CS1014 – USER INTERFACE DESIGN Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai






1. Define User Interface? What are the two components in User Interface?

It is collection of techniques and mechanisms to interact with something. It has to components Input and Output.

2. What is meant by HCI?

It is the Study, planning and design of how people and computer work together so that a person needs are satisfied in the most effective way.

3. Define Pick and Click Interaction?

PICK: To identity an element for a proposed action. CLICK: The signal to perform an action.

4. What is an object? Explain its types?

Object is an entity. It can be manipulated as a single unit. Object can be classified into three types.

1). Data Object 2). Container Object 3). Device Object.

5. Define Property Attribute Specification? Explain its Sequence?

Property/Attributer specification action establishes or modifies the attributes or properties of objects.

Property/Attributer specification sequence

1).The user selects an object (Ex) several words of text.

2).The user then selects an action to apply to that object such as action Bold.

6. What is User Assistance in Wed Interface Design?

· It cannot provide help the system.

· Customer service support, if provided is generally oriented to the product or service offered.

7. Write a note on consistency?

· Consistency is important because it can reduce requirements for human leaving by allowing skills learned in one situation to be transferred to another like it.

· It also aids learning of the system’s mental model.

8. Explain the Types of Compatibility?

· User compatibility: Design must be appropriate and compatible with the needs of the user

· Task and job compatibility: The organization of a system should match the tasks a person must do to perform the job.

· Product compatibility: While compatibility across products must always be considered in relation to improving interfaces, making new systems compatible with the existing systems.

9. What is meant by Transparency?

Permit the user to focus on the task or job, without concern for the mechanics of the


Workings and reminders of workings inside the computer should be invisible to the user.

10. Explain five ways to provide Simplicity?

Provide as simple an interface as possible.

Five ways to provide simplicity:

· Use progressive disclosure, hiding things until they are needed

o Present common and necessary functions first

o Prominently feature important functions

o Hide more sophisticated and less frequently used functions

· Provide defaults

· Minimize screen alignment points

· Make common actions simple at the expense of uncommon actions being made harder

· Provide uniformity and consistency

11. What are container objects?

The term "container" refers to one of two things:

· An object of the container structural class.

· An object that has child objects.

Container is a structural class of object, which means that container objects can be created in Active Directory. In the schema, structural classes define objects that can be created as instances of the class in Active Directory.

12. Define view.

Views are ways of looking at an object’s information.

Four kinds of view

· Composed views – Presents information and the object contained within an object.

· Contents views – List the components of objects.

· Settings Views – Permit settings and changing object properties.

· Help views – Provide all the help functions.

13. What is web interface design?

It is essentially the design of navigation and the presentation of information. Proper interface design is matter of properly balancing the structure and relationships of menus, content and other linked documents or graphics.

14. Differentiate GUI and Web Page Design.

GUI Design

Web page Design

Characteristics of interface such as

monitor and modem are well designed.

The user device may range from

handheld mechanisms to high end work station.

It navigates through structured menus,

lists, screens dialogs and wizards.

It navigate through links, book marks

and typed URLs


15. What is meant by Visual Activity?

The capacity of the eye to resolve details is called visual activity. Visual Activity is approximately halved at a distance of 2.5 degrees from the point of eye fixation.

16. What is meant by Short Term and Long Term Memory?

Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory

Contains limited amount of information

Contains Unlimited amount of


Receives information from either the

senses or long term memory

Receives information from Short Term

through learning process.

17. Explain direct method in requirement analysis?

· Individual face to face interview

· Telephone Interview or survey

· Traditional Focus group

· Facilitated team Workshop

· Observational field study

· Requirements prototyping

· Usability Laboratory testing

18. Explain indirect method in requirement analysis?

o Paper Survey.

o Electronic Survey.

o Electronic Focus Group.

o Marketing and sales.

o Support Line.

o Email or Bulletin Board.

o System Testing.

19. Write a note on Grouping?

· Grouping screen elements aids in establishing structure, meaningful relationships and meaningful form.

· Groupings aids in information recall and results in a faster screen search

20. What are the perceptual principles used to create functional grouping?

Use visual organization to create functional group. Combine visual organization principles in logical ways. Avoid visual organization principles that conflict.

21. List the guidelines to be followed for Scrolling and paging.


· Avoid scrolling to determine page contents

A page’s subject should be immediately recognizable

Elements crucial to identifying

· Minimize vertical scrolling

· Avoid horizontal scrolling


Encourage viewing the page through “paging”

Create a second version of a website, one consisting of individual screen that are

Viewed through “paging”.

22. List the guidelines to be followed for font styles and weight.

Ø Use no more than:

- Two styles of the same family.

· Standard and Italic.

· Italic is best presented in a serif font.

- Two weights.

· Regular and bold.

· Bold is best presented in a sans serif font.

Ø Use italics when you want to call attention.

Ø Use bold when you want to call attention or create a hierarchy.

Ø In web pages, use an underline only to indicate a navigation link.

23. What is meant by Auto Skipping?

Auto Skip is a feature that causes a cursor to automatically move to the beginning of the next entry control field once the previous field is completely filled. Auto skip obviates manual tabbing and requires fewer key strokes to complete the screen.

24. List the Intranet design guidelines.

Ø Provide a single home page containing at least:

· A directory hierarchy.

· A search facility.

Ø Present a visual style that is:

· Different.

· Distinguishing.

· Unified.

Ø Orient the internet Web site toward tasks.

Ø Include many options and features.\

Ø Develop a strong navigational system.

25. List the Extranet design guidelines.

Ø To distinguish the extranet from the internet, provide subtle difference in:

· Visual style.

· Navigation.

Ø Provide links to the public internet site.

26. What are the guidelines to be followed to design a pie chart?

If Pie chart are used , the guidelines below should be followed.

· Total 100 percent.

· Five segments or fewer.

· Minimum five percent.

· Start at 12:00.

· Labeling.

· Number with segment labels.

· Segment Coding.

· Highlighting.

· Tilting.

List the technology considerations in Interface design. Graphical Systems:

· System power.

· Screen size.

· Screen resolution.

· Display colors.

· Other display features.

· System platform being used.

· Development and implementation tools being used.

· Platform style guide being used.

Web Systems:

· Understand the current level of Web Technology.

· Design for system configuration used by most users.

· Refrain from haphazard use of leading – edge technology.

27. List the guidelines to be followed for Tables.

· Provide descriptive headings and where, appropriate, subheadings for columns and rows.

· Do not include colons(:) after the headings.

· Justify columns headings according to the data presented in the table cells.

· Left justify row headings.

· Organize the presented data or information logically and clearly.

· Justify the data presented in a column according to its content.

· Length should not exceed the depth of a screen.

· Use light background.

· Provide consistent spacing between columns and rows.

· If more than seven rows are presented, insert white space after every fifth row.

· Use caution in placing border around cells.

28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Pull-down Menu?


· The menu bar cues a reminder of their existence.

· They may locate relatively consistently on the screen.

· No window space is consumed when they are not used.

· They are easy to browse through.

· Their vertical orientation is most efficient for scanning.

· Their vertical orientation is most efficient for grouping.

· Their vertical orientation permits more choice to be displayed.

· They allow for display of both keyboard equivalents and accelerators.


· They require searching and selecting from another menu before seeing options.

· They require looking away from main working area to read.

· They require moving the pointer out of working area to select.

· The items are smaller than full-size buttons, slowing selection time.

· They may obscure the screen working area.


29. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Cascading Menu?


· The top level menu, are simplified because some choices are hidden

· Move first letter mnemonics are available because menu possess fewer alternatives.


· Access to submenu items requires more steps and a change in pointer movement direction.

· Exhaustive browsing is more difficult.

30. Define Window.



The application program in Windows operating system is opened in rectangular area on the desktop. This rectangular area is known as window.

31. Mention the characteristics of Windows.

A window is seen to possess the following characteristics:

· A name or title, allowing it to be identified.

· A size in height and width.

· A state, accessible or active, or not accessible.

· Visibility – the portion that can be seen.

· A location, relative to the display boundary.

· Presentation, that is, its arrangement in relation to other windows. It may be titled, overlapping, or cascading.

· Management capabilities, methods for manipulation of the window on the screen.

· Its highlight, that is, the part that is selected.

· The functions, task, or application to which is dedicated.

32. What is known as Unfolding Window?

An unfolding secondary window expands to reveal additional options, a window of progressive discloser. Unfolding windows, sometimes called expanding windows, generally used to provide advanced options at the same level in the complex dialog.

33. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Document interface?


· The child windows share the parent windows interface components , making it a very space – efficient interface.

· Useful for managing a set of object.

· Provides a grouping and focus for a set of activities within the larger environment of the desktop.


· Reinforces an application as the primary focus.

· Containment for secondary windows within child windows does not exist, obscuring window relationships and possibly creating confusion.

· Because the parent window does not actually contain objects, context cannot always be maintained on closing and opening.

· The relationship between files and their windows abstract, making an MDI

application more challenging for beginning users to learn.

· Confining child windows to the parent window can be inconvenient or inappropriate for some tasks.

· The nested nature of child windows may make it difficult for the user to distinguish a child window from a primary window that is peer with the parent window but is positioned on top.

34. What are the general guidelines for window Operations?

· Design easy to use and learn windows operations.

· Minimize the number of window operations necessary to achieve a desired effect.

· Make navigating between windows particularly easy and efficient to do.

· Make a setting up of windows particularly to remember.

· In overlapping systems, provide powerful commands for arranging windows on the screen in user – tailor able configurations.

35. What are the characteristics of device based Controls?

They are the mechanism through which people communicate their desires to the system, also known as input devices.

To point an object on the screen.

· To select the object or identify it as the focus of attention

· To drag an object across the screen

· To draw something free form on the screen

· To track or follow a moving object

· To orient or position an object

· To enter or manipulate data or information

36. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Buttons?

The Command button is a common control frequently used in VB programming. This is one of the first controls that beginners learn to place onto a form and then to code an "event procedure" for the command control object. An event procedure is something that happens in response to a user action such as a click or a "mouse over".

37. Write a note on Keyboard Guidelines?

· Provide keyboard accelerators.

· Provide keyboard equivalents.

· Provide window navigation through use of keyboard keys.

38. What are the advantages & disadvantages of drop-down box?


· Unlimited number of choices.

· Reminds users of available options.

· Conserves screen space.


· Requires an extra action to display the list of choice.

· When displayed, all choices may not always be visible, requiring scrolling.

· \The list may be ordered in an unpredictable way, making it hard to find items.

39. What is known as Balloon Tips?

A balloon tip, is a small pop-up window that contains information presented in a word balloon. Its components can include a title, body text, and informational, warning , or critical icons.

40. What is meant by Sample box?

A sample box is a box illustrating what will show up on the screen based upon the parameter or parameters currently selected. Sample boxes may include text, graphics, or both.

41. Write a note on Scrolling Tickers?

A scrolling tickers is a window that contain text scrolling horizontally. That is text that scrolls horizontally through a container window. The most prudent guideline at the moment is: do not use scrolling tickers.



42. What is a message? What are the types of Message?

Messages are communications provide on the screen to the screen viewer. Several different types of message exist, and they may be displayed in different forms and locations. A message should possess the proper tone and style and be consistent within itself and with other messages.

Common message types are:

· Status messages

· Informational messages

· Warning messages

· Critical messages

· Questions messages

43. Write a note on Message box controls?

Command buttons:

· If a messages requires no choice to be made but only acknowledgment. (OK


· If a requires a choice be made, provide command button for each option. (OK and

Cancel buttons), (YES or NO buttons)

· If a message allows initiation of an action to correct the situation described.(Labeled button)

· If a message describes an interrupted process whose state cannot be restored.(STOP button)

· If a message offers an opportunity to cancel a process as well as perform or not perform an action.(Cancel button)

· If more details about a message topic must be presented.(HELP button)

· Designate the most frequent or least destructive option as the default.

Close box:

· Enables the title bar close box only if the message includes a cancel button.

44. What is meant by instructional message?

Instructional messages

· Provide instructional information at the depth of detail needed by the user.

· Locate it at strategic position on the screen.

· Display it in a manner that visually differentiates it from other screen elements.

· In writing, follow all relevant writing guidelines for words, sentences, and messages.

45. What is meant by response time?

· System responsiveness should match the speed and flow of human thought process.

o If continuity of thinking is required and information must be remembered throughout several responses, response time should be less than one or two seconds.

· Constant delays are preferable to variable delays.

46. What is known as ear cons?

Sound, sometimes called earcons, is useful for altering the users:

· To minor and obvious mistakes.

· When something unexpected happens.

· Where visual attention is directed away from the screen and immediate attention is required.

· When a long process is finished.

47. Explain the purpose of Hints?

A hint or Tip is a command button placed on a screen and labeled as such.

To provide a few important contextual, but specific, items of information related to a display screen. It is supplement to the standard Help facility, but more easily accessible and relevant to the current situation. The objective is to quickly get the user back on track when disorientation or confusion occurs.

48. What is known as Accessibility?

Systems should be designed to be usable, without modification, by as many people as possible.

49. What is known as Cognitive Disabilities?

Permit modification and simplification of the interface

Limit the use of time-based interfaces

· Do not briefly display critical feedback or messages and then automatically remove them

· Provide an option to permit the user to adjust the length of the time-out

50. What is known as icons?

Small pictures that represent commands, files, or windows. By moving the pointer to the icon and pressing a mouse button, you can execute a command or convert the icon into a window. You can also move the icons around the display screen as if they were real objects on your desk.

Icon—Something that looks like what it means.

51. What is the purpose of task oriented help?

Task oriented help, sometimes called procedural help. Purpose:

Task oriented Help details the procedural steps for carrying out of task. People prefer task

orientation Help to product-orientation Help, and research evidence shows a productivity gain using it. It is not surprising that task – orientation Help has such a preference and benefits, because people think in items of tasks, not functions. This form of Help focuses on how to do something, rather than the what or why. Its purpose is not to document everything there is to know about a subject.

52. What is the purpose of wizards?

Purpose of Wizards is:

· To perform a complex series of steps.

· To perform a task that requires making several critical decisions.

· To enter critical data and for use when the cost of errors is high.

· To perform an infrequent accomplished task.

· The necessary knowledge or experience to perform a task is lacking.

· Not suited to teaching how to do something.

53. List the guidelines of accessibility design?

· Consider accessibility issues during system planning, design, and testing.

· Provide compatibility with installed accessibility utilities.

· Provide a customizable interface.

· Follow standard windows conventions.

· Use standard windows control.

54. What are the advantages and disadvantages of image maps?


· Can be arrayed in a meaningful and obvious structure.

· Faster to load than separate images.


· Consume a significant amount of screen space.

· “Hot spots” not always obvious.

· One’s location within image map is not always obvious.


55. What is the purpose of Usability test?

· Establish communication bridge between developers and users.

· Evaluate a product.

56. What are the importance of usability test?

· Developers and users possess different models

· Developer’s intuitions are not always correct

· There is no average user

· It’s impossible to predict usability from appearance

· Design standards and guidelines are not sufficient

· Informal feedback is inadequate

· Products’ built-in pieces almost always have system-level inconsistencies

· Problems found late more difficult and expensive to fix

· Problems fixed during development mean reduced support costs later

· Advantages over a competitive product can be achieved

57. What is meant by prototypes?

A prototype is primary a vehicle for exploration, communication, and evaluation. Its purpose is to obtain user input in design, and to provide feedback to designers. Its major functions are communicative role it plays, not accuracy or thoroughness. A prototype enables a design to be better visualized and provides insights into how software will look and work. It also aids in defining tasks, their flow, the interface itself, and its screens.

58. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hand sketches?

· Advantages

· Can be used very early in the development process

· Suited for use by entire design team

· No large investment of time and cost

· No programming skill needed

· Easily portable

· Fast to modify and iterate

· A rough approximation often yields more substantive critical comments

· Easier to comprehend than functional specifications

· Can be used to define requirements

· Disadvantages

· Only a rough approximation

· Limited in providing an understanding of navigation and flow

· A demonstration, not an exercise

· Driven by a facilitator, not the user

· Limited usefulness for a usability test

· A poor detailed specification for writing the code

· Usually restricted to most common tasks

59. Write a note sketch creation process?

· Sketch (storyboard) the screens while determining:

§ The source of the screen’s information

§ The content and structure of individual screens

§ The overall order of screens and windows

· Use an erasable medium

· Sketch the screens needed to complete each task

· Try selected metaphors and change as necessary

· Storyboard common/critical/frequent scenarios first

· Follow from beginning to end

· Then, go back and build in exceptions

· Don’t get too detailed; exact control positioning is not important, just overall

order and flow

· Sketch storyboard as a team, including at least one user

· Develop online prototypes only when everyone agrees that a complete set has been satisfactorily sketched

60. What are the heuristic evaluation process?

· Preparing the sessions

Select evaluators

Prepare or assemble.(Project Overview)

Providing briefing to evaluate to review, preview etc.,

· Conducting sessions

Have each evaluator review the system alone.

The evaluator should establish own process or method of reviewing the system. Provide usage scenarios.

Detected problems should be related to the specific heuristics they violate. Comments ate recorded either by the evaluator or by the observer.

The observer may answer questions and provide hints. Restrict the length of the sessions to no more than 2 hrs.

· After the sessions

Hold a debriefing session including observers and design team members where each evaluator presents problem detected and the heuristic it violated.

After the debriefing session:

Generated a composite list of violation as a ratings form.

61. What is known as Think-Aloud Evaluations?

· Users perform specific tasks while thinking aloud

· Comments are recorded and analyzed

62. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cognitive walkthroughs?


· Allow a clear evaluation of the task flow early in the design process

· Do not require a functioning prototype

· Low cost

· Can be used to evaluate alternate solutions

· Can be performed by developers

· More structured than a heuristic evaluation

· Useful for assessing “exploratory learning”


· Tedious to perform

· May miss inconsistencies and general and recurring problems

63. Write a note on Focus Group?

In a Focus Group , a small group knowledgeable users and a moderator are brought together to discuss an interface design prototype or proposed sign tasks. The discussion is loosely structured but must be focused on a specific topic or topics.

64. How to evaluate the working system?

Collect information on actual system usage through:

· Interview and focus group discussions.

· Surveys.

· Support time.

· Online suggestion box or trouble reporting.

· Online bulletin board.

· User newsletters and conferences.

· User performance data logging.

Respond to users who provide feedback.