**Anna University**

**DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING**

** QUESTION BANK**

**CE 2254 – SURVEYING – II**

__TWO – MARK QUESTIONS __

**UNIT – I**

1. What are the three types of telescope used in stadia surveying?

2. What are the advantages of an anallactic lens used in tacheometer?

3. List merits and demerits of movable hair method in tacheometric survey.

4. Compare tangential and stadia methods.

5. What is the difference between a theodolite and tacheometer?

6. What is tangential tacheometry?

7. What are the different systems of tacheometric survey?

8. What is a Base net?

**UNIT – II**

1. What is meant by third order or tertiary triangulation?

2. Explain the terms true error and most probable error.

3. Name two groups of people involved in the measuring the base line .

4. What is a satellite station?

5. What is meant by phase of a signal?

6. Enlist the types of signals used in triangulation.

7. What are the corrections to be applied for terrestrial refraction in geodetic surveying?

8. Give the classification of triangulation system.

__UNIT – III__

1. How are normal equations formed in theory of errors?

2. Explain the term constellations of the zodiac.

3. List three types of errors occur in measurement.

4. What are the conditions to be satisfied when correcting the measured angles?

5. Differentiate between conditioned quantity and conditional equation.

6. Define weight of an observation.

7. What are the corrections to be applied to the observed altitude of sun?

8. What are the advantages of total station as compared to a theodolite?

__UNIT – IV__

1. What are the types of night signals to be used in triangulation survey?

2. Give the relationship for conversion of sidereal time to mean time.

3. Describe nautical almanac.

4. What is the relation between the Right ascension and Hour Angle?

5. Distinguish between sidereal time and standard time.

6. What is meant by declination?

7. What is the weight of an observation?

8. What is meant by satellite station?

__UNIT – V__

1. What is meant by three point problem in hydrographic surveying?

2. Explain the term ‘Cartography’.

3. What are lunar and solar ides?

4. List two characters of contour lines.

5. State the principle of EDM.

6. Define tilt displacement

7. Name the different equipments needed for soundings.

8. List the equipments used for measurement of base line.

__SIXTEEN – MARK QUESTIONS__

__UNIT – I__

1. Write a detailed notes on projection, map generalization map symbology and map

design, while generating a map. (16)

2. (i) Explain how you would determine the constants of a tacheometer. (4)

(ii) A tacheometer was set up at station A and the following readings were obtained

on a vertically held staff.

Station A | Staff station B.M. | Vertical angle -2 º 18’ | Hair reading 3.225, 3.550 And 3.875 | Remarks R.L. of B.M. is 437.655 m |

B | +8 º 36’ | 1.650 2.515 And 3.380 |

Calculate the horizontal distance from A to B and the R.L. of B, if the constants of the instrument were 100 and 0.4. (12)

3. (i) Explain how a subtense bar is used with a theodolite to determine the horizontal distance between two points.

(ii) A theodolite has a tacheometric multiplying constant of 100 and an additive constant of zero. The centre reading on a vertical staff held at point B was 2.292 m when sighted from A. If the vertical angle was +25º and the horizontal distance AB 190.326 m,

calculate the other staff readings and show that the two intercept intervals are not equal. Using these values, calculate the level of B if A is 37.950 m angle of depression and the height of the instrument is 1.35 m. (10)

4. (i) Explain the different between tangential and stadia tacheometry. (8)

(ii) How will you determine the stadia constants? (8)

__UNIT – II__

1. Discuss about the principles of subtense method for vertical base observations. (16)

2. A theodolite has a tacheometric multiplying constant 100 and an additive constant of zero. The center reading on a vertical staff held at point B was 2.292 m when sighted

from A. If the vertical angle was +25º and the horizontal distance AB 190.326 m.

Calculate the staff intercept at B. Using these values, calculate the level of B if A is 37.950 m above msl and the height of the instrument 1.35 m. (16)

3. (i) Explain the principle of subtense method n tacheometric surveying. (4)

(ii) A line was leveled tacheometrically with a tacheometer fitted with an anallactic lens, the value of the constant being 100. The following observations were made, the staff having been held vertically :

Inst. Station | Ht. of axis (m) | Staff at | Vertical angle | Staff readings | Remarks |

A | 1.38 | B.M. | -1 º 54’ | 1.02, 1.720, 2.420 | R.L. |

B | 1.38 | B | +2 º 36’ | 1.220, 1.825, 2.430 | 638.55 m |

C | 1.40 | C | +3 º 6’ | 0.785, 1.610, 2.435 | - |

Compute the elevation of A, B and C.

4. The altitude of two proposed stations A and B, 100 km apart, are respectively 420 m and 700 m. The intervening obstruction situated at C, 70 km from A as an elevation of 478 m. Ascertain if a and B are intervisible, and if necessary find by how much B should be raised so that the line of sight must nowhere be less than 3 m above the surface of the ground. (16)

5. (i) Explain with reference to signals, Non-luminous, luminous and night signals, and phase of signals. (8)

(ii) A tape 20 m long of standard length at 29ºC was used to measure a line, the mean temperature during measurement being 19 ºC. The measured distance was 882.10 meters, the following being the slopes : 2º 20’ for 100m ; 4º 12’ for 150 m; 1º 6’ for 50m; 7 º 48’ for 200 m; 3 º 00’ for 300 m;5 º 10’ for 82.10 m; Find the true length of the line if the coefficient of expansion is 6.5 x 10^{-6} per degree F. (8)

6. (i) What are the different methods by which the difference in elevation could be determined? Name the corrections to be applied. (8)

(ii) Write short notes on :

(1) Selection of site for Base line (4)

(2) Satellite station. (4)

__UNIT – III__

1. The angles of the triangle ABC were recorded as A = 77º 14’ 20” weight 4; (16)

B = 49 º 40’ 35” weight 3: C = 53º 04’ 52” weight 2; Give the corrected values of the angles.

2. (i) Explain the general principles of least squares. (8)

(ii) What are the laws of random errors? (8)

3. (i) explain an eccentric station (satellite station) may be selected in triangulation survey. (4)

(ii) From a satellite station S, 5.8 m from the main triangulation station a, the following directions were observed.

A 0 º 0’ 0”

B 132 º 18’ 30”

C 233 º 24’ 6”

D 296 º 6’ 11”

The length AB, AC and AD were computed to be 3265.5 m, 4022.2 m and 3086.4 m respectively.

Determine the directions of AB, AC and AD.

4. (i) How will you obtain error from direct observations of unequal weights on a single quantity? (6)

5. (i) Explain the different “Laws of weights” as applicable to the theory of errors. (8)

(ii) The angles of a triangle ABC were recorded as follows:

A = 77 º 14’ 20” weight 4

B =

__UNIT – IV__

1. Calculate the sun’s azimuth and hour angle at sunset at a place in (16)

latitude 42 º 30’ N, when is declinations is

(i) 22 º 12’ N and

(ii) 22 º 12’ S

2. Enumerate and explain the relationships between the coordinates of celestial sphere. (16)

3. (i) Explain the method of prediction of tide at a place using non-harmonic constants. (10)

(ii) Explain the procedure to use fathometer in ocean sounding. (6)

4. (i) Explain the method of plotting of plain metric maps by radial method. (12)

(ii) What are the applications of photogrammetry? (4)

__UNIT – V__

1. From the satellite station S 5.8 m from the main triangulation station A the following directions were observed: (16)

A 00 º 0’ 0”

B 132 º 18’ 30”

C 232 º 24’ 6”

D 296 º 6’ 11”

The length AB, AC and AD were 3265.5 m, and 4022.2 m and 3086.2 m respectively.

Determine the directions of AB, AC and AD.

(ii) Find the most probable value of angles A, B and C of a triangle ABC, from the following observation equations: (10)

A = 68 º 12’ 36”

B = 53 º 46’ 12”

C = 58 º 01’ 16”

2. (i) What are the conditions necessary in deciding the extension of Base (Base net)? (4)

(ii) The following angles were measured at a station ‘O’ so as to close the horizon:

Angle AOB = 83 º 42’ 28”.75 weight 3 (12)

BOC = 102 º 15’ 43”.26 weight 2

COD = 94 º 38’ 27”.2 weight 4

DOA = 79 º 23’ 23”.77 weight 2.

Adjust the angles by method of correlates.

3. Calculate the azimuth of the sun and hour angle at sunset at a place in latitude 55 º N, when its declination is : (16)

(i) 20 º N

(ii) 30 º N

(iii) 15 º S and

(iv) 20 º S

4. A zenith pair observation of a star crossing the meridian was made to determine the latitude of a place. Refraction correction = - R” cot α. (16)

Star Declinatin Altitude

X1 15 º 15’ 17” N 62 º 15’ 20” S

X2 70 º 43’ 13” N 62 º 17’ 30” N

Find R and the latitude of the place.

5. (i) Derive the parallax equation for the ground coordinates of a point. (10)

(ii) A pair of photographs was taken with an aerial camera from an altitude of 500 m above msl. The mean principle base measured is equal to 90 mm? The difference in parallax between two points is 1.48 mm. Find the difference in height between two points if the elevation of the lower point is 500 m above the datum. What will be the difference in elevation if the parallax difference is 15.5 mm? (6)

6. (i) Explain three point problem and strength fix in hydrographic surveying. (8)

(ii) Explain cadastral surveying and its legal values. (8)

7. (i) Explain the method of prediction of tide at a place using non-harmonic constants. (10)

(ii) Explain the procedure to use fathometer in ocean sounding. (6)

8. (i) Explain the method of plotting of plain metric maps by radial method. (12)

(ii) What are the applications of photogrammetry? (4)