Anna University, Chennai
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Institute of Research and Technology
Siruvachur, Perambalur - 621113
Railways, Airports and Harbour Engineering
PART-B UNIT-1 RAILWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN
1.Explain briefly about importance of railways in national development?
i)background ii)economic significance
iii)political significance iv)social significance
2.Write about permanent way and its components.
The complete track of railway line is called as permanent way.the components of permanent way are:
i)rails ,ii)sleepers ,iii)ballast ,iv)subgrade
3.explain about rail fastenings.
The rail fastenings are: i)fish-plates ii)chairs and keys
iii)spikes, fang bolts
iv)hook bolts v)bearing plates
4.Explain about types of gradients. i)rising gradient
iii)ruling gradient iv)momentum gradient v)pusher gradient vi)station yard gradient
5.Derive the expression for super elevation.
The expression involved in super elevation are:
v-velocity in km/hr
R-radius of curvature
6.Explain about horizontal ,vertical and transistion curves.
The horizontal curves can be classified as:
i)simple curve ii)compound curve iii)reverse curves
The vertical curves are:
i)summit curve ii)valley curve
iii)setting out of parabolic curve iv)length of vertical curve
The transistion curves are:
i)spiral curve ii)lemniscates curves
7.Explain about types or rails and sleepers.
Types of rails are:
i)double headed rails ii)bull-headed rails
Types of sleepers are: i)concrete sleepers ii)timber sleepers iii)steel sleepers
iv)prestressed concrete sleepers.
UNIT-2 RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS
1.Explain about points and crossings.
Points and crossings are arrangements by which different routes are connected. points can be:
ii)split switches track junctions:
i)turnout from single track ii)turnout of similar flexure
iii)turnout of contrary flexure iv)symmetrical split
v)three throw switch vi)double turnout.
2.Write about signaling and interlocking.
Types of signals are:
i)detonators ii)semaphore signal iii)warner signal iv)color light signal v)calling on signal vi)co-acting signal vii)repeater signal viii)shunt signal
The interlocking types are: i)panel interlocking ii)route lay interlocking
iii)centralised train control iv)automatic warning system
3.Explain about track construction.
The process involved in track construction are:
ii)earth work and bridges. iii)passenger amenities
iv)laying railway track including ballasting of track v)opening of section for traffic.
4.Write bout the process involved in track maintenance.
The items involved in track maintenance are:
i)slopes of embankments and cuttings ii)catch water drains
iii)cess level iv)weed removal
v)recuperation of ballast
v)packing and overhauling of track vi)deep screening of ballast. vii)upkeep of track drainage
viii)attention to fittings, fastenings, flexure.
5.Explain in detail about track drainage.
In track drainage it include surface drainage and sub-surface drainage. The methods involved to stabilize the soil are:
i)sand piling ii)cement grouting iii)layer of moorum
6.Explain about railway stations and yards.
The different types of railway stations are:
i)halt station ii)flag station iii)crossing station iv)double line station
v)junction station vi)terminal station.
The different types of yards are:
i)goods yards ii)passenger yards iii)marshalling yards.
UNIT-3 AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN.
1.Explain in detail about components of airport.
The components of airports are:
iv)motor vehicle parking v)circulation pattern
2.Describe in detail about airport site selection.
Airport site selection includes:
i)regional plan ii)airport use iii)topography iv)ground accessibility
vi)grading, drainage and other characteristics.
3.Write the types of wind rose diagram.
The types of wind rose diagrams are:
i)wind rose diagram type-1 ii)wind rose diagram type-II
4.Describe about the geometric design of taxiway.
i)length of taxiway ii)width of taxiway iii)width of safety area iv)traverse gradient
v)rate of range of longitudinal gradient
5.Write about airport zoning.
The airport zoning involves:
i)approach zone ii)clear zone
UNIT-4 AIRPORT LAYOUTS, VISUAL AIDS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
1.Discuss in detail about different types of airport layouts.
Various airport layouts are:
i)single runway concept ii)open parallel concept
iii)offset parallel concept
iv)two intersecting runway v)non-intersecting runway vi)tangential runway length
2.Explain about various airport markings.
The markings presents in airports are:
i)runway marking ii)taxiway marking
iii)runway and taxiway shoulder marking iv)apron marking
v)wind direction indicator
vi)landing direction indicator.
The runway markings it includes: runway threshold marking, runway landing zone marking, runway edge strip marking, runway centre line marking, runway numbering.
3.What are the lightings presents in airport.
The different lightings presents in airports are:
i)rotating beacon ii)code beacon iii)boundary lighting iv)approach lighting v)threshold lighting vi)runway lighting
viii)apron and hangar lighting
ix)lighting in wind direction and land direction indicator.
4.Explain about the process involved in air traffic control network.
The control of air traffic deals with phase of air transportation which ensures safe, convenient, and economic movement of aircraft from one airport to another airport.
i)airport traffic control ii)airway traffic control
5.Discuss about terminal buildings ,passenger facilities and passengers flow.
The building which provides accommodation facilities to all components are called terminal buildings. It may be
i)centralized primary ii)centralized secondary iii)decentralized
iv)de- centralised and centralized.
UNIT-5 HARBOUR ENGINEERING
1.Write the components presents in harbour.
The components presents in harbour are:
i)ports, docks ,cargo-terminal ii)tides, waves
iii)satellite port iv)littoral drift
2.Discuss in detail about the requirements of harbour.
The requirements of harbour are:
i)shelter and accommodation ii)arrival of vessel
iii)departure of vessels
v)requirements of equipments besides this shelter.
3.Classification of harbour.
The harbour can be classified depends upon protection, utility and location. i)natural harbour
iii)protected harbour iv)fishing harbour v)commercial harbour vi)naval harbour
vii)roadstead harbour viii)refuge harbour.
4.Explain in detail about site investigation presents in harbour engineering.
The points involved in site investigations are:
1.speed of sea water
2.amount of dredging required in a particular location
5.incidence and magnitude of storms
6.direction and velocity of wind
14.hard land and coast lines.
5.Discuss in detail about various types of docks.
The various types of docks are:
i)dry docks ii)wet docks
Dry docks are more permanent ,immobile, larger and high construction cost.Wet docks are movable from one part to another.