IT2353 –WEB TECHNOLOGY–Unit IV–2 marks with ans–Reg 2008

Anna University



Regulation 2008

Two Marks with Answers

Unit IV



Year / Class : 111rd yr IT

Semester : 6th sem

UNIT - 4


Two Marks with Answers


• XML allows document authors to create custom elements.

• This extensibility can result in naming collisions (i.e. different elements that have the same name) among elements in an XML document.

• An XML namespace is a collection of element and attribute names. Each namespace has a unique name that provides a means for document authors to unambiguously refer to elements with the same name (i.e. prevent collisions).


• CML – Chemical Markup Language – for chemical equations

• MML - Mathematical Markup Language – for Mathematical equations and derivations.

• Used in bio medical line.


Extensible Markup Language, derived from SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language.

XML is widely supported open technology (i.e. non-proprietary) for electronic data exchange and storage.

XML is actually a language used to create other markup languages to describe data in a structured manner.

• XML documents contain only data, not formatting instructions, so applications that process XML documents must decide how to manipulate or display the document’s data.


• DTD means Document Type Definition.

• DTD file is similar to CSS file, because DTD also contains only styles.

• DTD contains various styles which are to be applied in XML document .

• Like .CSS file .DTD file also should be linked with XML program.

Styles in XML program should be save with .xsl (Xml Style Sheet Language) extension.

5. Define XML.

• XML is a meta-markup language that provides a format for describing structured data. This facilitates more structured declarations of content and more meaningful search results across multiple platforms.

6. Define DTD.

• A DTD is a set of rules that specifies how to use XML markup. It contains specifications for each element, including what the element\'s attributes are, what values the attributes can take on and what elements can be contained in others.

7. What are the XML rules for distinguishing between the content of a document and the XML markup element?

1.The start of XML markup elements is identified by either the less than symbol (<) or the ampersand (&) character

2.Three other characters, the greater than symbol (>), the apostrophe or single quote (‘) and the double quotation marks (“) are used by XML for markup.

3.To use these special characters as content within your document, you must use the corresponding general XML entity.

8. What are the different XSLT elements?

• Stylesheet

• Value-of

• For-each

• Sort

• Text

9. What is VoiceXML?

VoiceXML is an emerging standard for speech-enabled applications.Its XML syntax defines elements to control a sequence of interaction dialogs between a user and an implementation platform. VoiceXML uses XML text to drive voice dialogs.

10. What is XQuery?

XQuery is a W3C initiative to define a standard set of constructs for querying and searching XML documents. XQuery brings database query processing to XML.

11. What is XForm?

XForm is an XML approach that overcomes the limitations of HTML forms. XForm includes a variety of buttons, scrollbars and menus. It generates XML form data as output. XForm\'s model has the capability to work with the variety of user interfaces.

12. What is XPath?

Xpath is used to navigate XML tree structures. XPath gets its name from its use of a path notation to navigate through the hierarchical tree structure of an XML document. It is an important XML technology due to its role in providing a common syntax and semantics for functionality in both XSLT and XPointer.

13. what are complex types?

complex types are an important aspects of xml schema that allow application developers to define application-specific datatypes that can be checked by programs that check XML document for validity. XML schema divides complex types into two categories: those with simple content & those with complex content.

14. What all are the presentation technologies?

CSS - cascading syle sheets

XSL - provides users with ability to describe how xml data & document are to be formated.

Xforms - it is a GUI toolkit for creating user interfaces & delivering the results in XML.

Xhtml - it is used yo replace HTML with more flexable approach to display webcontent.

VoiceXML - it is an emerging standard for speech enabled application.

15. what are all the Transformation techniques?

XSLT - it is an XML- based languages used to transform XML documents into others format such as HTML for web display.

XLINK - highlighting that element or taking the user directly to that point in the document. XPATH - xpath gets its name from its use of a payh notation to navigate through the hierarchical tree structure of an XML document XQUERY - it is w3c initiative to define a standard set of constructs for querying & searching XML document.

16. .Explain any two XForm implementations?

X-Smiles - it is a java based XML implements a large part of X-forms & uses X-form together with XSL-FO on user interface side. Mozquito Xforms preview - is an XML based Web developement s/w that implements Xforms & gives current Web browser the ability to send,receive & process XML document.

17. what are the Importants of SAX?

SAX is an event driven.

SAX supports processing pipelines.

SAX requires programmers to maintain state.

18. What is metadata?

Literally data about data. XML element and attribute names are considered metadata in that they may be used to describe the data contained in a document. Metadata isn’t needed but it certainly helps.

19. What is DTD? How is it different from XML?

DTD stands for Document Type Definition

DTD is a description of the structure & the elements and attributes that define a class of XML document.

DTD can be declared both internally in a XML document and as an external reference.

DTD Xml Schema

Dtd is used to define the structure of an xml document.

Xml schema is used to define the structure of an xml document.

Data type for elements limited to text. 2. Numerous predefined data types available.

Complex data types cannot be defined. 3. Ability to define complex type that map to application data structure.

Dtd document is stored as “filename.dtd” 4.Xml schema document is stored as “filename.xml”

20. What is XML? How it is different from HTML?

Xml is the text based make up language that stores the data in a structured format using meaningful tags. It allows computers to store and exchange data in a format that can be interpreted by any other computer with different hardware or software specification.


.xml stands for Extensible markup language

HTML stands for Hyper Text Mark Up

Language.2.Several languages are derived from xml & wml

HTML can be derived from xml.

Xml uses indefinite, user defined,

meaningful set of tags which can be used to include XML data in the webpage.

HTML uses a fixed set of tags which can be used to specify the appearance of the webpage.

21. Define Directives.

• Directives are JSP elements that provide global information about an entire JSP page,

22. Write down the various attributes for the page directives in JSP.

• The page directive defines information that will be globally available for that Java Server Page,

• language

• extends

• import

• session

• buffer

• contenttype

23. What is a Hidden Comment?

A comments that documents the JSP page but is not sent to the client. The JSP engine ignores a hidden comment, and does not process any code within hidden comment tags. A hidden comment is not sent to the client, either in the displayed JSP page or the HTML page source. The hidden comment is useful when you want to hide or \"comment out\" part of your JSP page.

24. You can use any characters in the body of the comment except the closing --%> combination. If you need to use --%> in your comment, you can escape it by typing --%\\>.


<%-- comment --%>


<%@ page language=\"java\" %>


<head><title>A Hidden Comment </title></head>


<%-- This comment will not be visible to the colent in the page source --%>



25. What is a Expression?

An expression tag contains a scripting language expression that is evaluated, converted to a String, and inserted where the expression appears in the JSP file. Because the value of an expression is converted to a String, you can use an expression within text in a JSP file. Like

<%= someexpression %>

<%= (new java.util.Date()).toLocaleString() %>

You cannot use a semicolon to end an expression

26. What is a Declaration?

A declaration declares one or more variables or methods for use later in the JSP source file.

A declaration must contain at least one complete declarative statement. You can declare any number of variables or methods within one declaration tag, as long as they are separated by semicolons. The declaration must be valid in the scripting language used in the JSP file.

<%! somedeclarations %>

<%! int i = 0; %>

<%! int a, b, c; %>

27. What is a Scriptlet?

A scriptlet can contain any number of language statements, variable or method declarations, or expressions that are valid in the page scripting language.Within scriptlet tags, you can

1.Declare variables or methods to use later in the file (see also Declaration).

2.Write expressions valid in the page scripting language (see also Expression).

3.Use any of the JSP implicit objects or any object declared with a <jsp:useBean> tag.

You must write plain text, HTML-encoded text, or other JSP tags outside the scriptlet.

Scriptlets are executed at request time, when the JSP engine processes the client request. If the scriptlet produces output, the output is stored in the out object, from which you can display it.

28. What are implicit objects? List them?

Certain objects that are available for the use in JSP documents without being declared first. These objects are parsed by the JSP engine and inserted into the generated servlet. The implicit objects re listed below










29. Difference between forward and sendRedirect?

When you invoke a forward request, the request is sent to another resource on the server, without the client being informed that a different resource is going to process the request. This process occurs completly with in the web container. When a sendRedirtect method is invoked, it causes the web container to return to the browser indicating that a new URL should be requested. Because the browser issues a completly new request any object that are stored as request attributes before the redirect occurs will be lost. This extra round trip a redirect is slower than forward.

30. What are the different scope valiues for the <jsp:useBean>?

The different scope values for <jsp:useBean> are





31. Explain the life-cycle mehtods in JSP?

THe generated servlet class for a JSP page implements the HttpJspPage interface of the javax.servlet.jsp package. Hte HttpJspPage interface extends the JspPage interface which inturn extends the Servlet interface of the javax.servlet package. the generated servlet class thus implements all the methods of the these three interfaces. The JspPage interface declares only two mehtods - jspInit() and jspDestroy() that must be implemented by all JSP pages regardless of the client-server protocol. However the JSP specification has provided the HttpJspPage interfaec specifically for the JSp pages serving HTTP requests. This interface declares one method _jspService().

The jspInit()- The container calls the jspInit() to initialize te servlet instance.It is called before any other method, and is called only once for a servlet instance.

The _jspservice()- The container calls the _jspservice() for each request, passing it the request and the response objects.

The jspDestroy()- The container calls this when it decides take the instance out of service. It is the last method called n the servlet instance.

32. What is a output comment?

A comment that is sent to the client in the viewable page source.The JSP engine handles an output comment as uninterpreted HTML text, returning the comment in the HTML output sent to the client. You can see the comment by viewing the page source from your Web browser.

JSP Syntax

<!-- comment [ <%= expression %> ] -->

Example 1

<!-- This is a commnet sent to client on

<%= (new java.util.Date()).toLocaleString() %>-->

Displays in the page source:

<!-- This is a commnet sent to client on January 24, 2004 -->

33. Define ASP.

Active Server Pages (ASP) is a server-side scripting technology that can be used to create dynamic and interactive web applications.

34. What are the ASP objects?

1.Application -It manages your web application.

2.Session -It manages and tracks individual user sessions.

3.Server -It controls behavior of your web server

4.Response -It transmits information from the web server to web browser

5.Request -It retrieves information from the browser for processing at the server.

35. What is global.asa file?

The global.asa file is a Active Server Application file you can track and manage the application and session events, variables and objects. When you start the application the server will load the global.asa file into memory.

36. Define response object and list its methods.

The response object transmits information from the web server to browser.

Methods are:








37. Define JSP.

Java Server Pages (JSP) are simple technology used to generate dynamic HTML on the server side.

38. Define Directives.

Directives are JSP elements that provide global information about an entire JSP page,

39. Write down the various attributes for the page directives in JSP.

The page directive defines information that will be globally available for that Java Server


1. language

2. extends

3. import

4. session

5. buffer

6. contenttype

40. Define XML.

XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language

XML is a markup language much like HTML

XML was designed to carry data, not to display data

XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags

XML is designed to be self-descriptive

XML is a W3C Recommendation

41. .Define DTD.

A Document Type Definition (DTD) defines the legal building blocks of an XML document. It defines the document structure with a list of legal elements and attributes.

A DTD can be declared inline inside an XML document, or as an external reference.

42. Mention the rules of well-formed XML.

43. What is DTD? Explain it with example.

44. Write short notes on ASP.

45. Write short notes on JSP.

46. Explain about plug-ins.

47. Explain in detail about User Events Monitoring.

48. Discuss in detail about Oracle database

49. Explain about ADO database connectivity.

50. Explain about JDBC connectivity.

51. Write short notes on XML History

52. What are the different revolution in which XML is playing a major role?

53. What are the advantages of xml?

54. What is webservices?

55. What are all the xml language basics?

56. What is entities?Give Example.

57. What is the role of xml?

58. What are Xforms?

59. What is VoiceXML?

60. What is XPath?

61. What are the Element Naming Rules used in XML?

62. What are the advantages of schema over DTD?

63. What are the datatypes in an xml schema?

64. What is DOM? What are the different levels of DOM?

65. What are the drawbacks of CSS?

66. Explain the creation of external DTD with example?

67. What is valid xml document?