNIT V

27. Explain the steps necessary to implement the Quality Management System?

i. Senior management commitment

ii. Appoint the management representative iii. Awareness

iv. Appoint an implementation team v. Training

vi. Time schedule

vii. Select element owners

viii. Review the present system ix. Write the documents

x. Install the new system

xi. Internal audit

xii. Management review xiii. Reassessment

xiv. Registration

28. Explain the ISO/QS 9000 elements?

i. Management responsibility ii.The Quality system

iii. Contract review iv.

Design control v.Document and data control vi. Purchasing

vii.Control of customer-supplied product viii. Product identification and traceability ix. Process control

x.Inspection and testing

xi. Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment

xii.Inspection and test status.

29. Explain the benefits of ISO 14000?

a. Global

i. Facilitate trade and remove trade barriers

ii. Improve environmental performance of planet earth

iii. Build consensus that there is a need for environment management and a common terminology for EMS.

b. Organizational

i. Assuring customers of a commitment to environmental management

ii. Meeting customer requirements

iii. Maintaining a good public / community relations image

iv. Satisfying investor criteria and improving access to capital v. Obtaining insurance at reasonable cost

vi. Increasing market share that results from a competitive advantage vii. Reducing incidents that result in liability

viii. Improving defense posture in litigation ix. Conserving input materials and energy

x. Facilitating the attainment of permits and authorization

xi. Improving industry/government relations.

30. Explain the seven elements for the implementation & operations of ISO 14001?

a) Structure and responsibility

b) Training, awareness and competency c) Communication

d) EMS documentation

e) Documentation control f) Operational control

g) Emergency preparedness and response