### Anna University B.E EEE - Syllabus - Semester IV (4) - Regulation 2011

ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS
B.E. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG.
CURRICULA AND SYLLABI FOR IV SEMESTERS

(Applicable to the students admitted from the Academic year 2011 – 2012 onwards)
Subjects :
• Numerical Methods
• Control Systems
• Digital Logic Circuits
• Linear Integrated Circuits and Applications
• Electrical Machines – I
• Communication Engineering

Lab :
• Control Systems Laboratory
• Linear and Digital Integrated Circuits Laboratory
• Electrical Machines Laboratory – I

CONTROL SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this course is to emphasize the importance of control and empower the students with basic concepts on modeling, analysis and design of control systems restricted to linear continuous time system. The specific objectives of each unit are :
• To introduce the classical way of modeling systems, commonly used control components and their mathematical models from physical laws
• To impart knowledge in the modern state variable approach, closed form solution methods and analyzing system properties
• To introduce the time domain analysis of transfer function models and understand the concepts of poles, zeros and movement of poles under feedback
• To introduce the various graphical methods available to analyze and asses systems in frequency domain
• To educate on drawing of specification, choosing of control structures and methods of designing the controllers
UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Control system - Basic components - Open and closed Loop - Effect of feedback - System representations - Transfer functions of single input & single output and multivariable systems – Block diagrams – Signal flow graphs – Gain formula – Modeling of control components – Mechanical and electrical systems

UNIT II STATE VARIABLE MODEL AND ANALYSIS
State variable formulation – Non-uniqueness – Solution - State transition matrix – Eigen values – Eigen vectors – Stability - Controllability - Observability

UNIT III TRANSFER FUNCTION MODEL AND ANALYSIS
Time response – Damping ratio - Natural frequency – Effects of adding poles and zeros – Dominant poles - Stability – Routh Hurwitz criterion – Root locus plots of typical systems – Root locus analysis

UNIT IV FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF TRANSFER FUNCTION MODELS
Frequency response – Resonant peak – Bandwith – Effect of adding poles and zeros – Magnitude and phase plots of typical systems – Nyquist stability criterion – Gain margin – Phase margin - Bode plot - M & N Circles

UNIT V DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

Design Specification – Controller configurations – PID controller - Design using reaction curve and Ziegler-Nichols technique – Compensation schemes - Effect of providing Lag, Lead and Lag- Lead compensation on system performance

Practice Tutorial Problems

L: 45 T: 15 TOTAL = 60 periods

TEXTBOOKS
1. Benjamin C. Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, PHI Learning Private Ltd, 2010

2. J. Nagrath and M. Gopal, Control Systems Engineering, New Age International Publishers Reprint, 2008

REFERENCES
1. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Pearson Education, Third Impression, 2009

2. John J. D’Azzo, Constantine H. Houpis and Stuart N. Sheldon, Linear Control System Analysis and Design with Matlab, CRC Taylor & Francis, Reprint 2009

3. S. Palani, Control System Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, First Reprint, 2010

4. Yaduvir Singh and S. Janardhanan, Modern Control, Cengage Learning, First Impression 2010

5. Katsuhiko Ogata, ‘Modern Control Engineering’, PHI Learning Private Ltd, 5th Edition, 2010
DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS
( Common to EEE,EIE and ICE )

OBJECTIVES
· To study the implementation of combinational circuits

· To study the design of various synchronous and asynchronous circuits.

· To expose the students to various memory devices.

· To expose the students to Hardware Description Language.

UNIT I BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS

Boolean algebra - De-Morgan’s theorem - switching functions and simplification using K-maps method- Design of combinational circuits - adder, subtractor, comparators, code converters, encoders, decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers. Logic families : TTL and ECL. MOSFET logic –NMOS and CMOS.

UNIT II SYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS
Flip flops - SR, D, JK , and T flip flops - Semiconductor Memories - Analysis and design of synchronous sequential circuits – Counters, Shift registers - state diagram - state reduction - state assignment .

UNIT III ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENCTIAL CIRCUITS

Analysis of asynchronous sequential machines - state assignment - asynchronous design problem.

UNIT IV ALGORITHMIC STATE MACHINE
ASM Chart - Data path Subsystem - Control subsystem - Design examples- Binary multiplier, Weighing machine and Waveform generator.

UNIT V PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC DEVICES AND VHDL
ROM, PROM, EPROM, PLA, PLD, FPGA, VHDL : RTL Design – combinational logic – Types – Operators – Packages – Sequential circuit – Sub programs – Test benches (Examples: adders, counters, flipflops, FSM, Multiplexers / Demltiplexers).

(PrACTICE tutorial problems for all units )

TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

TEXT BOOKS
1. M. Morris Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2006.

2. A. Anand Kumar, Switching Theory and Logic Design, Prentice Hall of India, 2008.

REFERENCES
1. Charles H.Roth, Fundamentals Logic Design, Jaico Publishing, IV edition, 2002.

2. G.K.Kharate, Digital Electronics, Oxford University Press, 2010.

3. John M.Yarbrough, Digital Logic, Application & Design, Thomson, 2002.

4. Floyd and Jain, Digital Fundamentals, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.

5. John F.Wakerly, Digital Design Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2002.

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND 3 0 0 3 APPLICATIONS

( Common to EEE,EIE and ICE )

OBJECTIVES
· To study the IC fabrication Process.

· To study the characteristics of operational amplifiers.

· To study the applications of Op-amp.

· To study internal functional blocks and the applications of special ICs like Timers, PLL circuits, regulator Circuits, ADCs.

UNIT I FABRICATION OF IC AND OP-AMP SPECIFICATIONS
IC classification - fundamental of monolithic IC technology - epitaxial growth, masking and etching, diffusion of impurities- Realization of monolithic ICs and packaging- Fabrication of diodes, capacitance, resistance - Monolithic IC operational amplifiers, specifications, frequency compensation - slew rate and methods of improving slew rate.

UNIT II APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

Linear and Nonlinear Circuits using operational amplifiers and their analysis - Inverting and Non inverting Amplifiers - Differentiator - Integrator Voltage to Current converter - Instrumentation amplifier - Sine wave Oscillators - Low pass and band pass filters - comparator - Multivibrator and Schmitt trigger - Triangle wave generator - Precision rectifier - Log and Antilog amplifiers - Non-linear function generator. Practice tutorial problems.

UNIT III ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL
Analysis of four quadrant and variable Tran conductance multipliers - Voltage controlled Oscillator - Closed loop analysis of PLL, AM, PM and FSK modulators and demodulators.

UNIT IV ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTORS

Analog switches - High speed sample and hold circuits and sample and hold IC's - Types of D/A converter - Current driven DAC - Switches for DAC - A/D converter, Flash, Single slope, Dual slope, Successive approximation - DM and ADM converters.

UNIT V SPECIAL FUNCTION IC’S
Timers - Voltage regulators - linear and switched mode types - Switched capacitor filter - Frequency to Voltage converters - Tuned amplifiers - Power amplifiers - Isolation Amplifiers - Opto couplers.

TOTAL = 45 Periods

TEXT BOOK
1. D.Roy Choudhery,Sheil B.Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition, New Age Publishers, 2003.

REFERENCES

1. Ramakant A. Gayakwad, Op - Amp and Linear IC's , Prentice Hall, 2000.

2. Robert F.Coughlin and Ferderick F. Driscoll, Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall of India, 2001.

3. David A Bell, Op-amp and Linear ICs, Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 1997.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
OBJECTIVES
· To introduce the principle of electromechanical energy conversion in single and multiply excited systems.

· To understand the generation of D.C. voltage by using different types of generators and study their performance.

· To study the working principles of D.C. motors and their load characteristics, methods of starting and speed control.

· To familiarize with the constructional details of different types of transformers, their working principle and their performance.

· To estimate the various losses that occur in D.C. machines and transformers and to study the different testing methods to assess their performance.

Unit I : ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION
Magnetic circuits – Inductance –statically and dynamically induced EMF-AC operation of magnetic circuits - Core losses - Energy in magnetic systems – field energy, co energy and mechanical force – singly and multiply excited systems.

UNIT II DC GENERATORS

Principle of operation- Constructional details –EMF equation – Methods of excitation – Shunt and Separately excited generators – Characteristics of series, shunt and compound generators – Armature reaction and commutation – Parallel operation of DC shunt and compound generators.

UNIT III DC MOTORS
Principle of operation – Back EMF and torque equation – Characteristics of series, shunt and compound motors – Starting of DC motors – Types of starters – Speed control of DC series and shunt motors.

UNIT IV TRANSFORMERS
Principle of operation- Constructional details of core and shell type transformers – emf equation – Transformation ratio – Transformer on no-load – Parameters referred to HV / LV windings – Equivalent circuit – Transformer on load – Regulation – Parallel operation of single phase transformers – Auto transformer – Three phase transformers – Vector group.

UNIT V TESTING OF DC MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS
Losses and efficiency in DC machines and transformers – Condition for maximum efficiency – Testing of DC machines – Brake test, Swinburne’s test, Retardation test and Hopkinson’s test – Testing of transformers – Polarity test, load test, open circuit and short circuit tests – All day efficiency.

Note : Unit V may be covered along with Units II , III and IV.

L = 45 PERIODS T = 15 PERIODS
TOTAL = 60 PERIODS

TEXT BOOKS
1. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, ‘Electric Machines’, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Co Ltd, New Delhi, 2010.
2. M.V. Deshpande,’ Electrical Machines’, PHI Learning private Ltd, New Delhi, 2011.

REFERENCES

1. E. Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley, Stephen.D.Umans, ‘Electric Machinery’, 6th Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill publishing Co Ltd, New Delhi,2011.

2. P.S. Bimbhra, ‘Electrical Machinery’, Khanna Publishers,New Delhi, 2003.

3. B.R. Gupta, ‘Electrical Machines’, New Age International Pubishers,

4. M.N. Bandyopadhyay, ‘ Electrical machines- Theory and practice’, PHI Learning private Ltd, New Delhi, 2009.

COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

OBJECTIVES
· To study the Analog communication principle.

· To study various digital communication principle, theorems and modulations.

· To have qualitative study of various codes and error control.

· To introduce multiple access techniques and power line communication.

UNIT I ANALOG COMMUNICATION
AM – Frequency spectrum – vector representation – power relations – generation of AM – DSB, DSB/SC, SSB, VSB AM Transmitter & Receiver; FM and PM – frequency spectrum – power relations - NBFM & WBFM - Generation of FM and DM - Amstrong method & Reactance modulations - FM & PM frequency.

UNIT II DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
Pulse modulations – concepts of sampling and sampling theorems, PAM, PWM, PPM, PTM, quantization and coding : DCM, DM, slope overload error. ADM, DPCM, OOK systems – ASK, FSK, PSK, BSK, QPSK, QAM, MSK, GMSK, applications of Data communication.

UNIT III SOURCE CODES, LINE CODES & ERROR CONTROL(Qualitative only)

Binary communication – entropy, properties, BSC, BEC, source coding : Shannon, Fano, Huffman coding : noiseless coding theorem, BW – SNR trade off, Line codes: NRZ, RZ, AMI, HDBP, ARQ, mBnB codes : Efficiency of transmission, error control codes and applications: convolution& block codes.

UNIT IV CELLULAR CONCEPT, MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES
Introduction to cellular concept- frequency reuse- Hand off, Interference and system capacity. - Spread Spectrum& Multiple (MA)Access techniques : FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA application in wire and wireless communication : Advantages.

UNIT V SATELLITE AND POWER LINE COMMUNICAITON
Satellites, Orbits-Types-frequencies used, link establishment, MA techniques used in satellite communication, earth station; aperture antennas used in satellite – INTELSAT and INSAT: fibers – types: sources, detectors, digital filters, optical link: Basics of power line carrier communications and SCADA

TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

TEXT BOOKS

1. Taub & Schiling “Principles of Communication Systems” Tata McGraw Hill 2008

2. Louis E.Frenzel, “Principles of Electronic Communication Systems”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2008.

REFERENCES
1. Roddy and Coolen, Electronic Communication , “ Prentice Hall of India’ 2003.

2. Kennedy and Davis “Electronic Communication Systems” Tata McGraw Hill,
4th edition, 1993.

3. Sklar “Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications“ Pearson Education, 2001

4. B.P.Lathi “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems” Oxford University Press, 1998.

CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY

1. Determination of transfer function parameters of DC Servomotor

2. Determination of transfer function parameters of AC Servomotor.

3. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type – 1 systems

5. AC Position Control system

6. Nyquist/Bode analysis of linear systems

7. Stability Analysis of Linear Systems using Root Locus Technique

8. DC position control systems

9. Stepper motor control system

10. Digital simulation of systems in transfer function form

11. Digital simulation of systems in state variable form

12. Response of PID controller

13. One or Two Experiments from outside the syllabus

P = 45 TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

Detailed Syllabus

1. Determination of Transfer Function Parameters of DC Servo Motor

AIM
To derive the transfer function of the given D.C Servomotor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters

EXERCISE
1. Derive the transfer function from basic principles for a separately excited DC motor.
2. Determine the armature and field parameters by conducting suitable experiments.
3. Determine the mechanical parameter by conducting suitable experiments.
4. Plot the frequency response.

Equipment
1. DC servo motor: field separately excited – loading facility – variable voltage source - 1 No
2. Tachometer : 1 No
3. Multimeter : 2 Nos
4. Stop watch : 1 No

2. Determination of Transfer Function Parameters of AC Servo Motor

AIM
To derive the transfer function of the given A.C Servo Motor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters

Exercise
1. Derive the transfer function of the AC Servo Motor from basic Principles.

2. Obtain the D.C gain by operating at rated speed.

3. Determine the time constant (mechanical)

4. Plot the frequency response

Equipment
1. AC Servo Motor : Minimum of 100w – necessary sources for main winding and control winding – 1 No

2. Tachometer : 1 No

3. Stopwatch : 1 No

4. Voltmeter : 1 No
3. Analog Simulation Of Type-0 And Type-1 System

AIM
To simulate the time response characteristics of I order and II order, type 0 and type-1 systems.

Exercise
1. Obtain the time response characteristics of type – 0 and type-1, I order and II order systems mathematically.
2. Simulate practically the time response characteristics using analog rigged up modules.
3. Identify the real time system with similar characteristics.

Equipment
1. Rigged up models of type-0 and type-1 system using analog components.

2. Variable frequency square wave generator and a normal CRO - 1 No

(or)

DC source and storage Oscilloscope - 1 No

AIM
To realize Lead/Lag compensation either in software or in hardware

Exercise
1. Realise the circuit for lag/Lead compensator using either RLC components or OPAMPS either in hardware or software.
2. Obtain the frequency response characteristics
3. Interpret the obtained response

Equipment
1. Analog components/PSPICE/MATLAB/equivalent software
2. Function Generator
3. Oscilloscope
4. Necessary Power supply

5. AC Position Control system

AIM
To determine the AC position control system and draw the error Characteristics

Exercise
1. To study various positions and calculate the error.

Equipment
1. AC position control kit with Synchro.
2. Power Supply

6. Nyquist/Bode Analysis of Linear Systems

AIM
To analyse the stability of linear systems using Nyquist/Bode plot

Exercise
1. Write a program to obtain the Nyquist/Bode plot for the given system
2. Analyze the stability of the given system using the plots obtained
3. Determine the frequency domain indices/specifications

Equipment
1. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD / equivalent software - 3 user license

7. Stability Analysis of Linear Systems using Root Locus Technique

AIM
To draw the plot and analyze the stability of linear systems using Root locus Technique

Exercise
1. Write a program to obtain the Root locus plot for the given system.
2. Determine the range of loop gain for stability from the plot.

Equipment
1. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD / equivalent software - 3 user license
8. DC position Control system

AIM
To study the DC position control system and draw the error characteristics between setpoint and error.

Exercise
1. To study various positions and calculate the error between setpoint and output position
2. To measure outputs at various points (between stages)

Equipment
1. DC position control kit with DC servo motor.
2. Power transistor
9. Stepper Motor Control System

AIM
To study the working of stepper motor

Exercise
1. To verify the working of the stepper motor rotation using microprocessor.

Equipment
1. Stepping motor

2. Microprocessor kit

3. Interfacing card

4. Power supply
10. Digital Simulation of systems in Transfer function forms

AIM

To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of first -order system

Exercise

1. Write a program or build the block diagram model using the given

software.

2. Obtain the impulse, step and sinusoidal response characteristics.

3. Identify real time systems with similar characteristics.

Equipment
1. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) equivalent software - minimum 3 user license.
11. Digital Simulation Systems in state variable form

Aim

To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of systems defined in state variable forms

Exercise
1. Write a program or build the block diagram model using the given software.

2. Obtain the impulse, step and sinusoidal response characteristics.

3. Identify real time systems with similar characteristics.

Equipment
System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) equivalent software - minimum 3 user license.
12. Response of PID controller

AIM
To investigate the operation of an electronic controllers with P, P+I and P+I+D action.

Exercise

1. Plot the response of P, P+I, and P+I+D controllers to step and ramp inputs.

2. Study the effects of changing the adjustments for P, I and D.

Equipment

1. Electronic PID controller – 1 No

2. Source for generating step and ramp inputs – 1 No

3. Recorder – 1 No

4. Digital Multimeter – 1 No
One or Two Experiments from outside the syllabus
LINEAR AND DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS L T P C LABORATORY

OBJECTIVES

· To have experimental study on linear and non linear application of op-amp.

· To have experimental study on Timer IC, VCO, and PLL.

· To have experimental study on Digital ICs.

· To have experimental study on implementing digital circuits using HDL.

LINEAR IC APPLICATIONS

1. Comparator.

1. Differentiator and Integrator.

4. Clipper clamper.

1. Peak detector.

2. Timer IC Application.

3. VCO and PLL.

4. One experiment beyond the syllabus.

DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS

1. Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK, RS, D FLIPFLOP

2. Implementation of Boolean functions, Adder, SubtraCTOR CIRCUITS.

4. Code converters, Encoder and decoder.

5. Counters (Synchronous and a synchronous),

6. Shift registers.

8. One experiment beyond the syllabus.

Two experiments beyond the syllabus have to be incorporated.
All the experiments have to be done through bread board alone.
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY

OBJECTIVES
To expose the students to the operation of D.C. machines and transformers and give them experimental skill.

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately and self excited DC shunt generators.
Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and cumulative connection.
Load characteristics of DC shunt motor.
Load characteristics of DC series motor.

5. Load characteristics of DC compound motor.
Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor.
Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set.
Load test on single-phase transformer and three phase transformer connections.
Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer.
Sumpner’s test on transformers.
Separation of no-load losses in single phase transformer.

TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

Note:
One or two experiments beyond the syllabus such as
Study of starters for DC motors.
Retardation test on DC shunt motor.
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Electrical Machines Laboratory – I

Requirement for a batch of 30 students
 S.No. Description of Equipment Quantity required D.C motor – Generator set D.C motor – Shunt Generator D.C motor – Compound Generator 2 set 2 set D.C. Shunt Motor 2 Nos. D.C. Series Motor 1 No. D.C. Compound Motor 1 No. Single phase transformers 7 Nos. Three phase transformers 2 Nos. D.C. Motor – Alternator set 4 sets Three phase Induction Motor (Squirrel cage) 3 Nos. Three phase slip ring Induction Motor 1 No. Single phase Induction Motor 2 Nos. Resistive load 3 phase – 2 , single phase - 3 5 Nos. Inductive load 1 No. Single phase Auto transformer 5 Nos. Three phase Auto transformer 3 Nos. Moving Coil Ammeter of different ranges 20 Nos. Moving Coil Voltmeter of different ranges 20 Nos. Moving Iron Ammeter of different ranges 20 Nos. Moving Iron voltmeter of different ranges 20 Nos. Wire wound Rheostats of different ratings 30 Nos. Tachometers 10 Nos. Single element wattmeters of different ranges     UPF / LPF 20 Nos. Double element wattmeters of different ranges 4 Nos. Power factor meter 2 Nos. Digital multimeter 5 Nos. Three point starter, four point starter,DOL starter, manual star / delta starter, semi automatic and fully automatic star / delta starter 1 No each for study experiment