IT2353 WEB TECHNOLOGY Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai




Subject Code & Name: IT2353 WEB TECHNOLOGY Year / Sem : III / VI

Prepared By : A.Ramachandran / AP


Web Essentials: Clients, Servers, and Communication. The Internet-Basic Internet Protocols -The World Wide Web-HTTP request message-response message- Web Clients Web Servers-Case Study. Markup Languages: XHTML. An Introduction to HTML History-Versions-Basic XHTML Syntax and Semantics-Some Fundamental HTML Elements-Relative URLs-Lists-tables- Frames-Forms-XML Creating HTML Documents Case Study.

1. Define Internet?

The internet is the world’s largest IP-based network. It is an amorphous group of computers in many different countries on all seven continents that talk to each other using the IP protocol.

2. Define Protocol?

A protocol is a precise set of rules defining how components communicate, the format of addresses, how data is split into packets

3. Write the expansion for the following.

ARPA – Advanced Research Projects Agency UDP – User Datagram Protocol

POP3 – Post Office Protocol version 3

MIME – Multimedia Internet Message Extension Protocol

IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol

4. List out the basic Internet Protocols.


5. What are the two major protocols for accessing email from servers?

HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol and SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

6. Define HTTP Protocol.

HTTP is a form of stateless communication protocol which gives a detailed specification of how web client and server should communicate and the basic structure followed is known as Request-Response model.

7. What is the structure of HTTP Request Message?

Start line (Request method, Request URI portion of web address, HTTP version) Header fields

Blank line, Message Body

8. Write the structure of HTTP Response Message.

Status line Header fields Blank line Message Body

9. What are HTTP Status Codes?

This code provides the information about the HTTP Response from the server. All status code is three-digit decimal numbers. The first digit represents the general class of status code. The last two digits of a status code define the specific status within the specified class

10. List out the five classes of HTTP 1.1 status codes.

Digit Class

1 International

2 Success

3 Redirection

4 Client Error

5 Server Error

11. List out the available HTTP methods.


12. What is Cache?

Browsers often cache (save on disk) web pages so they can quickly reload the pages. If there are no changes between the last version stored in the cache and the current version on the Web, this helps speed up your browsing experience.

13. Define Web Clients.

A Web Client is software that accesses a web server by sending an HTTP request message and processing the resulting HTTP response.

14. What are Web Servers?

A Web Server is software that accepts HTTP requests from web clients and returns an appropriate resource in the HTTP response.

15. What are Secure Servers?

The standard means of indicating to a browser that it should encrypt an HTTP request is to use the https scheme on the URL for the request. For e.g. will cause the browser to attempt to send an encrypted HTTP GET request.

16. What is HTML?

Hypertext is ordinary text that has been designed with extra features such as formatting, images, multimedia and links to other documents. Markup is the process of taking ordinary text and adding extra symbols. Each of the symbols used for markup in HTML is a command that tells a browser how to display the text. HTML is the technical term for the format used to create normal web pages.

17. What are HTML forms?

An HTML form is used to allow a user to input data on a web page and the element used is form element and its main attributes are action and method. Its format is <form action

= http://www.example.orgmethod = “get”> <form>

18. How will you create a password field in a HTML form? (NOV/DEC2011)

The password field for a form is created by "input of type password".

19. What are entity references?

A reference which uses a mnemonic name for the character references in the HTML document always begins with ampersand (&) and ends with semicolon (;) is called an entity reference. E.G. &NBSP;, &QUOT; &LT; &GT; ETC.

20. What are character references?

This reference are second type of reference for each symbol in an HTML document and begins with a number sign which follows the ampersand beginning the reference and is followed by the Unicode Standard value of the character. E.g. &#60; , &#241; , &#945;.

21. Discuss about comments in HTML.

A comment in HTML, like comments in other computer languages, is something that is intended to be read by the programmers but to be ignored by the software processing the document. A comment begins with the string of characters <!—which must contain no white space. A comment ends with the string --> again with no white space.

<!-- Single line Comment Multi line Comments -->

22. What are the types of list supported by HTML?

There are three types of list supported by HTML.

Unordered – A bullet list

Ordered – a number list and Definition – A list of terms and definitions for each

23. Define URI. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

Uniform Resources Identifier (URI) is an identifier that is intended to be associated with a particular resource on World Wide Web.

24. What is #PCDATA?

The keyword #PCDATA (―Parsed Character Data‖) used in defining the character

data and mixed content types represent any string of characters excluding less-than and

ampersand, which are included because they represent the start characters for markup.

25. List out some important HTML elements.





<PRE>, <BR>,

<P>, <B>, <I>, <U>


<H1>…. <H6>

<LI>, <OL>, <UL>


26. List any four common browsers. (NOV/DEC2011)

1. Firefox

2. Internet Explorer

3. Chrome

4. Safari

27. What are the types of Entity Declarations?

XML DTD can contain entity declarations each of which begins with the keyword


followed by an entity name and its replacement text such as

<!ENTITY GT “&#62;”>

Types of Entities are i) General Entities ii) Parameter Entities iii) External Entities

28. What are attribute list declarations?

An attribute list declaration is included in the DTD for each element that has attributes and its declaration begins with the keyword ATTLIST followed by an element type name and specifies the names for all attributes of the named element, the type of data that can be used as the value of each attribute, and default value information.

29. List out the types of attribute list declarations?

NMTOKEN Name token

ID Identifier

IDREF Identifier Reference IDREFS Identifier Reference list CDATA Character Data

PCDATA Parsed Character Data

30. State the use of web server logs and list the contents of a message log.

The server log may be used to examine traffic patterns by time of day, day of week, referrer, or user agent. Efficient web site administration, adequate hosting resources and the fine tuning of sales efforts can be aided by analysis of the web server logs. Marketing departments of any organization that owns a website should be trained to understand these powerful tools.

31. Explain in brief the interaction between a web server and a Servlet.


• Makes a request by specifying a URL + additional info

• Basically a method call, the method and arguments.

Web Server

• Receives the request.

• Identifies the request as a servlet request

• Passes the request to the servlet container

Servlet Container

• Locates the servlet (Java code, loaded and running in the container JVM)

• Feeds the request parameters to the servlet


• Executes in a separate thread

• The servlet can store/retrieve objects (possibly session scoped) from the servlet container.

• Output is sent back to the requesting web browser.

• Servlet continues to be available in the servlet container.


Style Sheets: CSS-Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets-Features-Core Syntax-Style Sheets and HTML Style Rle Cascading and Inheritance-Text Properties-Box Model Normal Flow Box Layout-Beyond the Normal Flow-Other Properties-Case Study. Client- Side Programming: The JavaScript

Language-History and Versions Introduction JavaScript in Perspective-

Syntax-Variables and Data Types-Statements-Operators- Literals-Functions-Objects- Arrays-Built-in Objects-JavaScript Debuggers.

1. What are Style Sheets?

A style sheet provides a great deal of control over the presentation of a document.

2. Mention the need for cascading style sheets.

Need for CSS

Allow the information in the document to be presented without change in a variety of ways

Relatively easy to give all of the elements on a page consistent appearance

Both the document author and the person viewing the document can specify aspect of the document style as it is displayed by the browser

3. What is the use of @import at-rule?

The @import at-rule is used to input one style sheet fie into another one. For e.g @import

url(―common.css‖); will first read in rules from the file common.css before continuing with

the other rules in this style sheet.

4. What are external style sheets?

The style sheets which has been stored in separate files and included in an HTML

documents through the use of a link element are known as external style sheets.

5. What are embedded style sheets?

A style sheet that is included in the content of a style element is known as an embedded style sheet.

6. What are the two methods of implementing style sheets?

The two methods of implementing styles to HTML elements are

Rule Cascading


7. Give the syntax of CSS rule. (NOV/DEC2011)

A CSS rule has two main parts: a selector, and one or more declarations: The selector is normally the HTML element you want to style. Each declaration consists of a property and a value. The property is the style attribute you want to change. Each property has a value.

8. Who could be the origin of the declaration?

The origin of a style sheet declaration is who wrote the declaration, the person who wrote the HTML document , the person who is viewing the document, or the person who wrote the browser software that is displaying the document. Specifically the origin can be one of the following. i) Author ii) User Agent iii) User

9. List out some primary CSS text properties.

Some of the primary CSS text properties are:





10. Explain Normal Flow Box Layout.

It is a browser’s standard rendering model (normal flow processing), where every HTML element rendered by the browser has a corresponding regular box that contains the rendered content of the element.

11. List out the five priority bins of element declarations

Important declaration with user origin Important declaration with author origin Normal declaration with author origin Normal declaration with user origin

Any declaration with user agent origin

12. What is the use of list style property?

The list-style-type property can be used to vary the default styles used for bulleted and numbered list items. It can be applied to the li, ol, ul element types

13. Write the expansion for the following? i) ECMA ii) CSS iii) XHTML iv)XML

ECMA- European Computer Manufacturers Association

CSS- Cascading Style Sheets

XHTML- Extended Hyper Text Markup Language

XML- Extensible Markup Language

14. What is a Javascript statement? Give an example. (NOV/DEC2011)

A JavaScript statement is a command to a browser. The purpose of the command is to tell the browser what to do. This JavaScript statement tells the browser to write "Hello Dolly" to the web page: document. write ("Hello Dolly"); It is normal to add a semicolon at the end of each executable statement. Most people think this is a good programming practice, and most often you will see this in JavaScript examples on the web.

15. Why JavaScript has been called dynamically typed language?

JavaScript performs many conversions between data types automatically. It is also possible to store different data types in the same variable which is not possible in other languages like Java and C++ which are called statically typed languages. According to the data type stored the type of the variable is determined and it is not necessary for variable type declaration. Hence JavaScript is called dynamically typed language. e.g i=3


16. Explain array creation in Java script with example. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

Array can be defined in three ways i. Using the array constructor directly in a call with no argument. E.G: VAR ARY1=NEW ARRAY(); ARY1[0]=4; ARY1[1]=TRUE; ARY1[2]=”OK”

ii. By supplying two or more arguments to the array Constructor


iii. The Array built-in object can be used to construct object with special properties and that inherit various methods


17. What are the types of positioning?

Normal flow positioning Relative positioning Absolute positioning Float positioning

18. Define font family?

Font family is a collection of related fonts, and a font is a mapping from a character

(Unicode Standard code point) to a visual representation of the character (a glyph).

19. Define the term glyph.

Glyph is a rectangular character cell or the characters content area.

20. List out the class of selectors

i. ID Selectors

ii. Class and pseudo-class selectors

iii. Descendent and type selectors

iv. Universal selectors

21. What are Interpreted languages?

Programming languages that does not need to be compiled before execution are known as interpreted languages.

22. What are host objects?

Objects that are required by the ECMAScript definition for Javascript implementation is provided by the hosting environment are known as host objects.

23. What are native objects?

A built-in object is a native object that is automatically constructed during scripting engine initialization rather than being constructed during program execution. E.g. window

24. What are the two components of Javascript implementation?

The primary component is a scripting engine, which includes a Javascript interpreter as well as core ECMAScript functionality that must be present regardless of the scripting environment.

The second component is a hosting environment, which provides environment specific capabilities to Javascript programs running within the environment.

25. What do you mean by global object?

Global object is named window as global variables declared by your program are actually stored as properties of this object. All built-in and host objects are also stored as properties of global object

26. List out some of the built-in objects of JavaScript?

Built-in objects of JavaScript are STRING, NUMBER, BOOLEAN, DATE, MATH, REGEXP.

27. What are the six JavaScript data types?

i. Number

ii. String

iii. Boolean

iv. Null

v. Object

vi. Undefined

28. What is the use of typeof operator?

typeof is an operator that provides information about the data type of a value stored in a variable and also its use is to test that a variable has been defined before attempting to use it.

29. What are the three types of statements in JavaScript?

Expression statement: that consists entirely of an expression

Block statement: that consists of set of statements enclosed in braces { } Keyword statement: that begin with keywords such as var, if, for etc


Host Objects: Browsers and the DOM-Introduction to the Document Object Model DOM History and Levels-Intrinsic Event Handling-Modifying Element Style-The Document Tree-DOM Event Handling-Accommodating

Noncompliant Browsers Properties of window-Case Study. Server-Side Programming: Java Servlets- Architecture -Overview-A Servlet-Generating Dynamiccontent-Life Cycle-Parameter Data-Sessions-Cookies-URL Rewriting-Other Capabilities-Data Storage Servlets and Concurrency-Case Study-Related Technologies.

1. What is DOM?

DOM (Document Object Model) is an API that defines how JavaScript programs can access and manipulate the HTML document currently displayed by a browser. It includes the definition of the properties of document object, many of which are themselves objects with their own properties.

2. List out some of the HTML intrinsic event attributes. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

onload, onclick, ondblclick, onmousedown, onmouseup, onmousemove, onfocus, onblur, onkeypress, onkeydown, onselect, onchange, onsubmit, onreset etc.

3. What is Node object?

Every element in a document tree refers to a Node object. Some nodes of the tree are

JavaScript objects corresponding to HTML elements such html or body.

4. List out the properties of a Node object.

Properties of a Node object are nodeType


parentNode childNodes previousSibling nextSibling attributes

5. What do you mean by document node?

The document object itself is considered to be DOM tree node with node type 9 and symbolic constant DOCUMENT_NODE and it has its own properties and methods

6. List out some possible values for the nodeType property of Node instances.


Symbolic Constant

Host Object Type



















7. List out some properties of the document object.


8. Explain Event object.

In the DOM event model, when an event occurs, an instance of a host object named Event is created. This instance contains information about the event, including the type of event and a reference to the document node corresponding to the markup element that generated the event which is called the event target. The Event instance properties type and target provides this information.

9. What is the important feature of dynamic positioning? (APRIL/MAY 2008)

Dynamic positioning allows you to tell the browser exactly where to put a block of content without using tables.

10. List the possible opacity attributes of dynamic positioning. (APRIL/MAY 2008) HTML: The basic building block.

Document Object Model: The objects that make up the contents of any Web page.

JavaScript: A scripting language that can manipulate the objects.

Positioning: The placement of objects within the document.

11. What is Event Listener?

An Event Listener is simply a function that takes a single argument that is an instance of an Event. A call to the addEventListener() method on a node object associates an event listener with a type of event occurring on that node.

12. What are the types of Events?

i. HTML intrinsic events

ii. HTML Events

iii. UI Events

iv. Mutation Events

13. What do you mean by bubbling listener?

Bubbling listener is a listener associated with an ancestor of the target node and that was created with a call to addEventListener() and had its third argument set to false

e.g. ancestor.addEventListener(‘click”,listener3,false);

14. List out some common window object methods.

alert(String), confirm(String), prompt(String, String), open(String, String) close(), focus(), blur(), print()

15. List out some common window object methods related to time.

i) setTimeout(String, Number)

ii) clearTimeout(Number)

iii) setInterval(String, Number)

iv) clearInterval(Number)

16. What is DHTML?

The combination of HTML plus JavaScript and the DOM is referred to as Dynamic HTML (DHTML), and an HTML document that contains scripting is called a dynamic document.

17. Define servlet.

A servlet is a java class that a web server instantiates when the server is started. A

particular method is called in this instance when the server receives certain HTTP requests.

18. What are servlet life cycle methods?

The methods of servlet life cycle are


19. What are servlet listener classes?

Listener classes is used to initialize a web application consisting of multiple servlets rather than a single servlet and can be created and registered with the server so that they will be called when certain event occurs, including life-cycle events.

20. What are the functions of doGet() and doPost() methods?

doGet()-Browser will append the query string it constructs to the form’s action

URL and performs an HTTP GET using the resulting URL.

DOPOST() – Same query string will be constructed , but it will be passed to the server via the body of the HTTP request rather than as part of the URL.

21. Define Session.

Collection of HTTP requests, all associated with a single session ID, is known as a

session. Sessions are maintained by communication between clients and servers.

22. How the session is terminated?

By default the time interval for a session is 20 minutes.

The session can also be forced to terminate by calling invalidate() method.

The time interval for the session can be set using setMaxInactiveInterval() method.

23. Explain cookies. (APRIL/MAY 2008), (APRIL/MAY 2010)

Cookies are some little information that can be left on your computer by the other computer when we access an internet.

24. Define cookie.

A cookie is a name-value pair that a web server sends to a client machine as part of an HTTP response, specifically through the Set-cookie header field.

25. Explain the difference between get request and post request type.

The HTML specifications technically define the difference between "GET" and "POST" so that former means that form data is to be encoded (by a browser) into a URL while the latter means that the form data is to appear within a message body.

26. List out the methods of Cookie class.

Cookie, getName(), getValue(), setMaxAge()

27. Define Thread.

A thread is the Java VM’s abstract representation of the processing to be performed to accomplish a particular task, possibly concurrently with other tasks.

28. Write the code to return the full URL of a document. (NOV/DEC2011)



<title>Javascript get url</title>








29. How is session tracking achieved by URL rewriting? (NOV/DEC2011)

In URL rewriting the server passes a session ID by adding it to every servlet URL appearing in any page sent to the client. It involves rewriting every URL referencing the servlet in the href attribute of any anchor and the action attribute of any form output by the servlet

30. Expand the following : i) HTTP, ii) JDBC iii) URL iv) SQL

HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol JDBC- Java Data Base Connectivity URL – Uniform Resource Locator

SQL- Structured Query Language

31. List out the methods of HTTP.


doPost() doOptions() doPut() doTrace() doDelete() doHead()


Representing Web Data: XML-Documents and Vocabularies-Versions and Declaration -Namespaces JavaScript and XML: Ajax-DOM based XML processing Event-oriented Parsing: SAX-Transforming XML Documents-Selecting XML Data: XPATH-Template based Transformations: XSLT-Displaying XML Documents in Browsers-Case Study- Related Technologies. Separating Programming and Presentation: JSP Technology Introduction-JSP and Servlets - Running JSP Applications Basic JSP-JavaBeans Classes and JSP-Tag Libraries and Files-Support for the Model-View-Controller Paradigm-Case Study-Related Technologies.

1. What is well-formed document?

An HTML or XML document is said to be well formed when it contains elements with proper tagging and no syntactic errors.

2. What is DTD?

A Document Type Declaration enables an XML parser to verify whether an XML

document is valid, i.e. its elements contain the proper attributes in the proper sequence.

3. What is XML Namespace? (APRIL/MAY 2011)

An XML namespace is a collection of element and attribute names. Each namespace has a unique name that provides a means for document authors to unambiguously refer to elements with the same name in order to prevent collisions.

4. What is the use of XML declaration?

XML declaration is a special tag used to specify the version of XML used to write the document and optionally some additional meta-information about the document such as the character set/encoding used. For e.g the syntax of XML declaration is

<? XML VERSION=”1.0”?>

5. What is RSS?

RSS stands for RDF (Resource Description Framework) Site Summary and is also known as Rich Site Summary and Really Simple Syndication. RSS is popular and simple XML format designed to share headlines and web content between Web sites.

6. What are the types of XML Parsers?

There are two types

Validating Parsers

Non-Validating Parsers

7. What are XML Parsers?

XML Parsers are used to check whether the document is well formed and valid.

8. How is XML parsing done with SAX? (NOV/DEC2011)

A SAX parser is a mechanism for transforming an XML text document into stream of events corresponding to the markup and character data contained in the original document.

9. Explain Event-oriented parsing.

In this parsing, Parser interacts with an application as its reads an XML document when certain events occur and this approach is used by SAX (Simple API for XML) based parsers.

10. What are the components of XSL?

XSLT-XSL Transformations which defines the semantics of the various elements and attributes of the XSL namespace.

XPATH – XML Path Language which defines the syntax and semantics of many of the attribute values used in XSL elements for accessing positions of the input XML document

XSL-FO – XSL Formatting Objects is a separate vocabulary for defining style properties of an XML document.

11. What is the purpose of XSLT? (NOV/DEC2011)

The XSLT stands for XSL Transformations and XSL stands for eXtensible Stylesheet Language. The XSLT is used for defining the XML document transformation and presentations.

12. What are XML Schemas?

XML Schemas are part of the XML vocabulary and its addresses the standard for XML document validation by including a definition of a collection of standard data types which are used to describe data structures.

13. Write the expansion for the following. i) XSL ii) JAXP III) CGI iv) JSP

JAXP – Sun Java SPI for XML Processing

XSL - Extensible Style Sheet Language

CGI – Common Gateway Interface

JSP – Java Server Pages

14. Define Deployment Descriptor.

Deployment descriptor which is stored in a file called web.xml. The deployment descriptor specifies various configuration parameters such as the name used to invoke the servlet (i.e. its alias), a description of the servlet, the servlets fully qualified class name and a servlet mapping (i.e., the path or paths that cause the servlet container to invoke the servlet).

15. What is JSP?

JSP, an extension of servlet technology simplifies the delivery of dynamic web content. They enable web application programmers to create dynamic content by reusing predefined components and by interacting with components using server side scripting. JSP programmers can reuse JavaBeans and create custom tag libraries that encapsulate complex, dynamic functionality

16. Write some commonly used video file formats. (APRIL/MAY 2008)






17. What is WAR file?

A Web application has a well-known directory structure in which all the files are part of the application reside. This directory structure can be created by the server administrator in the webapps directory, or the entire directory structure can be archived in a Web Application Archive file. Such an archive is known as a WAR file and ends with the .war file extension. If a WAR file is placed in the webapps directory, then when the Tomcat server begins execution, it extracts the contents of the WAR file into the appropriate webapps subdirectory structure.

18. Explain in brief about JavaScriplet. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

JSP Scriptlets or scripting elements, enable programmers to insert Java code that interacts with components in a JSP and possible other Web application components to perform request processing.

19. What are the types of directives in JSP. (APRIL/MAY 2008)

There are two types of directives in JSP

page: Multiple page attributes can be included in a single page directive using the standard XML syntax of separating attribute specification with white space

include: It imports text from another file into the JSP document at the point at which

the directive appears.

20. What are JSP scripting components?

JSP scripting components include Scriptlets, comments, expressions, declarations and escape sequences.

21. List out the scope of Implicit Objects

Implicit objects have four scopes: application, page, request and session.

The JSP and servlet container application owns object with application scope.

Any servlet or JSP can manipulate such objects.

Objects with page scope exist only in the page that defines them. Each page has its own instances of the page-scope implicit objects.

Objects with request scope exist for the duration of the request.

Objects with session scope exist for the client’s entire browsing session.

22. What are JSP Standard Actions?

JSP standard actions provide JSP implementers with access to several of the most common tasks performed in a JSP, such as including content from other resources, forwarding requests to other resources and interacting with JavaBeans. JSP containers process actions at request time. Actions are delimited by <jsp:action> and </jsp:action>, where action is the standard action name.

23. What are directives?

Directives are messages to the JSP container that enable the programmer to specify page settings, to include content from other resources and to specify custom tag libraries for use in a JSP. Directives delimited by <%@ and %> are processed at translation time. Thus directives do not produce any immediate output, because they are produced before the JSP accepts any requests. There are two directive types namely page directive and include directive.

24. What is page Directive?

The page Directive specifies global settings for the JSP in the JSP container. There can be many page directives, provided that there is only one occurrence of each attribute. The only exception to this is the import attribute, which can be used repeatedly to import Java packages used in the JSP.

25. What is include Directive?

The include directive includes the content of another resource once, at JSP translation time. The include directive has only one attribute, file–that specifies the URL of the resource to include. The difference between directive include and action <jsp: include> is noticeable only if the included content changes.

26. What is the use of <jsp: useBean> Action?

Action <jsp: useBean> enables a JSP to manipulate a Java object. This action creates a Java object or locates an existing object for use in the JSP. If attributes class and beanName are not specified, the JSP container attempts to locate an existing object of the type specified in attribute type.

27. List out JSTL functional areas.

The JSTL is divided into several separate functional areas, each with its own namespace. List of all the JSTL functional areas along with the suffices of the respective namespace names are as follows

Functional Area

Namespace Name Suffix



XML Processing








28. What are the components of Model View Controller Paradigm?

Model: These are software components that represent the persistent data of the application and server-side processing performed on this data.

View: This component generally obtain data from the request and/or model components and then generate an HTTP response that presents a formatted view of this data.

Controller: This component receives all incoming HTTP requests and provides a single point of entry to the application and does application-wide tasks such as initialization, logging, and controlling access to the application.

29. Discuss about PHP.

PHP, an acronym with the infinitely recursive definition ―PHP: Hypertext

Preprocessor‖ is a Perl-like scripting language that can be embedded in HTML documents

such as Java Scriptlets can be embedded in JSP pages or scripting code in ASP with tags

having the syntax <?php?>


Web Services: JAX-RPC-Concepts-Writing a Java Web Service-Writing a Java Web Service Client-Describing Web Services: WSDL- Representing Data Types: XML Schema- Communicating Object Data: SOAP Related Technologies-Software Installation-Storing Java Objects as Files-Databases and Java Servlets.

1. What is the concept behind JAX-RPC technology? (NOV/DEC 2011)

The Web services are the software systems that are displayed by the web browser using the web protocol. These software systems are used by the some of the application rather than by end-users directly.

2. What are Web Services?

Web Services are software systems that are designed to be accessed using web protocols and technologies that are intended to be used by other software applications rather than directly by end users.

3. What is meant by WSDL? (APRIL/MAY 2011)

WSDL is Web Services Definition Language which is based on XML. WSDL defines the web service like operation, parameter, return values and communication protocols.

4. What is the use of WSDL?

Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) is used to describe the operations provided by a web service which includes defining the data to be passed from the client to the operation as well as the return value of the operation using SOAP.

5. What is XSL and why it is used. (APRIL/MAY 2008)

The Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is an XML vocabulary typically used to transform XML document from one form to another form. XSL document are well- formed XML documents.

6. Write the expansion for the following i) SOAP ii) JWSDP iii) SAAJ iv) ODBC

SOAP- Simple Object Access Protocol JWSDP – Java Web Services Developer Pack SAAJ – SOAP with Attachments API for Java ODBC – Open Data Base Connectivity

7. When it is useful to redirect a request to a different resource. (APRIL/MAY 2008)

Sometimes it is useful to redirect a request to a different resource. For example, a servlet could determine the type of the client browser and redirect the request to a Web page that was designed specifically for that browser. The RedirectServlet receives a page parameter as part of a get request, then uses that parameter to redirect the request to a different resource.

8. Define service endpoint interface.

Service endpoint interface is a Java interface that specifies the operations that will be provided by the service which is essentially an API for the service.

9. What is the basic difference between get request and post request types for service endpoint interface?

The basic rules for service endpoint interface are

The interface must extend directly or indirectly the java.rmi.Remote interface. Every method in the interface must throw java.rmi.RemoteException.

Every method parameter and every return value must conform to certain restrictions on the allowed data types

The interface must not contain any public static final declarations.

10. What are the tools available in JWSDP 1.3?

Web services can be built using two tools.

 wscompile: converts Java files into a WSDL document along with another intermediate output file.

 wsdeploy: is used to package our service before finally deploying it as a web


11. What are built-in data types for XML Schema?

The data types defined by the XML Schema specification itself are called its built-in data types. For e.g xsd:integer, xsd:decimal, xsd:string, xsd:boolean, xsd:float etc.

12. What are the classifications XML Schema data types?

There are two classes of XML Schema data types. They are (i)Simple (ii) Complex

13. What are simple and complex data types?

A simple type is a data type whose values are represented in XML documents by character data and are used to represent individual values.

A complex type is a data type whose values are represented using markup and are used to represent structured data.

14. How can the user-defined simple types be defined?

The user-defined simple types can be defined by specifying one or more restrictions on the values of a simple built-in type. All built-in data type has various facets that can be used within a restriction to form a simple user-defined type such as base, enumeration. length, minLength, maxLength, minInclusive, maxInclusive etc.

15. Define the term RPC.

Remote Procedure Call is the generic term used for the type of communication used to describe web service operations when the client makes a call to a method or procedure that resides on another machine (remotely)

16. Write the steps to obtain the command prompt in Windows XP.

The steps to obtain the command prompt in Windows XP are as follows

Click the Start button

Select Run

Type cmd in the Run window

17. What are Environment Variables?

Environment Variables are variables used to tell applications where to look for certain files. For example, the CLASSPATH environment variable can be used to tell the Java Compiler and virtual machine where to look for user-defined Java class files.

18. Define Serialization. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

Serialization is the process of writing the state of the object to the byte stream. This technique is useful when we want to store the current state of the object to the file.

19. What is the functionality of object serialization?

When an object Is serialized, the data contained within an object is transformed into a number of bytes representing the data can then be stored in a file and transmitted over a communications network, or otherwise treated like any other stream of data.

20. In what ways the objects can be serialized?

The objects belonging to a class can be serialized if the class implements the interface either directly or indirectly by extending a super class that is serializable or by implementing an interface that is a sub interface of Serializable.

21. What is the use of Connection object?

A Connection object can be used to obtain information about the database, such as the table it contains, as well as to set parameters of the interaction with the database.

22. List out the objects used for database access using JDBC.

Condition Statement Result Set

23. List out the default ports of Tomcat Web Server and Java Web Server

Tomcat – 8080

JWS – 9090

HTTP – 80

SMTP – 25

Telnet – 23

POP3 – 110

24. What is UDDI? (NOV/DEC 2011)

Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) is a directory service where businesses can register and search for Web services. UDDI is a platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services by using the Internet. UDDI stands for Universal Description, Discovery and Integration. It is a directory for storing information about web services. It is a directory of web service interfaces described by WSDL. It communicates via SOAP. It is built into the Microsoft .NET platform

25. What is port?

Ports are purely abstractions in the computer’s memory and do not represent anything physical like a serial port or parallel port.

Each port is identified by a number from 1 to 65,535. Each port can be allocated to a particular service.

Port numbers from 1 to 1023 are reserved for well-known services such as FTP, HTTP, e-mail, finger etc.