Anna University, Chennai
SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BA9204 - ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR QUESTION BANK
1) Define OB
Stephen .P. Robbins defines Organizational Behavior as a “field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizations effectiveness”
1) What are the disciplines contributing for OB?
Ø Political Science.
2) What are the Characteristics of the term manager?
Manager: Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Managerial
• Make decisions
• Allocate resources
• Direct activities of others to attain goals
3) What is organization?
Organisation is the place where managers practice the art of management. An organization is a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed upon objectives. In other words an organization consist of people who, alone and together in work group, strive to attain common goals.
4) What is Anthropology?
Anthropology is understood as the study of man and his works. In particular anthropologists study the culture. Culture has significant influence on human behavior. It dictates what people learn and how they behave. An employee’s behavior, discretion about things good or bad, and his style of functioning are Influenced by the culture of his organization.
5) What is the importance & scope of OB?
1. Personal Selection, Placement and Promotions
2. Education, Training and Development
4. Productivity study.
5. Trade Union areas
6. Employee Relation and Public Relation
6) What are interpersonal roles?
7) Differentiate effective Vs successful manager. EFFECTIVE VS SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS
FOLLOWING ARE THE ACTIVITIES THAT MANAGERS ARE ENGAGED IN:
Ø Traditional Management / Communication / People Management / Networking
Managers Can Be Classified Into:
Ø Average / Successful / Effective
The Time Spent By Above Managers In The Activities Engaged By Them:
Ø Managers Need To Develop Their People Skills If They Are To Be Effective
8) What is The Autocratic Model of OB?
The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
9) What are the challenges to OB?
1. Responding to Globalization
i) Increased foreign assignments
ii) Working with People from different cultures iii) Coping with anti-capitalism backlash.
iv) Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low- cost labour
v) Managing people during the war on terror
2. Managing workforce Diversity i. Embracing diversity
ii. Changing demographics
1) Define personality.
The term personality has been derived from Latin name persona, which means speak through. It denotes the mask worn by actors in ancient Greece and Rome
2) What are the determinants of personality?
3) What is trait theory of personality?
A trait is what we call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives, feels, believes, or acts. When we casually describe someone, we are likely to use trait terms: I am, for example, somewhat of an introvert, a pretty nervous person, strongly attached to my family, frequently depressed, and awesomely intelligent.
I have a good sense of humor, fond of languages, very fond of good food, not at all fond of exercise, and a little obsessive. You see: I have just given you ten traits that actually go a long way towards describing me!
Psychologists, especially personologists, are very interested in traits. They are especially interested in finding which traits are broad and possibly genetically based, as opposed to ones that are rather peculiar and can change easily. Over the years, we have had a number of theories that attempt to describe the key traits of human beings.
4) Define Attitude
It may be defined as a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards object, people or events.
- Attitude is a state of mind of an individual towards something.
5) What are the ABC components of attitude?
Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition
AFFECTIVE- response is an emotional response that expresses an individual‟s degree of preference for an entity.
- For an example: from heart, I love my job.
- A component is the person‟s emotions or feelings about object of that attitude.
BEHAVIOURAL – intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioural tendency of an individual. (Intention to act I am going to get to work early with a smile on my face) COGNITIVE response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual‟s beliefs about the object. (From brain- my job is interesting). “C” component include the beliefs, opinions and information the person has about the object of the attitude.
6) What is job satisfaction?
Important widely study of attitudes.
v Refers to an individual‟s general attitude towards his or her job.
v As the positive emotional state that results when an individual evaluates his job or job experience.
v 3 dimensions of job satisfaction.
v Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job. This response can be inferred.
Job Satisfaction is that an Individual driven from his job depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations. Job satisfaction reflects others attitude of employees
7) What is Organizational commitment?
Refers to an employee‟s satisfaction with a particular organisation & its goals. Who are highly committed is a strong supporter of the values & goals of the organisation and he want to strive hard to achieve the goals of the organisation
8) What are the determinants of job satisfaction?
The work itself Pay Supervision
9) What is Locus of Control?
one’s perception as to where is his locus of control. The concept was developed originally Julian Rotter in the 1950s. Do you believe that your destiny is controlled by yourself or by external forces (such as fate, god, or powerful others)?
Internals – they control what happens to them
Externals – controlled by outside forces (lady luck to chance, fate)
10) Differentiate between type A & B personality
è Type „A‟
n Always moving, walking & eating fast
n Feel impatient
n Strive to do two or more things at once
n Cannot cope with leisure time
n Obsessed with number; how many, how much they have achieved
n Never suffer from a sense of time urgency
n Feel no need to display/discuss their achievements unless required
n Play for fun /relaxation
11) Define EI
EI is composed of five dimensions
n Self-awareness (what you‟re feeling)
n Self-management (manage the feelings)
n Self-motivation (go on with -ve emotions)
n Empathy (feel how others are feeling)
n Social skills (handle emotions of others
12) What is emotional labor?
Emotional labor – employee displays desired (organizational) emotions.
n Almost all jobs require high emotional labor (customer dealing, sales, doctors, pilot’s service jobs, cricketer etc)
13) Define motivation
A motivation is one’s willingness to push up efforts to accomplish some specific goals.
14) Explain the Maslow theory in short?
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.
15) What is reinforcement theory?
B.F. Skinner, who propounded the reinforcement theory, holds that by designing the environment properly, individuals can be motivated. Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings, attitudes and other cognitive behavior,
individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. Hence, the only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.
16) What is Goal Setting Theory?
Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving them faster. As the clearity is high, a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstandings in the work of the employees. The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standard than in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort. It revolves around the concept of “Self-efficacy” i.e. individual‟s belief that he or she is capable of performing a hard task.
1) What is group dynamics?
GROUP DYNAMICS are the interactions and forces among group members in social situation
2) Differentiate between a work group & a Team.
Work Group: A group interacts primarily to share information and to make decision to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
Work Team: A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
3) Differentiate formal & Informal groups
Formal- hierarchical.These groups are formed by the organizations to carry out specific tasks.
Informal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal, vertical or random. These are the groups formed by employees themselves.
4) What are the stages of group development?
5) define work team
Work Team: A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs
6) What is group structure?
1) Formal leadership
7) What are the Characteristics of Effective Work Teams?
1. Commitment and inspiring goals
2. Role Clarity
3. Self- disclosure (incl.confrontation)
4. Openness to feedback
6. Creativity with constructive confrontation
7. Collaboration /Support/Trust
8. Congruence between individual and group goals
9. Supportive leadership
10. Management of power
8) What are the Characteristics of ideal org. structure?
Ø Work specialization & division of labours:-
Ø Division of labour
Ø Abstract rules
Ø Impersonality of managers
Ø Modification of bureaucratic centralization decentralization
9) What is Division of labor?
The degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs.
10) What is Departmentalization?
Basis by which jobs in an organization are grouped together engineering, accounting personnel.
11) What are the Function of communication?
3) Emotional Expression
12) What are the Directions of Communication?
Flow of authority, Maintenance of hierarchy, Reasoning, Memo
Feedback, report submission, request, permission
Communication among same work group
13) What is Organizational communication?
1. Chain 2. Wheel 3. Network
Criteria Chain wheel Network Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence leader Moderate High None
Moderate Low High
14) Define control?
It is a process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significance deviation.
15) What are the control processes?
Measure à measure present performance. Monitoring and evaluation Compare
à effect of measurement range of variation. Goal Vs Performance. Managerial actions à correct actual performance. Revise standard one
1) Define leadership
“as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals”. Sources of this influence may be formal based on the managerial rank in an organisation. Leadership role simply because of position he/she hold in organisation
2) differentiate leader Vs Manager
Leader take personal and active interest in achieve goals.
Managers tend to play a relatively passive role in accomplishing goal
Leaders have power within themselves and the required drive the head people and motivate them to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives.
Managers need power to be entrusted to them by organisation to deal with people.
Leader can act confidently even, if they need to work independently.
If managers are require to work alone without assistance from people. They become tense.
Leaders interact with people frequently and in more natural way. They inspire people motivate them and lead them.
Managers limit their interaction with people to the minimum extent required to carry out their managerial responsibility.
3) What are the leadership skills?
Technical, Human, Conceptual skills.
4) Explain the behavioral theory in short?
Theories proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from leaders from non-leader.
I) Ohio Theory II) Leadership Grid.
5) Explain the Path- Goal Theory.
It states that it is the leader‟s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and / or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organisation. Clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing road blocks.
6) What is managerial GRID?
Concern for People / Production
7) Differentiate between transactional leader & transformational leader.
Management by exception (active) Leader constantly monitors organdisational activities. If there is
any deviation from the established rules and stds take necessary steps to bring condition back to normal
Charisma Leaders have a vision which they are easily communicate with others. They establish a mission for their followers and make them take pride in working towards that mission. They gain respect and trust of their follower
Management by exception (positive) Leaders involve in day to day operations only if the required std a not is met.
Inspiration They inspire their followers by communicating to them the high expectations of the organisation has often and assume them of their capacity to met those expectations. They are good at expressing complicating goals and objectives
8) What is Laissez-faire?
Leader tries to escape responsibilities and avoids making decision. Preference for contingent rewards: Leaders believe that people can be motivated by recognizing their accomplishments and designing rewards appropriate for their level of efforts and performance.
9) define power
• A capacity that “A” has to influence the behaviour of “B” so that B acts in accordance with A‟s Wishes.
10) What is legitimate power?
The power a person receive as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.It represent the formal authority to control and use organisational resources. E.g. Production Manager can control the wastage for the material from the production
11) What are the sources of power?
Expert and reference power are positively related to employees‟ satisfaction with supervision, their organisation commitment and their performance, where an reward and legitimate power seem to be unrelated to these outcomes
1) Differentiate organizational Culture & climate
Based on anthropology and sociology
Study of climate base on psychology.
Culture is a means through which members learn and communicate what is accepted and unaccepted in an organisation on the light of its values and norms
Climate does not deal with values and norms it is concerned with the current atmosphere in the organization
Culture is more difficult to change in short period of time
Climate is subject to manipulation by managerial actions even in short-term.
2) differentiate strong Vs weak culture
Strong culture impact on employee behaviour and or more directly related to reduced turnover. Primary and dominant values that are accepted throughout the organisation. It influence on the behaviour of its members because the high degree of sharedness and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioural control. Builds cohesiveness loyalty and commitment less opportunity to leave organisation.
3) differentiate organizational culture Vs national culture
National culture is greater impact on employees than organisational culture
.National culture strongly shaped this company‟s organisational culture.
4) What is socialization process?
It means process that adopts employees to the organisation cultures. For that 5 month training programme where they learn way of doing everything. From how to speak to superiors to proper grooming & dress. Company considered it is entered for transforming young employee‟s fresh out of school into dedicated corporate warriors
5) How do employees learn culture?
Stories, rituals, material symbols, language.
6) Explain rituals?
Rituals repetitive sequence of activities that express & re-in force the key values of the organisation. What goal is most important who is important?
May – Kay cosmetics annual award meeting. Miss American pageants wear. This show act as a motivator by publicly recognising outstanding sales performance. In convey to sales persons that reaching their quote is important & that through hard work & encouragement they too can achieve success.
7) What are the determinants of job satisfaction?
Individual factors, nature of job, situational variables
8) Define stress
“Stress is an adaptive response, mediated by individual characteristics and/or psychological processes, that is consequence of any external action, situation, or event that places special physical and /or psychological demands upon a person
9) Define stress management
Predetermined strategy for coping with psychological or emotional turmoil.
10) What are the causes of stress? ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
i)Economic Uncertainty ii) Political uncertainty ii) Technology changes
i) Task demands ii) Role demand iii) Interpersonal demand
i) Family ii) Economic iii) Personality iv) Individual Differences
11) What are the ways to manage stress?
Ø Take personal responsibility for reduce stress level
Ø Strategies include Time Management,
Ø Techniques –Physical exercise, relaxation training, expands social supports and network.
Task and role demand can be controlled by management and it can be modify and change in organisation
12) What is organizational change & causes of change?
Change refers to alternation in the total work environment. People should adopt themselves to the changing situations. i.e. the change towards the growing trend.
CAUSES OF CHANGES OR FORCES FOR CHANGES
Work Force, Technology, Economic Shocks, Competition, Social trend
13) differentiate reactive & proactive changes
Reactive change is undertaken when it is pressed by some factors. Either internal
or external to the organisation most of organisation believe in traditional pattern of working often go for reactive changes. Organisation introduces certain methods or systems when they are forced for that. For example: population control devices they did when they are forced by government. Proactive change is brought out of the likely behaviour of the forces having impact on the organisation. Organisation known as prospectors which constantly interact with their environment to identify new opportunity and threats. Regularly basis changes in order to avoid developing inertia of inflexible.
14) What is resistance to change?
Whenever an idea is proposed, i. e to make some changes in the organisation, there will be resistance to adapt those changes. When there is resistance, then the merits and demerits of that idea will be discussed and it is good for organisation. The resistance may fall under 4 types. They are
· Overt (explicit )
· Implicit (covert)
15) How to overcome resistance to change?
v Education and communication. Employees should be educated on the logic of changes by explaining the full facts and all doubts must be cleared in order to reduce the resistance.
v Participation. It becomes difficult for the individuals to resist a change decision in which they take active participation.
v Facilitation and support. Change agents can offer a range of supportive efforts like counselling, training, paid leave, etc.
v Use of group force. Group can exert more pressure on attitude, values and behaviour. By identifying strong cohesive groups and making them involve and participate in the decision making process, the resistance is reduced.
Leadership for change. A strong leader /manager can use personal reasons for change without resistance. He brings a climate for psychological support from the subordinates.
v Negotiation. A few powerful individual can be offered a specific reward package and negotiated.
v Manipulation. Twisting information, creation of false rumours, with-holding undesirable information are some of the tactics of manipulation to decrease the intensity of resistance to change.
v Coercion. This is the application of force or direct threats of transfers, loss of promotions, negative performance evaluation. Here the change agents‟ credibility will be zero.
16) What are LEWIN’S three steps Model?
Employees are educated about external and internal factors that make change important.
Movement of changes:
Employees convinced on prepared for change, the actual change process begins doing a way of practices and adopting new methods. Job duties are redefined.
It is an implemented stage. Reforming changes so that organisation does not revert to old state of things. New skills are adopted with the help of training and management ask to demonstrate new skills like Role play.
17) Define OD
„A system wide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organisational strategy, structure, and processes of improving an organisation‟s effectiveness”.
18) What are the Techniques of OD?
Ø Sensitivity training
Ø Survey Feedback
Ø Process consultation intervention:
Ø Team Interventions:
Ø Intergroup development
Ø Appreciative inquiry: AI
19) define Organizational Effectiveness
Barnard defined Organisational effectiveness as it is degree to which operative goals have been attained. While the concept of efficiency represents the cost/benefit rate incurred in the pursuit of these goals.
20) What are the Approaches to Measure Effectiveness?
There are 2 reasons for measure effectiveness.
1. To know whether organisation is doing things rightly, if not additional efforts require.
2. Organisational means for satisfying the needs of people in the society and the satisfaction of such needs is directly linked to organisation effectiveness.
o Goal Approach
o Behavioural Approach
o System - Resource Approach
o Strategic Constituencies Approach