Anna University, Chennai
Civil Engineering CE 2304 - ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIT I PLANNING FOR WATERSUPPLY SYSTEM
1. What are the methods of population forecasting?
Arithmetic increase method
Geometric increase method
Method of varying increment (or) Incremental increase method
Decreasing rate of growth method
Simple graphical method
Comparative graphical method
Master plan method (or) zoning method
The logistic curve method
2. Define design period?
The future period for which a provision is mode in the water supply scheme is known as design period.
3. What are the factors governing the design period?
The factors governing design period are,
a. Design period should not exceed the life period of the structure.
b. If the funds are not in a sufficient, the design period as to be decreased. c. The rate of interest on borrowing and the additional money invested.
4. What are various type of water demand?
a. Domestic water demand b. Industrial
c. Institution and commercial d. Demand for public use
e. Fire demands
5. What are the various type of water available on the earth?
1. Surface sources such as a. ponds and lakes
b. Stream and rivers c. Storage reservoirs d. Ocean.
2. Sub surface sources a. Spring
b. Infiltration galleries c. Infiltration wells
d. Wells and tube wells
6. What is hydrologic cycle?
Water is lost to the atmosphere as vapor from the earth. Which is then precipitated back in the form of
rain, snow, hail dew, sleet or frost etc.This process is known as hydrologic cycle.
7. What are rivers? What are the types of river?
Rivers are the most important sources of water for public water supply schemes. Rivers are of two types,
a. Perennial rivers.
b. Non perennial rivers.
8. What is jack well?
The various infiltration wells are connected by porous pipes to a sump well called jack well.
9. What are springs?
The natural out flow of ground water at the earth surface is called as springs.
10. What are the types of springs?
a. Gravity springs. b. Surface springs. c. Artesian springs.
11. What are artesian springs?
The pervious layer which contains water combined between two impervious layers are called artesian springs.
12. What are the different types of wells?
a. Open wells
1. Shallow wells.
2. Deep wells. b. Tube wells.
13. What is artesian spring?
The pervious layer which contains water combined between two impervious layers is called artesian
14. What are the factors governing the selection of a particular source of water?
The factors governing are as follows a. the quantity of available water
b. The quality of available water
c. Distance of the source of supply
d. General topography of the intervening area e. Elevation of the source of supply.
15. What are the factors affecting per capita demand?
The factors affecting per capita demand are, a. Climatic condition.
b. Habit of people. c. Size of city.
d. Cost of water. e. Industry.
f. Pressure in water tank. g. Quantity of water.
h. System of sanitation. i. Supply of system.
16. What are the factors governing design period?
The factors governing design period are,
a. Design period should not exceed the life period of structure.
b. If the funds are not in the sufficient the design period should has to be decreased.
c. The rate of interest is less for the borrowing funds.
d. The of population increases due to industries and commercial establishment.
UNIT II CONVEYANCE SYSTEM
17. What are various type pressure pipes?
a. Cast iron pipes b. Steel pipes
c. Rick pipes
d. Home steel pipes e.Vitrified clay pipes
f. Asbestos cement pipes
g. Miscellaneous type of pipes.
18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cast iron pipes?
a. Moderate in cost b. Easy to join
c. Strong and durable d. Corrosion resistant
a. They can not be used for high pressures generally not used for pressures above
c. When large they are heavy and uneconomical.
d. They are likely to break during transportation or while making connection.
19. What are types of joint? a. Socket and spigot joint B.Flanged joint
c. Mechanical joint called dresser coupling d.Elexible joints
e. Expansion joints
20. How the corrosion of metal pipes is reduced?
The corrosion of metal pipes can be reduced by following method a. Protective coating
b. Selecting proper pipe material c. Quality of water
d. Cathodic protection.
21. What are the factors governing location of intake?
a. Intake structures are nearer to the treatment.
b. Intake structures must never be located near the disposal of water.
c. Intake structures should never be located near the navigation channel. d. There should be sufficient scope for future expansion.
22. What are the types of intake?
1. Simple submerge intake. a. Simple concrete blocks. b. Rock fill timber blocks.
2. Intake structures. a. Wet intake.
b. Dry intake.
23. What are vitrified clay pipes?
They are not generally used as pressure pipe for carrying because they are weak in tension. They are
extensively used for carrying sewage and drainage at partial depth.
24. What are the advantages and disadvantages of RCC pipes?
a. They can resist excessive compressive load and do not collapse under normal vacuums.
b. They are not corroded from inside by normal portable water. Disadvantages:
a. By means of acid they are corroded.
b. They cannot with stand very high pressure.
25. What are tube wells?
Tube wells which a long pipe or a tube is bored or drilled deep in to the ground.
26. What are the various methods of purification of water?
The various methods of purification of water are, a. Screening.
b. Plain sedimentation.
c. Sedimentation aided with coagulation. d. Filteration.
e. Disinfection. f. Aeration.
h. Miscellaneous treatments such as fluoridation, recarbornation, liming, desalination.
UNIT -3 WATER TREATMENT
27. Define detention period?
Detention period of settling tank may be defined as the average theoretical time required for the water to flow through tank length.
28. Define coagulation?
The process of addition and mixing the chemical is called coagulation.
29. Define filtration? What are the 2 types of filter?
The process of passing the water through the beds of such granular materials is known as filtration.
The two types of filters are, a. Slow sand gravity filter. b. Rapid sand gravity filter.
30. What is schmutzdecke or dirty skin?
The harmless compound so formed, generally form a layer on the top which is called schmutzdecke or
dirty skin. The layer helps in absorbing and straining out the impurities.
31. Define uniform coefficient
It is defined as the ratio of the sieve size in mm through which 60% of the samples of sand will pass, to
the effective size of the sand.
32. Define sterilization?
The chemical used in killing these bacteria are known as disinfectants and the process is known as
disinfection or sterilization.
33. What is chloramine?
Chloramine is the disinfectant compounds which are formed by the reaction between ammonia and
34. What is softening?
The reduction or removal of hardness from water is known as water softening.
35. Define alkalinity?
It is defined as the quantity of ions in water that will react to neutralize the hydrogen ion. It will thus
represent the ability of water to neutralize acid.
36. What is permutit?
The most common artificial zeolite is a white colored substance called permutit manufactured from
feldspar, kaolin, clay, and soda.
37. Differentiate between slow and rapid sand filter with respect to
(a). Rate of filtration. (b). loss of head.
38. What are the methods of removing permanent hardness?
The methods removing permanent hardness are, a. Lime soda process.
b. Base exchange process called zeolite process. c. Demineralization.
39. How are aeration water carried out?
Aeration water are carried out as follows, a. By using spray nozzles.
b. By permitting water to trickle over the cascades. c. By air diffusion.
d. By using trickling beds.
40. Define fluoridation?
The process of adding fluoride compounds in excess is called as the fluoridation.
41. What are the methods of desalination?
The methods of desalination are,
a. Desalination by evaporation & distillation. b. Electro dialysis method.
c. Reverse osmosis method. d. Freezing process.
e. Solar distribution method. f. Other method.
42. What is different system of distribution networks?
The different system of distribution networks is, a. Dead end system.
b. Grid iron system. c. Ring system.
d. Radial system.
43. What are various methods of distribution system?
The various methods of distribution system are, a. Gravity system.
b. Pumping system.
c. Combined gravity and pumping system.
44. Define fire storage?
It is sufficient amount of water available in the reservoir for throwing it over the fire in case of fire
accidents is called fire storage.
45. Enumerate various chemical parameter of water?
Various chemical parameter of water are, a. Chlorine content.
b. Nitrogen content. c. Iron content.
d. Manganese and other metal content.
46. What are the two types of sewage system?
The two types of sewage system are, a. Combined system:
When the drainage is taken along with the sewage then it is called as combined system.
b. Separate system:
When the drainage and sewage are taken independently of each through two different sets of sewage is
called as separate system.
47. What are the two types of water meter?
The two types of water meter are, a. Inferential meter.
b. Displacement meter.
48. Define time of concentration?
The period after which the entire area will start contributing to the runoff is called time of
49. List the components of sewerage system?
The components of sewerage system are, a. House sewers.
b. Lateral sewers. c. Branch sewers. d. Main sewers.
e. Outfall sewers.
f. Man holes.
50. What is peak drainage disturbance?
The method estimating the maximum rate of storm runoff is called as peak drainage disturbance.
51.Mention some shapes of sewer pipes
Horse shoe shape
52.What are the forces acting on sewer pipes?
Internal pressure ofsewage
Pressure due to external loads
53.What are the materials used for constructing sewer pipes?
54.Give some qualities of the good sewer pipes
Resistance to corrosion
Resistance to abrasion
Strength and durability
Economy and cost
55.What are the tests conducted in sewer pipes after laying?
Test for leakage(water test)
Test for straightness of alignment and obstruction
56.Define sewer appurtenances
Sewer appurtenances are those structures which are constructed at suitable interval along a sewerage
system and help in its efficient operation and maintenance
57.Mention the classification of manholes
Nomr al manholes
58.What is meant by catch basins?
Catch basins are nothing but street inlets provided with additional small setting basins for avoiding the
entry of the particles like grit, sand ,debris in to the sewer pipes
59.Define inverted siphons
Inverted siphon is defined as the sewer section constructed lower than the adjacent sewer section and
it runs full under gravity with pressure greater than the atmosphere
60.What are the various methods of ventilation for sewers?
Useof ventilating columns
Use of ventilating manhole covers
Proper design of sewers
Use of mechanical devices
61.What are the different types of pumps used commonly for pumping the sewage?
Pneumatic ejectors (or) Air pressure pumps
Unit -4 ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT
62. What is the purpose of using velocity control device in a grid chamber?
The velocity control device in a grid chamber is providing for settling the grid particles in the sewer
pipes and then it is removed by an endless chain to which perforated buckets are fixed
63. Mention the classification of treatment process of sewage
Complete final treatment
64. State the purpose of using the skimming tanks
The skimming tanks are employed for removing oils & grease from the sewage and placed before the sedimentation tanks
65. Why baffles are provided in the sedimentation tank in sewage treatment?
Baffles are required to prevent the movement of organic matters and it escapes along with the
effluent and to distribute the sewage uniformly through the cross section of the tank and thus to avoid
66. What are the types of trickling filters?
Conventional trickling filter
High rate trickling filter
67. What are the operational troubles in trickling filter?
68. Define sludge
The sludge age is defined as the average time for whichparticles of suspended soil remain under
69. Define sludge volume index
sludge volume index is defined as the volume occupied in ml by 1 gm of solids in the mixed liquor after
settling for 30 minutes and is determined experimentally
70. What is meant by biodegradable organic matter?
The organic matters is decomposed by bacteria under biological action is called biodegradable organic
71. What are the various tests for finding the quality of sewage?
72.What is meant by relative stability of a sewage effluent?
The relative stability of a sewage effluent is nothing but the ratio of oxygen available in the effluent to
the total oxygen required to satisfy its first stage BOD demand
73. What are the methods of disposing the sewage effluent
Disposal in water(dilution)
By disposal on land
74.What are the different types of sewage treatment?
Intermittent sand filters
Miscellaneous type offilters
75.Define sludge digestion
The process of stabilization of the sewage particles are called sludge digestion
76.What are the stages in the sludge digestion process?
77.What is meant by ripened sludge?
The ripened sludge is nothing but the digested sludge is collected at the bottom of the digestion tank
and it is alkaline in nature
78.What are the factors affecting sludge digestion and their control?
mixing and stirring of raw sludge with digested sludge
79.What are the types of incinerators has primary designed?
multiple hearth furnace
fluid bed furnace and infra red furnace
80.What are the methods of aeration ?
81.What is meant by sludge concentrator unit ?
the sludge obtained in a sludge digestion plant contains too much of moisture and is therefore very
bulky may be reduced in its moisture content by sending into sludge thicker unit
(or) sludge concentrator unit
82.Give different types of thicker unit
83.What are the methods of disposal of septic tank effluent?
Soil absorption system
up flow anaerobicfilters
84.Define percolation rate
percolation rate is defined as the time in minuets required for sewage of water through that ground by
85.what are the soil absorption system
seepage pit (or) soak pit
86.What are the methods of applying sewage effluents to forms ?
87.What is meant by oxygen sag curve?
The amount of resultant oxygen deflect can be obtained by algebraically adding the de -oxygenation
and re -oxygenation curves. The resultant curve so obtained is called oxygen sag curve
88.What is meant by sewage sickness?
The phenomena of soil getting clogged when the sewage is applied continuously on a piece of land is
called sewage sickness
89.What are the preventive methods for sewage sickness?
Primary treatment of sewage
Choice of land
Under drainage of soil
Giving rest to land and Rotation of crops
90.Define dilution factor
The dilution factor is defined as the ratio of the amount of rvi er water to the amount of the sewage
Unit -5 WATER DISTRIBUTION AND SUPPLY TO BUILDINGS
91.What is meant by self purification?
The automatic purification of natural water is known as self
92.List various natural forces of self purification
Physical of rces
93.What are the factors affecting the reduction ?
Turbulence effect of wind
Available dissolved oxygen
Rate of re-aeration
94.What is meant by prim lake pollutant ?
The phosphorus which containsin domestic sewage as well as in the industrial waste which affect the
water quality of the lake and its called prim lake pollutant
95.What is meant by de oxygenation curve?
The curve which represents (or) showing the depletion of D.O with time at the given temperature
96.How the river maintaining its clearness?
The turbulence in the water body helps in breaking the surface of the stream and helps in rapid re
aeration from the atmosphere. Thus it helps in maintaining aerobic conditions in the stream and keeping
97.Name the biological zone in lakes
98.What is meant by re -oxygenation?
In order to counter balancethe consumption of D.O due to the de – oxygenation
oxygen to the water and the process is called the re -oxygenation
99.What is meant by zone of recovery?
The zone in which the river water tries to recover from its degraded conditions to its former
appearance is called zone of recovery
100.What is meant by sludge banks?
When the solid waste are thrown into the sea water, chemical react with the dissolved matter of sea
water and resulting in some precipitation of solid waste giving a milky appearance to sea water forming
the sludge banks