Anna University, Chennai
SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE Department of Computer Science
CS1401 INTERNET COMPUTING UNIT – I
1. What is the difference between node and host?
A node is any addressable device connected to a network whereas the host is a more specific
descriptor that refers to a networked general-purpose computer rather than a single purpose device (such as a printer).
2. What is the purpose of routers?
Router operates like electronic postal workers that evaluate and forward packets between
3. Define protocol.
A protocol is a formal set of rules that must be followed in order to communicate.
4. Why are the protocols layered?
Layering protocols simplifies the task of communicating over the network and it allows for reuse
of layers that are not specific to a particular application.
5. Define encapsulation.
Placing the data inside a package of headers is known as encapsulation.
6. Define port.
A port is a logical channel to an application running on a host. ie., The applications running on
the host machines are uniquely identified by port numbers.
7. Define URI, URL, and URN.
1. URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): It identifies an object on the Internet.
2. URL (Uniform Resource Locator): It is a specification for identifying an object
Such as a file, newsgroup, CGI program or e-mail address by indicating the exact location on the internet.
3. URN (Uniform Resource Name): It is a method for referencing an object without declaring the full path to the object.
8. What is the difference between TCP and UDP?
Connection oriented transport protocol Sends data as a stream of bytes Guarantee of delivery
Connection less protocol
No guarantee of delivery.
9. Define IP Address?
Each host computer on the internet has a unique number and it is called as internet protocol
10.Define Web page, Web site &Web browser?
1.A Web page is a document created using HTML.
2.A Web site is a collection of related pages.web pages and sites can be stored on the hard drive of a
local computer or a web server.
3.A Web browser is a program that displays the web pages it retrieves.
11. Define HTML.
It is a simple page description language, which enables document creation for theweb.
12. What do you mean by well-known ports?
Port numbers can range from 1 to 65535, however ports 1 to 1023 are reserved. These reserved
ports are referred to as we1l-known ports because the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority publicly documents the applications that use them.
13. What is meant by Name Resolution?
Name Resolution is the process of mapping a hostname to its corresponding IP Address.One way
to translate a hostname to an IP address is to look it up in a simple text file.The second way is the domain name service, which is a distributed database containing all
registered hostnames on the Internet and their IP addresses.
14. Define protocol tunneling.
Protocol tunneling is the process of encapsulating one protocol within another protocol that
operates on the same layer.
15. What are the components of HTTP URL?
The components are host, an optional port, path, filename, section and query string.
16. Define URL encoding.
URL encoding involves replacing all unsafe and nonprintable characters with a
percent sign (%) followed by two hexadecimal digits corresponding to the character’s ASCII
17. What does ICMP provide?
1. Error messaging
2. Demand reply functions
18. Define IGMP.
It is Internet Group Management protocol. It provides
19. List the goals of SGML.
I. To manage the flow of millions of pages.
2. For structuring information exchange
3. For modeling inter-document linkages
4. For managing information flows between departments and weapons systems
20. What are the necessities of using HTML forms?
1. Gathering user information
2. Conducting Surveys
3. Interactive services
21. What are the sequences of steps for each HTTP request from a client to the server?
1. Making the connection
2. Making a request
3. The response
4. Closing the connection
22. Define MIME.
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an open standard for sending
multipart, multimedia data through Internet email.
23. List the predefined MIME content types.
24. What is meant by loop back address?
A zone that enables the server to direct traffic to itself. The host number is almost
25. List down font characteristics permitted in style sheets.
26. What are Style Sheets?
Style sheets are collections of style information that are applied to plain text. Style information
includes font attributes such as type size, special effects (bold,italic,underline),
color and alignment. Style sheets also provide broader formatting instructions by specifying values for quantities such as line spacing and left and right margins.
27. List down the ways of including style information in a document.
1.External Styles -Style information is read from a separate file that is specified in the
2.Embedded Styles -Style information is defined in the document head using the
<STYLE> and </STYLE> tags.
3.Inline Styles -Style information is placed inside an HTML tag and applies to all content between that tag and it companion closing tag.
28. Define cascading.
Cascading refers to a certain set of rules that browsers use, in cascading order, to determine how
to use the style information. Such a set of rules is useful in the event of conflicting style information because the rules would give the browser a way to determine which style is given precedence.
29. What are the style precedence rules when using multiple approaches?
Inline styles override both linked style sheets and style information stored in the document head
with <STYLE> tag. Styles defined in the document head override linked style sheets. Linked style sheets override browser defaults.
SERVER SIDE PROGRAMMIG
1. What is the role of server?
1. Manages application tasks
2. Handles storage
3. Handles security
4. Provides scalability
5. Handles accounting and distribution
2. Define CGI -Common Gateway Interface.
A specification for transferring information between a World Wide Web server and a CGI
program. ACGI program is any program designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specification. The program could be written in. any programming language, including C, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic.
3. Write a note on Internet Information Server (IIS).
Microsoft’s Web server that runs on Windows NT platforms, In fact, IIS comes bundled with
Windows NT 4.0. Because IIS is tightly integrated with the operating system, it is relatively easy to administer. However, currently IIS is available only for the Windows NT platform, whereas Netscape’ s Web servers run on all major platforms, including Windows NT platform, OS/2 and UNIX.
4. What are ISAPI (Internet Server API) and NSAPI (Netscape Server API)
ISAPI (Internet Server API): An API for Microsoft’s IIS (Internet Information
Server) Web server. ISAPI enables programmers to develop Web-based applications that run much faster than conventional CGI programs because they’re more tightly integrated with the Web server. In addition to IIS, several Web servers from companies other than Microsoft support ISAPI. NSAPI -Netscape Server API: An API for Netscape’s Web servers.
NSAPI enables programmers to create Web-based applications that are more sophisticated and run much faster than applications based on CGI scripts.
5. What is API -Application Program Interface?
A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it
easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together. Most operating environments, such as MS- Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications consistent with the operating environment.
6. What are Servlets?
A small program that runs on a server, the term usually refers to a Java applet that runs within a Web server environment. This is analogous to a Java applet that runs within a Web browser environment.Java servlets are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to CGI programs. The biggest difference between the two is that a Java applet is persistent. This means that once it is started, it stays in memory and can fulfill multiple requests. In contrast, a CGI program disappears once it has fulfilled a request. The persistence of Java applets makes them faster because there’s no wasted time in setting up and tearing down the process.
7. What are Applets?
A program designed to be executed from within another application. Unlike an application,
applets cannot be executed directly from the operating system. With the growing popularity of OLE (object linking and embedding), applets are becoming more prevalent. A well-designed applet can be invoked from many different applications. Web browsers, who are often equipped with Java virtual machines, can interpret applets from Web servers. Because applets are small in files size, cross-platform compatible, and highly secure (can’t be used to access users' hard drives), they are ideal for small Internet applications accessible from a browser.
8. What do you mean by Server-side?
Occurring on the server side of a client-server system. For example, on the World Wide Web,
9. What is a protocol?
An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. The protocol
determines the following:
1.The type of error checking to be used
2.Data Compression method, if any
3.How the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message
4.How the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message
10. What is ActiveX?
A loosely defined set of technologies developed by Microsoft for sharing
information among different applications. ActiveX is an outgrowth of two other Microsoft technologies called OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) and COM (Component Object Model).As a moniker, ActiveX can be very confusing because it applies to a whole set of COM-based technologies. Most people, however, think only of ActiveX controls, which represent a specific way of implementing ActiveX technologies.
11. Write a note on ActiveX controls.
A control using ActiveX technologies. An ActiveX control can be automatically
downloaded and executed by a Web browser. ActiveX is not a programming language, but rather a set of rules for how applications should share information. Programmers can develop ActiveX controls in a variety of languages, including C, C++, Visual Basic, and Java.
An ActiveX control is similar to a Java applet. Unlike Java applets, however, ActiveX controls have full access to the Windows operating system. This gives them much more power than Java applets, but with this power comes a certain risk that the applet may damage software or data on your machine. To control this risk, Microsoft developed a registration system so that browsers can identify and authenticate an ActiveX control before downloading it. Another difference between Java applets and ActiveX controls is that Java applets can be written to run on all platforms, whereas ActiveX controls are currently limited to Windows environments. Related to ActiveX is the scripting language VBScript that enables Web authors to embed interactive elements in HTML documents.
12.Explain about HTTP Connection.
It is a communication channel between web browser and web server. It begins on the
client side with the browser sending a request to the web server for a document. Request Header Fields are
5. User Agent
13. What is meant by Stateless Connection?
When a web server receives a HTTP request from a web browser it evaluates the request and
returns the requested document, if it exists, and then breaks the HTTP connection.This document is preceded by the response header, which has details about how to display the document that will be sent by the server. Each time a request is made to the server, it is as if there was no prior connection and each request can yield only a single document. This is known as Stateless Connection.
14. Write a note on Environment variables.
In CGI, the server prepares the environment variables before it launches the CGI script. These
represent the current state of the server that is asking for the information. The environment variables are not set from the command line but are created on the fly, and lasts
only until that particular script is finished. Each script gets its own unique set of variables and multiple scripts can be executed at once, each in its own environment.
15. What are STDIN and STDOUT?
These are mnemonics for standard input and standard output, two predefined stream / file
handles. Each process already inherits these two handles already open. From the script’s point of
view, STDIN is what comes from the browser via the server when the post method is
used, and the STDOUT is where it writes its output back to the browser. The script picks up the environment variables and reads STDIN as appropriate. It then does whatever it was designed to do and writes its output to STDOUT.
16. What are the two commonly used Request methods?
The request methods tell the script how it was invoked. Based on this information, the script
decides how to act. The request method is passed to the script using environment variable called
REQUEST- METHOD. The two most common request methods used are GET and POST.
GET is a request for data, the same method used for obtaining static documents. The GET
method sends request information as parameter tacked onto the end of the URL. These parameters are passed to the CGI program in the environment variable QUERY-STRING.
E.g.: If the script is called myprog.exe and is invoked from a link with the form
<A HREF="cgi-bin/myprog.exe? lname=blow&fname=joe"> The REQUEST_METHOD will be the string GET, and the QUERY_STRING will contain lname=blow &fname=joe.
A mandatory question mark separates the name of the script from the beginning of the QUERY_STRING. If a slash is used instead of the question mark; the server passes the information to script using the PATH_INFO variable instead of the QUERY_STRING variable. POST
POST operation occurs when the browser sends data from a fill-in form to the server. With
POST, the QUERY_STRING mayor may not be blank, depending on the server.The data from a POSTed query gets passed from the server to the script using STDIN. Because STDIN is a stream and the script needs to know how much valid data is waiting, the server also Supplies another variable, CONTENT_LENGTH, to indicate the size in bytes of the incoming "data. The format for POSTed data is Variable1=value1 & variable2=value2 &etc.
17. Explain about URL Encoding.
HTTP specification requires that the URL data should be encoded in such a way that it can be
used on almost any hardware and software platforms. Information specified in this way is called URL encoded. If parameters are passed as a part of query string or path information, they will take the form of ‘Name-Value’ pairs. variablel=valuel&variable2=value2& so on for each variable defined in the form.
18. List the advantages of CGI scripting?
I. CGI programs are relatively safe to run.
2. A CGI program can crash without damaging the server, since it only has limited access to the server.
3. Reduces the burden of server
a. Sends prepared messages / mails e customer reply
b. Capability to process forms and prepares output based on form input. c . Hit counts / Page counters.
19. Explain about Session tracking.
A session is basically a conversation between a browser and a server. All the above technologies can save information for the current session for a particular user visiting a site. The session is important, as H1TP is a stateless protocol.
20. Define scriptlets.
Scriptlets enable you to create small, reusable web applications that can be used in
any web page. Scriptlets are created using HTML, scripting and Dynamic HTML. To include them in an HTML document use the <OBJECT> tag.
21. Define ASP.
Active Server Pages (ASP) is a server-side scripting technology that can be used to
create dynamic and interactive web applications.
22. What are the ASP objects?
1.Application -It manages your web application.
2.Session -It manages and tracks individual user sessions.
3.Server -It controls behavior of your web server
4.Response -It transmits information from the web server to web browser
5.Request -It retrieves information from the browser for processing at the server.
23. What is global.asa file?
The global.asa file is a Active Server Application file you can track and manage the
application and session events, variables and objects. When you start the application the server will load the global.asa file into memory.
24. Define response object and list its methods.
The response object transmits information from the web server to browser.
25. Define JSP.
Java Server Pages (JSP) are simple technology used to generate dynamic HTML on
the server side.
26. Define Directives.
Directives are JSP elements that provide global information about an entire JSP page.
27. Write down the various attributes for the page directives in JSP.
The page directive defines information that will be globally available for that Java
28. What is meant by firewall?
A firewall is a piece of network hardware that serves as a secure gateway between an internal
network and the Internet. It protects the internal network from unauthorized access or activity,
29. Write a note on proxy server.
A proxy server is a host that makes Internet request on behalf of other machines on the network,
Proxy servers are often used to cache frequently requested files or to monitor Internet use within a Corporation.
30. What is meant by Plug-in?
A hardware or software module that adds a specific feature or service to a larger system. The
idea is that the new component simply plugs in to the existing system. For example, there are number of plug-ins for the Netscape Navigator browser that enable it to display different types of audio or video messages. Navigator plug-ins are based on MIME filetypes.
31. What do you mean by JDBC?
JDBC Part of the Java Development Kit which defines an application-programming
interface for Java for standard SQL access to databases from Java programs.
32. Define ODBC.
It is a standard for accessing different databse systems. There are interfaces for Visual
Basic, Visual C++, SQL and the ODBC driver pack contains drivers for the Access, Paradox, dBase, Text, Excel and Btrieve databases.
Server Side Includes (SSI) gives you a way to insert the content of another file into a file before the web server processes it.
XML TECHNOLOGY FAMILY
1.How XML differ From HTML?
1.HTML only displays and focuses on how Xml
Describes and focuses on the data
2. HTML is all about displaying information
XML all about information
3. HTML is not extensible
XML is extensible
4.HTML tags are predefined user must not invent
XML tags are not predefined user must invent his
5. HTML tags are not case sensitive
XML tags are case sensitive
2.What is the use of XML?
· XML files are human readable.
· Widespread industry support exists for XML.
· Major relational database are now have the native capability to read and generate XML
3.What to you mean by DTD in XML?
In XML sender can use a DTD to create XMLdocuments.On the receiving end the server can compare an incoming XML document against the DTD and determine if the incoming XML data is valid with respect to the DTD.Ifnot,it can be return a message indicating an error in the incoming format.
4.What is the use of XML Namespace with example?
XML Namespace is a simple technology solution that allows elements and attribute name to be distinguished from the similarity named elements and attributes of other XML users.
It solves the problem of clashing names.
<lib:Title> xml webservices and the data revolution</lib:Title>
5.What is the usage of CSS?
A simple mechanism for adding style(such as fonts,colors, or spacing) to web documents. Multiple levels of CSS can be used to allow selective overriding of styles.
6. Define EDI?
It is the exchange of information in a standard format between computers without any human intermediary.
7. What is DOM?
DOM is a W3C supported application program interface(API) that provides a platform and languages neutral interface to allow developers to programmatically access and modify the content and structure document such as HTML or XML.
8, Define XML schema?
An XML schema defines the structure of an XML document.In other words,It describes the valid format of an xml dataset.
9. Define XHTML
· XHTML is an effort by the W3C to replace HTML with more flexible approach to displaying web content.
· It differs from HTML in that it is based on XML,not SGML.
10. What is XSLT?
XSLT is an XML-based language used to transform XML documents into other formats
such as HTML for Web display, WML for display on WAP devices.
11.what are the use of XLink,Xpath,Xquery
· Xlink-enadlebirectional web linking.
· Xpath used to navigate XML tree structure.
· Xquery brings database query processing to XML.
12.What is metadata?
· Metadata includes the indexing and organization required to retrieve library material such as book by author,title,or subject.
· Metadata:Information about information.
1.What is SOAP?
· SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized, distributed environment.
· SOAP defines XML envelope for delivering XML content across HTTP as well
as other protocols and specifies a set of rules for servers to follow when receiving a SOAP message.
XML-Remote Procedure Call is aprotocol for doing remote procedure calls over the web where the information about what procedure to call and what parameters to pass are encoded as XML in the body of an HTTP POST requests to a server.
3. What is meant by SOAP Fault?
· The SOAP Fault information item is used to carry error and status information within a
· SOAP Fault MUST appear as a direct child of the SOAP body and MUST NOT appear more than once within a SOAP body.
4.What is meant by SOAP Actors?
· If the SOAP actor attribute is not present in a header, then the recipient of the message is considered the final destination.
· If the application is not the ultimate destination of the message, then it must remove all header elements intended for it before forwarding the message.
5. Define SOAP with attachments
A binding for a SOAP message that allows additional information to be transported with the message using HTTPs multi part messaging.DTDsstylesheets,and digital digest to be sent as auxiliary information with a single SOAP message.
6.Write about SOAP design Patterns.
Architectural design patterns capture the proven experience of software architectures in the form of architectural patterns, each with distant properties that address different architectural design patterns.
7.Write about SOAP message structure
The SOAP Envelop: the outermost element of a SOAP message. The envelope element is the root of the XML document that defines a SOAP message.
The SOAP Header: An optional,yet key element in architects a distributed systems around
The SOAP Body: An element that must appear in a SOAP message
8.What is SOAP message
· SOAP message have a common format that includes a SOAP envelop.an optional header and a body section that contains the message content.
· SOAP message defines one way data transmission from a sender to receiver.
9. What are the parts of SOAP
SOAP consists of three parts
1. Encoding rules that control XML tags that define a SOAP message and framework that describes message content.
2. Rules for exchanging application
3. Conversions for representing remote procedure calls and response.
UNIT V WEB SERVICES
1. Define web services
Web services is a set of protocols that builds on the global connectivity made possible by SOAP and the synergies of XML and HTTP.It is the important approach to software discovery and it is decentralized, loosely coupled.
2. What are the key technologies in web services
The three key technologies are
3. Define ebXML
· Electronic Business XML (ebXML) represents a global initiative to define process around which business can interact over the web.
· It includes multiple specifications it define standard ways of exchanging business messages, conducting trading relationships etc.
4. Define UDDI
UDDI- Universal Description Discovery and Integration.
A protocol for describing web services components. UDDI allows business to register with an internet directory so they can advertise their services and companies can find each other and carry out transactions over the web.
5. Define WSDL.
WSDL- Web Service Description Language
An XML description of both the service interface and the implementation details of how to connect to and user particular web service.
6. What is mean by firewall
A firewall is a piece of network hardware that serves as a secure gate way between an internal network and internet.
Its protect the internal network from unauthorized access or activity.
7. Write a note on proxy server
A proxy server is a host that makes internet request on behalf of other machines on the network, Proxy servers are often used to catch frequently requested files or tomonitor internet use within a corporation.