Anna University - B.E Civil - 4th Semester CURRICULUM AND SYLLABI - REGULATIONS 2011

AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS
ANNA UNIVERSITY OF Technology  CHENNAI :: CHENNAI- 600 113
REGULATIONS 2011
CURRICULUM AND SYLLABI FOR IV SEMESTERS
B.E. CIVIL ENGINEERING

(Applicable to the students admitted from the Academic year 2011 – 2012 onwards)

Subjects:
  • Numerical Methods 
  • Soil Mechanics
  • Strength of Materials - II
  • Applied Hydraulic Engineering 
  • Surveying – II 
  • Highway Engineering 

PRACTICAL :
  • Strength of Materials Laboratory 
  • Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory 
  • Survey Practical – II 
SOIL MECHANICS 
OBJECTIVE
After completion of the course, the student gains adequate knowledge on soils, their identification, classification, properties and behavior under different conditions.



UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO SOIL MECHANICS 

Soil Mechanics – Definition and Brief History, Nature of Soil - Problems with soil, Soil Structure – Particle and Mass Structure, Phase Relation – Definitions – Problems, Index Properties - Sieve analysis - Sedimentation analysis – Atterberg Limits – Experimental Determination – Significance - Problems, Field Identification of soils - Classification for engineering purposes - IS classification system, Soil compaction - factors affecting compaction –Laboratory compaction tests - Problems - field compaction methods and monitoring.

UNIT II SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW

Soil water – Various forms – Clay-water Interactions, Capillary rise – Suction, Effective stress concepts in soil – Total, neutral and effective stress distribution in soil - Problems, Permeability – Darcy’s Law - Permeability measurement in the laboratory and field - Problems, Quick sand condition, Seepage – Laplace Equation - Introduction to flow nets – properties and uses – Construction of flow net - Application to simple problems, Piping.

UNIT III STRESS DISTRIBUTION, COMPRESSIBILITY AND CONSOLIDATION


Stress distribution in soil media – Boussinesque formula – Applications – Stress due to line load and circular and rectangular loaded area - Approximate methods - Use of influence charts – Westergaard equation for point load – Problems.

Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory – Governing differential equation - Laboratory consolidation test – Determination of Cc and Cv – Problems, Field consolidation curve – NC and OC clays, Problems on final and time rate of consolidation, Components of settlement - Immediate and consolidation settlement – Settlement equations and determination of Settlement – Problems.

UNIT IV SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS

Shear Strength of Cohesive and Cohesionless soil, Mohr - Coulomb failure theory for Saturated soil, Strength parameters - Measurement of shear strength - Direct shear - Triaxial compression - UCC - Vane shear tests - Problems, Types of shear tests based on drainage and their applicability - Drained and undrained behaviour of clay and sand (Basic concepts only), Stress path for conventional triaxial test - Problems

UNIT V SLOPE FAILURES AND STABILITY ANALYSIS 

Causes of Slope Failure, Slope failure mechanisms – Modes, Stability analysis for Infinite slopes & Finite slopes – Total and effective stress analysis - Stability analysis for purely cohesive and C-f soils - Method of slices – Friction circle method - stability number – problems, Modified Bishop’s method(Basic Concepts only), Slope protection measures.
TOTAL = 45 PERIODS 

TEXT BOOKS
1. Punmia P.C., “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, Laximi Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1995.

2. Gopal Ranjan and Rao A.S.R., “Basic and applied soil mechanics”, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2000.

3. V.N.S. Murthy, “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering” CBS Publishers, First Reprint, 2009

REFERENCES
1. Coduto, D.P., “Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices”, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002.

2. McCarthy D.F., “Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Basic Geotechniques”, Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2002.

3. Das, B.M, “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, (fifth edition), Thomas Books/ cole, 2002.

4. Muni Budhu, “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, John Willey & Sons, Inc, New York, 200CE.

5. Venkatramaiah, C. “Geotechnical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 1995


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS - II



OBJECTIVE

This subject is useful for a detailed study of forces and their effects along with some suitable protective measures for the safe working condition. This knowledge is very essential for an engineer to enable him/her in designing all types of structures and machines.


UNIT I

Slope and deflection of cantilever, simply supported and overhanging beams – double integration method, Macaulay’s method, moment area method and conjugate beam method.



UNIT II

Strain energy due to axial, bending, shear and torsional forces, Castigliano’s theorems, principle of virtual work and Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem, application of energy theorems for computing slope and deflection in cantilever, simply supported and overhanging beams.

UNIT III

Analysis of forces in perfect frames - method of joints, method of sections and method of tension coefficients.

Application of energy theorems for computing deflection in perfect pin-jointed and rigid- jointed plane frames.

UNIT IV

Shear force and bending moment diagrams for indeterminate beams - Propped cantilever, fixed beams and continuous beams (theorem of three moments).

UNIT V

State of stress in three dimensions - Spherical and deviatory components of stress tensor - determination of principal stresses and principal planes – volumetric strain – dilatation and distortion.

Theories of failure – principal stress dilatation – principal strain – shear stress – strain energy and distortion energy theories.

Unsymmetrical bending of beams - symmetrical and unsymmetrical sections.



TOTAL: 60 PERIODS


TEXT BOOKS
1. Rajput R.K., Strength of Materials, S.Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi, 2006.

2. Subramanian R., Strength of materials, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2010.


REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Punmia B.C., Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, Mechanics of Materials, Laxmi publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2001.

2. Srinath, L.S. Advanced mechanics and solids, Tata-McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2005.

3. Bhavaikatti, S.S., Structural Analysis – Vol. I, Vikas Publishing Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2008.

4. Wang C.K., Intermediate Structural Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2010.




APPLIED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
OBJECTIVE
· The primary objective of this course is to introduce the application aspects of Hydraulic Engineering concerning Open Channel Flow.

· The normal & critical flow conditions in open channel flow are dealt.

· The application of fluid flow concepts for the Hydraulic Machines such as pumps & Turbines is then taught and awareness is created in hydraulic design of open channel flow and Hydraulic machines

UNIT I BASICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

Fundamental concepts of Open Channel Flow – types and classifications of flows – Geometric sections - Rectangular, Trapezoidal, Semi Circular & Sewer sections of flows. Velocity distribution in different open channel sections – Wide open channel - Hydraulic depth & Hydraulic radius - practical applications, Study of specific energy- force, discharge & energy curves. Critical flow and its computations- computation of uniform flow & critical flow.

UNITII UNIFORM FLOW


Uniform flow – Velocity measurements in rivers, streams & channels, Chezy’s Manning’s and Basin’s formulae for uniform flow. The concept of most economical sections and their derivations- Rectangular, Trapezoidal & Triangular – Determination of Manning’s roughness coefficients & Chezy’s constant – Kutter’s formula – Determination of normal depth and velocity – Most economical sections – rigid boundary channels. Flow over notches and weirs

UNIT III VARIED FLOW 

Gradually Varied Flow-derivation of dynamic equations – underlying assumptions – bed, water surface & friction slopes - characteristics of water surface flow profiles, characteristic length – draw down and back water curves, profile determination – graphical integration, direct step and standard step methods- Hydraulic transitions -constriction, expansion, canal drops, and chutes. Hydraulic Jumps - conjugate depths – significance of Froude’s and Reynolds’ numbers. Types & classification of hydraulic Jumps, Hydraulic surges - positive & negative moving upstream and down stream surges..

UNIT IV RECIPROCATING PUMPS AND CENRIFUGAL PUMPS


Positive displacement pumps - Reciprocating types – Indicator diagrams- Negative slip. Single and double acting pumps. Multi cylinder pumps. Air vessels. Centrifugal pumps – Types- spiral, volute – work done by the impeller. Characteristic curves - Efficiency of pumps - single & multistage pumps- pumps in parallel. Specific and constant speeds, negative slip- flow separation priming - air vessels - indication diagram - Power production - Rotary pumps. Model testing of pumps. Cavitations in centrifugal pumps.

UNIT V HYDRAULIC TURBINES AND THEIR DESIGN

Classification of and design hydraulic turbines – Impulse, Reaction and Kaplan turbines - radial flow, axial flow and tangential flow types. Selection of turbines. Performance characteristics of turbines. Work done and efficiencies of turbines. Model testing. Modern turbines- Diagonal and tubular types. Surge tanks. Jet hydraulics- Force on moving and stationary flat plates. Impact of jets on plane and curved plates - Pelton wheel- multiple jet Pelton wheel. Design of draft tubes - Cavitations problems.
TOTAL = 60 PERIODS 
TEXT BOOKS

1. Subramanya K., "Flow in Open channels", Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 2008.

2. Bansal R.K, Fluid mechanics & Hydraulic machines, Laxmi Publishing (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi - 2007


REFERENCES
1. Modi, P.N, and Seth S.M. Hydraulic and Fluid Mechanics Standard Book House, 2000.

2. Jain A.K., "Fluid Mechanics (including Hydraulic Machines)", Khanna Publishers,
8th edition, 2005.

3. Ranga Raju, K.G., “Flow through Open Channels”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005


SURVEYING – II
OBJECTIVE

At the end of the course the student will posses knowledge about Tachometric surveying, Control surveying, Survey adjustments, Astronomical surveying and Photogrametry.



UNIT I

Curves – Types of curves; elements of curve- simple curves- different methods of setting out curves; introduction to compound curve, reverse curves; transition curves; vertical curves - characteristics; equations, setting out in the field by different methods

UNIT II

Triangulation – Classification, criteria for selection and arrangement of triangles; well conditioned triangle, strength of figure; selection of triangulation stations; marking of triangulation stations ; signals; Satellite stations; selection of site for base line; base line measurement; equipment and corrections- adjustment of observations.

UNIT III

Theory of errors and survey adjustments – Laws of accidental errors; laws of weights; principles of least squares; normal equations; most probable value; method of differences; method of correlates; angle adjustment; station adjustment; figure adjustment; adjustment of triangles; adjustment of geodetic quadrilateral.

UNIT IV

Photogrammetry and GIS – terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry- heights and distances from photographs- flight planning – elements of stereoscopy- photo mosaic- photo interpretation- application of photogrammetry- GPS and differential GPS. GIS – Overview of GIS, data input and output, data management and applications

UNIT V

Advanced surveying – Electronic distance measurement; basics of total stations, surveying using total stations; data collection procedures and applications; Remote Sensing – concepts, principles, energy sources- energy interactions, ideal remote sensing systems- various types of images and their uses; Hydrographic surveying – Sounding, different methods of locating sounding; three point problems; analytical method.

TOTAL = 45 PERIODS 

TEXT BOOKS

1. Punmia, B.C, Ashok Kumar Jain and Anil Kumar Jain, Surveying – Vol. II and III, Laxmi Publications

2. Satheesh Gopi, Sathikumar, R and Madhu, N, Advanced Surveying, Pearson Education

3. Arora, K.R, Surveying- Volume II and III, Standard Book House.

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

OBJECTIVE

The objective of the course is to educate the students on the various components of Highway Engineering. It exposes the students to highway planning, engineering surveys for highway alignment, Design of Geometric Elements of Highways and Urban roads, Rigid and Flexible pavements design. The students further learn the desirable properties of highway materials and various practices adopted for construction. This course enables the students to develop skill on evaluation of the pavements and to decide appropriate types of maintenance.

UNIT I

Importance of transportation – different modes of transportation and their characteristics –20 year road development plan in India - recent road development programmes in India and their features – planning and alignment of highways and expressways – new and re-alignment projects.

UNIT II

Geometric Design of highways and expressways –Cross sectional elements – design standards for rural roads, highways and expressways, sight distances; design of horizontal and vertical alignment. Numerical examples.

UNIT III

Pavement materials and their properties – classification of subgrade soil – CBR and Plate load tests on soil. Properties and requirements of road aggregates, bitumen, cutback and bituminous emulsions - New materials in pavement construction - Numerical examples.

UNIT IV

Pavement design – pavement design factors – design of flexible pavement by Indian Roads Congress method; Stresses in rigid pavement - design of rigid pavement thickness by IRC method - construction and quality control tests for construction of flexible and rigid pavements; stabilization techniques in pavement construction; Joints in rigid pavements; maintenance of flexible and rigid pavements; Numerical examples.

UNIT V

Highway economics - road user benefits – Vehicle Operating Costs – economic analysis – highway financing; Public-Private Partnership in highway construction; Drainage - surface and sub-surface drainage system for highways. Numerical examples.

TOTAL : 45 PERIODS 

TEXT BOOKS

1. Khanna S.K. and Justo C.E.G, “Highway Engineering”, Nemchand and Bros, Roorkee.

2. Kadiyali L.R and Lal, N.B, “Principles and practices of highway engineering P”, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi

REFERENCES 

1. Subramanyam. K.P, “Transportation Engineering”, Scitech Publications, Chennai.

2. Partha Chakraborthy, “Principles of Transportation Engineering”, Prentice Hall.

3. Yoder, E J, “Principles of Pavement Design, John Wiley and Sons”, New York.


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
OBJECTIVE 

The experimental work involved in this laboratory should make the student understand the fundamental modes of loading of the structures and also make measurements of loads, displacements and strains. Relating these quantities, the student should be able to obtain the strength of the material and stiffness properties of structural elements.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Tension test: stress – strain curve

2. Double shear test

3. Hardness Test: Vicker’s, Brinell and Rockwell

4. Torsion Test

5. Impact Test: Charpy and Izod

6. Test on Timber: Compression

7. Test on Spring: Compression

8. Test on Spring: Tension

9. Deflection test on mild steel bar

10. Test on bricks: Compression and Water Absorption

TOTAL = 45 PERIODS 

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS (batch of 30 students)

Sl. No.
Description of Equipments
Quantity
1
UTM - 100 t / 200 t capacity
1
2
Torsion testing machine for steel rods
1
3
Impact testing machine
1
4
Hardness testing machine
Rockwell
Vicker’s
Brinnel
1 each
5
Beam deflection test apparatus
1
6
Extensometer
1
7
Spring testing machine
1
8
Dial gauges
2
9
Double shear apparatus
1 set
10
Weighing balance – 10 kg
1

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING LAB

OBJECTIVE

Student shall demonstrate thoroughly the theoretical understanding of Hydraulic Engineering and Fluid Machines through experimental verification in the Laboratory

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS (Each 3 hours + 6 hours Exam preparation)

1. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for Orifice

2. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for Orifice meter

3. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for Venturimeter

4. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for Notches

5. Study of impact of Jet on flat plate (normal / inclined)

6. Study of friction losses in Pipes

7. Study of minor losses in Pipes

8. Study on performance characteristics of Pelton Turbine.

9. Study on performance characteristics of Francis Turbine

10. Study on performance characteristics of Kaplan Turbine

11. Study on performance characteristics of Centrifugal pumps (Constant & variable speeds)

12. Study on performance characteristics of Reciprocating pump.

13. Study on performance characteristics of Gear Pump.

Total = 45 Periods 
LIST OF EQUIPMENT ( Each one set for a batch of 30 students)

1. Flow measurement in pipes

(i) Calibration of flow through orifice tank with

Provisions for fixing orifices of different shapes, collecting tank.

(ii) Orifice meter, with all necessary fittings in pipe lines of different dia meters

(iii) Venturimeter, U tube manometer fixtures like

Valves, collecting tank


2. Flow measurement in Open Channel with provision for fixing notches

(Rectangular, Triangular, Circular & Trapezoidal forms)


3. Losses in Pipes

i) Major loss – Friction loss

Pipe lengths (min. 3m) of different diameters with

Valves and pressure Tapping & collecting tank

Minor Losses

ii) Pipe line assembly with provisions for having

Sudden contractions in diameter, expansions

Bends, & Elbow fitting.


4. Impact of Jets on Plate (normal / inclined) with complete fitting & accessories


5. Turbines

(i) Impulse turbine assembly with fittings & accessories

(ii) Francis turbine assembly with fittings & accessories

(iii) Kaplan turbine assembly with fittings & accessories


6. Pumps

(i) Centrifugal pump assembly with accessories (single stage)

(ii) Centrifugal pump assembly with accessories(multi stage)

(iii) Reciprocating pump assembly with accessories

(iv) Gear pump assembly set with accessories


SURVEY PRACTICALS – II 

1. Setting out simple curves by linear methods

2. Setting out simple curves by offsets from chords produced

3. Setting out a simple circular curve by Rankine’s method

4. Setting out a compound curve and combined curve by Rankine’s method

5. Setting out a reverse curve

6. Setting out transition curve

7. Determination of height of objects from aerial photographs

8. Remote sensing data analysis and demonstration of GIS software

9. Total station – field observations and applications in surveying

10. Use of total station for traversing and block leveling

11. Use of software for plotting of contours using data from total stations – Office work

12. Computation of areas and volumes from contours using software – Office work

13. GPS Surveying and data processing


LIST OF EQUIPMENT

(For batch of 30 students) – four / five students in a batch

Sl. No
Description of equipment
Quantity
1
Electronic Digital theodolites with aluminum telescopic tripods
8 Nos
2
Conventional theodolites with tripods
6 Nos
3
Digital total station; accuracy – 5 “; dual side display, alphanumeric keyboard, internal memory upto 10000 points and external memory, USB/SD card drive; optical plummet; wooden telescopic tripod; single range pole prism assembly – 2 Nos; data downloading cable with communication software
3 Nos
4
Mirror stereoscope
10 Nos
5
Pocket Stereoscope
10 Nos
6
Aerial Photographs – Stereo Pairs
5 Nos
7
Remote sensing images – 5.8 m resolution
2 No
8
Handheld GPS
8 Nos
9
Software : ERDAS IMAGINE 2011 ; Arc GIS 9.3; Auto Plotter - 8
1 set