BA9205- COMMUNICATION SKILLS Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai








1) Define Communication.

Communication is the process of transferring of information from one person to another.

It is commonly defined as “the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions or information by speech, writing or signs.

2) Process of communication








3) What are the objectives of communication ?

· To give and receive information

· To issue orders and instructions

· To impart education and training

· To improve morale

· To motivate people

4) Importance of communication in Business

Growth in size of the business

· Growth of trade unions

· Human relations

· Public relations

· Technological advancement

· Motivation & Morale

· Corporate image

5) List few characteristics of communication

· Communication is essentially a two way process. It involves a sender and a receiver.

· Communication is essential in all types of organisation and at all levels of management.

· Communication is a dynamic process.

· Organisational communication consists of flow of messages through several networks.

· Communication is an interdisciplinary science.

6) 7 C’s of communication

· Courtesy/Consideration

· Clarity

· Correctness

· Concreteness

· Credibility

· Completeness and Consistency

· Conciseness

7) What are the means of communication ?

1. Verbal communication i) Oral

ii) Written

2. Non-verbal communication i) Sign language

ii) Body language

8) Types of communication

· Downward communication

· Upward communication

· Horizontal communication

· Grape communication

9) What are the elements of communication ?

i) Sender

ii) Message iii) Channel iv) Receiver v) Feedback

10) Need for communication in management

· To increase employees job performance and effectiveness by updating their knowledge

· To effect changes smoothly

· To empower employees with information on development and activities

· To inform and convince employees about decisions and the reasons behind those decisions

11) Define perception

It is defined as the process by which individuals organise and interpret their sensory impressions inorder to give meaning to their environment.

It is the process of making sense out of events.

12) Barriers in communication

· Noise

· Lack of planning

· Semantic problems

· Cultural barriers

· Socio-psychological barriers

· Time and distance

· Poor listening

· Information overload etc..

13) What is Personal Communication ? Does it affect the attitude of Individuals ?

It is the exchange of information and feelings in which human beings engage whenever they are placed together.

Yes, it affects the attitude of individuals. Denial of personal communication could lead to emotional upset and excessive interpersonal communication may interfere the work


14) What is Dyadic communication ?

When communication takes place between two persons, then it is said to be dyad communication.

Only two persons are involved in sharing and exchange of information

In short it is a 1:1 interaction.

15) What are the types of Grapevine chain communication ?

· Single strand chain

· Gossip chain

· Probability chain

· Cluster chain

16) What is abstracting ?

In a communication, where the process involves focusing on some details and omitting others is called Abstracting.

17) What is meant by Denotations and Connatations ?

Denotations is usually the dictionary definition of a word. It informs the receiver naming objects, people or events. Eg: Student

Connotations is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual definition. Eg: Students as bookworm, scholar.

18) What are the components of system approach ?

· Input

· Process

· Output

· Control

· Feedback

19) How to overcome communication barriers ?

· Effective listening

· Create synergistic environment

· Convey emotional contents of the message

· Use appropriate language and channel

· Ensure two way communication

· Make best use of body language

20) Explain SWOT Analysis.

SWOT Analysis is a simple framework for generating strategic alternatives from a situation analysis.

It is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strength, Weakness, Oppurtunities, and Threats involved in Business venture.

21) What are the limitations of SWOT analysis ?

· It does not provide any guidance as to how individuals can identify the 4 elements for themselves.

· It consists of one and two way phrases to identify those elements and includes no details.

· It does not prioritize issues.

· It can generate too many ideas but not help us to choose which one is best

22) Explain Transactional Analysis

It is a system of psychotherapy that analyzes personal relationships and interactions interms of conflicting or complementary ego states that correspond to the roles of parent, child and adult.

It is a method of understanding people‟s behaviour by analyzing the transactions or

interactions which transpire people.

23) What is Johari Window ?

It is a communication model that facilitates the analysis of how someone gives and receives information and also the dynamics of interpersonal communication.

It is normally represented in the form of a grid divided into four sections each of which represented by a type of communication exchange namely, openself, hiddenself, blindself and unknown self.


Known to self

Not know to self

Known to others



Not known to others



24) What is the role of feedback in business communication ?

· Feedback is a mechanism, process or signal that is looped back to control a system within itself.

· Feedback describes the situation when output from an event or phenomenon in the past will influence the same event/phenomenon in the present or future.

· Feedback combines immediately with the immediate input signal to drive the responsive power gain element without changing the basic reponsiveness of the system to future signals.


1) Define Non-verbal communication

It is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Non-verbal communication can be communicated through gestures and touch, by body

language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact.

2) Functions of non-verbal communication

· Express emotions

· Express interpersonal attributes

· To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers & listeners

· Self-presentation of one‟s personality

3) Importance of nonverbal communication

· Nonverbal communication is one of the key components when it comes to conveying confidence and selfassurance to other people when meeting.

· The team members are able to project their attitudes and feelings through nonverbal communication.

· Nonverbal communication can be communicated through object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, symbols, infographics etc..

· NVC is hugely important in any interaction with others; its important is multiplied across cultures.

4) What is sign language?

It is the process in which people exchange messages through mutually understood signs/symbols. These signs may be audio or visual signs

5) What are the advantages of visual signals ?

· Visual signals like pictures, posters etc used on verbal communication convey the message very easily.

· Colourful paintings, photographs etc make communication interesting and motivate the viewer.

· They have an educational value, especially useful for illiterate workers.

· Posters are an effective way of advertising.

6) What are the advantages of sound signals ?

· Sound signals are very quick in conveying the intended message. Eg:

hooting of siren at once make the workers very active.

· Sound signals are very useful in time management

· Buzzers and other such devices streamline the working of the organisation.

7) What are the limitations of sign language ?

· Sign language whether visual signs or audio signals can communicate only elementary and simple ideas.

· Sign language can be effective in combination with verbal communication. It cannot be a substitute for verbal communication.

· Sign language is quite likely to be misunderstood.

· It is not easy to draw effective pictures, posters, cartoons etc. it requires great skill on tha part of the artist.

8) What is facial expression ? Give some examples for facial expressions.

It is a form of nonverbal communication that results from one or motions or positions of the muscles of the face. They are the primary means of conveying social information among humans.

Examples: Anger, happy, sad, confusion, surprise,disgust, frustration

9) What is meant by Gesture ?

A Gesture is a form of nonverbal communicationin which visibly body actions communicate particular messages, either in place of speech or in parallel with spoken words.

It includes movement of hands, face or other parts of the body.

10) How do postures and gestures aid nonverbal communication ?

Postures can be used to determine a participant‟s degree of attention or involvement , the difference in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the communicator.

Gestures are a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated with hands, arms or body and also include movements of the head, face and eyes such as winking, nodding or rolling one‟s eyes.

11) What is intonation ?

It is the way that the sender‟s pitch of voice rise and falls when speaking.

Intonation indicates the end of an entity of information which in written communication is shown by comma, semicolon, point, exclamation or question mark.

12) How do beliefs and customs , influences communication ?

· Belief is a psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.

· Without the awareness that others hold beleifs and values contrary to our own, we tend to falsely believe that the way we interpret an event is correct and that everyone else also sees the world as we do.

The raising of this awareness within ourselves is a key component and first step towards enhancing our own interpersonal communication skills.

13) Mention the role of personal appearance.

It is the visual aspect of somebody, especially with regard to personal cleanliness and neatness of clothing.

It is defined by the way we groom and dress ourselves and is generally instrumental in other people forming opinion about us.

14) What is world view ?

World view is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing natural philosophy, fundamental existential and normative postulates or themes, values, emotions or ethics.

It refers to the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it.

15) What is Proxemics ?

It is the study of how we communicate with the space around us. It is also called Space language.

The distance of proximity can be stated as

1. Intimate – Physical contact upto 18 inches

2. Personal – 18 inches to 4 feet

3. Social – 4 to 12 feet

4. Public – 12 feet to as far as we can see or hear

16) What is paralanguage ?

The voice quality and the extra sounds we make while speaking which are part of nonverbal communication is called Paralanguage.

Paralanguage includes voice volume, rate, articulation, pitch, speaking speed and non;fluencies.

17) What are the advantages and limitations of Paralanguage ? Advantages:

· Para language is closely allied to oral communication. No oral communication is complete without it.

· On the basis of a person‟s paralanguage or way of speaking we can

findout his education background.


· We cannot totally rely on para language. It is like language but not a language.

· The voice quality, speed, pitch etc may sometimes unnecessarily prejudice the receiver of the message.

18) Explain Non-fluencies.

Utterances like „oh‟, „uh‟, „um‟, „you know‟, „well‟, „ok‟ etc are known as Non-fluencies. They give the speaker, breathing time and the audience, time to think over what he has


Carefully and judiciously used, these utterances add to the fluency of the speaker. Too frequent non-fluencies irritate the listener.

19) How are facial expressions important for effective communication ?

· Facial expressions are an important channel of non –verbal communication.

· The role of facial expression in person-to-person interaction remains substantial.

· A facial expression shows the actual view of the speakers mind as well as the listeners mind.

· The face is a specialized communication area, conveying different emotions and sentiments.

· It has been found that much facial expression of emotions in human being is cuturally universal and largely independent of learning.

· Facial expression play an important role in any study of inter-cultural communication.

20) What are the ways to make inercultural communication effective ?

1) Maintaining similarity

2) Emphasize description

3) Empathy

4) Working hypothesis

5) Be patient

6) Establish rules

7) Ask questions

8) Respect

9) Time

10) Always check

11) Be positive

12) Self-reflect


1) Define Oral communication.

Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than informational content. This type of communication also garners immediate feedback.

2) Advantages of oral communication

Ø It provides immediate feedback.

Ø It is economical and time saving.

Ø In oral communication, the speaker has the advantage of understanding the group he is addressing.

Ø By bringing people (superior and subordinates) together, oral communication builds up a healthy climate in the organisation

3) Limitations of oral communication

Ø Oral message cannot always be retained in the listener‟s memory.

Ø In the absence of record, oral message do not have legal validity.

Ø If the speaker has not carefully organised his thoughts, oral communication may lead to misunderstanding.

4) Mention the importance of Listening

Ø Listening is the most frequent activity of the human being as well as an important event in the communication process.

Ø Proper listening assures the speaker that the listener is sincere and can be trusted.

Ø Listening plays an important role in enhancing the learning of different level people.

Ø Listening plays a vital role in the career success, whether as a general

manager, sales person, personnel manager etc…

5) What are the types of Listening ?

1. Pretending listening

2. Selective listening

3. Attentive listening

4. Emphatic listening

5. Listening for mutual creativity

6. Intuitive listening

6) Explain emphatic listening

It is listening intendly and intensively to understand the person fully, deeply, both emotionally as well as intellectually.

It involves listening not only through ears but also through eyes and hearts.

7) What is intuitive listening ?

It means listening through intuitive mind by silencing the other internal dialogues going simultaneously.

Intuitive listener requires to keep the listener‟s mind devoid and detached

from his mental dialogueto have the full impact on the conversation.

8) What are the barriers to effective listening ?

1. Hearing problems

2. Rapid thoughts

3. Overload of message

4. Egotism

5. Perception

6. Faulty assumptions

7. Cultural differences

8. Lack of training

9) How to make Listening effective ?

· Stop talking as u cannot listen while talking

· Free your mind from presumptions and preconceived ideas by being aware of them

· Avoid external distraction if any such as TV, radio, noise in the nearby place etc.

· Demonsrate your interest in the talker‟s speech through facial

expressions or active questioning relate to the topic.

· Be patient and allow the talker sufficient time to clarify his point. Do not interrupt him.

· Be careful that your listening is not partial and selective but total and deep.

10) List the characteristics of effective speech.

i) Voice of quality

ii) Rate of speaking iii) Clear articulation iv) Eye contact

v) Use of expressions, gestures and posture vi) Voice modulation

vii) Tone

viii) Pitch ix) Pauses

x) Clarity of voice

xi) Pronunciation and accent

11) Mention the different types of audience

· Initial audience

· Gatekeeper audience

· Primary audience

· Secondary audience

· Watchdog audience

12) Give the concept of Group Discussion

A qualitative method to obtain in-depth information on concepts and perceptions about a certain topic through spontaneous group discussion of approximately 6-12 persons, guided by a facilitator.

A group discussion is a discussion among participants about a particular topic. GD allows us to exchange information and ideas and gives the experience of working in a team.

13) Mention some of the peronality traits in GD.(Advantages)

· Ability to work in a team

· Communication skills

· Reasoning ability

· Leadership skills

· Flexibility

· Creativity

14) How is GD differ from Debate ?

GD: basic exploration of thoughts and ideas about a particular topic. Debate: always polarized for either for or against the topic and u defend the point of view.

GD: expression of facts with no winning and loosing

Debate: intense emotional upsurge and holds a spirit of competition

15) What are the types of GD ?

1. Topic based GD:

The group discusses a topic that is typically in the form of a the end of the discussion, the group should strive to arrive at a consensus on the issue that is covered by the topic.

2. Case based GD:

A short description of a situation is given to the participants. The participants have to study the case, analysethe problem and then discuss their views about the possible solution to the problem with the other members of the group.

16) List some of the DO‟s and DON‟T‟s in GD

DO‟s in GD:

Speak pleasantly and politely to the group

Respect the contribution of every speaker

Keep in mind that the discussion is not an argument

Be aware of the body language when speaking

Agree with and acknowledge what you find is interesting

DON‟T‟s in GD:

Don‟t lose your temper. Remember again the discussion is not an argument

Don‟t use too many gesture

Don‟t dominate the discussion

Don‟t draw too much on personal experience

17) What is Brainstorming technique ?

It is a creative exercise wherein a group of participants are brought together to explore a common issue and look for possible solutions.

In a brainstorming exercise, each participant is allowed to be creative and no

participant is allowed to criticize another‟s contributions.

18) List the features of debate.

Purpose Planning Paricipation Communication Informative Persuasive Dynamic

19) Types of Debate


Cross examination

Academic Public Policy

20) What is conference ?

Conference is derived from „confer‟ which means to consult together, confer to discuss and compare opinions by bringing them together.

The conference is essentially a gathering or coming together of people of a particular area of interest to exchange information.

21) What are the types of interview ?

1. Structured interview – it is the formal way of conducting an interview

2. Unsructured interview – it is through reference or recommendations

3. Depth interview – to check the knowledge depth of the candidates

4. Stress interview – to check the emotional balance of a candidate. It is conducted for candidates who occupy the managerial position

22) Process of interview.

1. Preparation for interview

2. Physical setting

3. Conducting interview

4. Closing interview

5. Final evaluation

23) What are the hierarchy of needs according to Maslow ?

1. Physiological needs

2. Safety and security needs

3. Social needs

4. Self-esteem

5. Self-Actualization

24) What are the kinds of Presentations?

1. Monologue presentations

2. Guided presentations

3. Sales presentations

25) Factors affecting Presentation

· Audience analysis

· Communication environment

· Personal appearance

· Opening and closing of presentation

· Language and words

· Body language

· Answering questions

26) What are flipcharts ?

It consists of a large pad of papers, revealing various visual presentations attached to an easel. These charts are easy and economical to use and are portable. But it is difficult to prepare and once presented it becomes fragile and shabby.

27) List some visual aids.

Overhead projectors

35mm slider LCD projectors Video tapes Whiteboards Flipcharts

28) Explain Paralinguistic features.

These are also called „phonology‟ or „suprasegmental‟ aspect of a language. The term is applied to the various tones of voice which can be used by speakers to affect the meaning of utterances.

It helps in influencing the audience and making the presentation interesting. It also helps in breaking the monotony of the speech in non-interactive presentations.

29) What are the types of interview ?

i) Employment interviews ii) Orientation interview iii) Counselling interview

iv) Performance appraisal interview v) Grievance interviews

vi) Correctional interviews

vii) Exit interviews

viii) Information gathering interviews

30) What is the an orientation interview ?

The purpose of orientation interview is to acquaint with his job and with the organisation. It also establishes a positive relationship between the employer and the employee. Here the employer give training to the employee about his job, organisational policies, rules and regulations and also the initial specific tasks he has to perform.

31) What is purpose of an Appraisal interview ?

· To let the employees know where they stand

· To strengthen the superior-subordinate working relationship by developing a mutual agreement of goals

· To provide an oppurtunity for employees to express themselves on performace-related issues.

· To help employees do a better job by clarifying what is expected of them

· To plan oppurtunities for development and growth

32) What is nominal group technique ?

Nominal group technique is just what the name suggests. People do meet as a group, but their interpersonal communication is restricted.

Steps in nominal group technique:

i) Each member writes his ideas independently on the problem/issue concerned.

ii) All the ideas are collected and recorded. iii) The group then discusses the ideas.

iv) Every member ranks the ideas individually.

v) The idea with the maximum marks is the final decision.

33) Explain Delphi technique.

This technique was evolved to allow members of a group to arrive at a decision without having to actually meet.

It is implemented through questionnaires sent to its members. The questionnaires is then evolved to solicit answers that will help arrive at a decision. The responses are collected

and compiled. After going through the results, final decision is made when a consensus is reached

34) Advantages of delphi technique

· Members need not get together at one place

· It saves space and time for the arrangements

· It also ensures that there is no colouring of opinions due to dominance by some members.

· Each member can express his opinion freely withiut the fear of being ridiculed or criticized.

35) Fluency development strategies

Fluency can be defined as ease in speaking and expressing ideas and messages in oral communication with right accent and diction.

The following fluency strategies have been effective

1. Repeated readings

2. Paired reading

3. Learning the phonetics ehich forms the base

4. Read a lot of literature

5. Practice tongue twisters


1) What are the classification of business letters ?

i) Enquiries and replies

ii) Quotation, estimates and tender notices

iii) Orders and letters informing of their fulfillment iv) Circular letters

v) Letters requesting payments vi) Sales letters

vii) Complaints(claims) and replies(adjustments)

viii) Goodwill letters – greetings, thanks, congratulations etc ix) Credit and status enquiries

2) Importance/advantages of Business letters

· Drafting at convenience

· Reaches far and wide

· A record for purpose of law

· A record for reference

· Solidifies a business brand

· Helps to expand business

· Saves money in communication

· Convenient for giving unpleasant news

3) Essentials of a good business letter

There are 8 C‟s of good business letter writing:

1) Correctness

2) Completeness

3) Clarity

4) Conciseness

5) Courtesy

6) Consideration

7) Convincing power

4) What are the parts in a business letter ?

1. Heading/letterhead

2. Date

3. Reference number

4. Inside address(receiver‟s address)

5. Attention line

6. Salutation

7. Subjecline

8. Body of the letter

9. Complimentary or formal close

10. Signature block

11. Enclosures

12. Copy notation

13. Identification marks

14. Postscript

5) What is the purpose of enquiry letters ?

It is a letter from a prospective buyer to a seller. A letter of enquiry is written to ask about good or services that you may require.

In this, the purpose is statedand the price list, quotation, sample etc are asked.

6) What is quotation ?

A quotation is an offer to sell goods at a given price and upon the stated conditions. It enables the prospective buyer to know where the seller stands in the deal.

7) What is a Memo ?

Business memos are apiece of interforce correspondence sent between employees in a company or between company subsidiaries to transmit ideas, decisions, requests or announcements.

They are more private and more formal.

8) Distinguish between “memo” and “circular”

· Circulars present technical or nontechnical information of popular interest in a format designed for distribution to the public.

· Memorandum is a note usually for internal use within a department or a company.

· A Circular is a document intended to be copied and given to a group and can have other purposes such as advertising.

· A Memo is only to inform or remind.

9) What is the purpose of E-mail in Business communication ?

It is one of the main methods of marketing and advertising. It saves time and money

It is used for important business transactions

10) Explain minutes of a meeting.

The minutes of a meetingare the record of the discussions/decisions therein. Minutes are final when they are approved by the members of the group to which they relate, generally in the next meeting and signed by the chair person.

11) Why it is important to prepare the “minutes” in meeting ?

· Confirm any decisions made

· Record any agreed actions to be taken

· Record who has been allocated any tasks or responsibilities

· Prompt action from any relevant attendees

· Provide details of the meeting to anyone unable to attend

· Serve as a record of the meeting‟s procedure and outcome

12) List the elements to be present in the minutes of a meeting.

· The name of the organisation/unit

· Day, date, time and place

· Number in order (eg: 33rd meeting of…)

· Names of chairpersons and secretary

· Names of members present

· Names of the absent

· Attendees by special invitation (eg: auditor, caterer etc..)

· Record of the transactions

· Signature of secretary and chairman after approval

13) What are the tips for conducting a successful meeting ?

· Have a clear objective

· Make sure the approriate people attend

· Choose an appropriate venue

· Agree a time frame for the meeting and stick to it

· An effective chairperson is essential

· Regular meetings should be evaluated

14) Explain „minutes of resolution‟

Minutes of resolution also known as protocols are the instant record of a meeting

It gives an overview of the structure of the meeting, starting with a list of those present, a statement of the various issues etc..

15) What is an Agenda ?

It comes from a latin word „agendum‟ which means „a thing to be done‟. It is an ordered sequence of events to be discussed in a formal meeting otherwise it is the list of items to be considered at a meeting. It is usually send prior to the meeting to those invited to attend.

16) What are the purpose of meeting ?

· To reach a common decision/agreement

· To solve a problem

· To give and get feedback on new ideas

· To give training

· To plan and prepare for action

· To resolve differences and misunderstandings

· To review past performance and evaluate it

17) What are the types of meeting ?

i) Informative – where the purpose is to give information to the participants about a new scheme, product etc

ii) Consultative – in which the members are consulted to solve a problem

iii) Executive - in which decisions are taken by those empowers to do so.

18) Good business correspondence promotes a company‟s public relations.


Business letters which are well drafted not only communicate clearly but also serves as messengers of goodwill and contribute to positive image-building of the organisation.

Good business letters reflect the image of an organisation.

19) What is a tender notice ?

A tender notice is a published advertisement, generally issued by companies or government departments, inviting the vendors or service providers to make their offers for supply of goods or services.

20) What are the information to be given in a tender notice ?

a) Date and time of issue of tender documents

b) Date and time of receipt of the tenders c) Date and time of opening of the tenders d) Cost of tender documents

e) Earnest money required to be deposited f) Eligibility criteria of the tenderer

21) What is a sales letter ?

A sales letter is a type of personalised advertising right into the

customer‟s house. Unlike general media such as newspapers and

public posters, it is sent to some selected prospective customers whose list is prepared on the bais of their high potential as customers.

The purpose of sales letter is to make the reader feel the need for an item and make him buy it.

22) What is the purpose of collection letters ?

Collection letters are written inorder to recover/collect the dues from a customer for the goods or services given on credit. If the customer has not paid on time, it becomes necessary to remind him.

It is a tact of language necessary to impress upon the customer to pay the dues anyway regardless of retaining the business relationship.


1) Define project proposal

A project proposal is basically a document that describes the project in detail, as well as the strategy and tactics we plan to achieve its completion.

It is an operating document and serves as a roadmap to reach the destination of entrpreneur

2) What are the components /structure of a project proposal ?

· A title page

· A table of contents

· An executive summary

· An introduction

· Project goals and objectives

· Team organizational structure

· Solution procedure

· Expected deliverables

· A summary and closing section

3) What are the characteristics of a project proposal ?

· Ask questions

· Summarize the project

· Breakdown the project into a nice “To Do” list

· Split the project into phases

· Give the clients a timeline

· Estimate the time involved

· Use the multiple choice price strategy

· Offer a satisfaction guarantee

· End with a call to action

· Write and format professionally

4) What are the characteristics of a good report ?

i) Precision ii) Accurate iii) Relevance

iv) Reader orientation v) Clarity

vi) Simple and easy vii) Recommendation

5) What is an Abstract ?

An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review,conference proceeding etc.. An abstract like all summaries cover the main points of a piece of writing. Abstract typically comprises of 150-250 words and follow set of patterns

6) Goals of abstract

· Help readers decide if they should read an entire article.

· Help readers remember the key finding on the topic

· Index article for quick recovery and pros referencing

· Allow superiors to review the technical work without becoming bogged on in detail.

7) What are the types of abstract ?

i) Descriptive:

It outlines the topics covered in a piece of writing so the reader can decide whether to read the entire document.

ii) Informative:

It provides detail about the substance of a piece of writing because the readers will sometimes rely on the abstract alone for information.

8) Mention the methods for writing abstract. i) Cut and paste method

ii) Outlining method

a) Backwards outline

b) Detailed backwards outline

9) What is „structural coherence helpers‟ ?

It enables us to distinguish between a sentence and a non-sentence. It is the macrostructure of the text; in this respect a textual whole corresponds to one great sentence.

10)How will you ensure coherency in a technical report ?

A technical report gives information on the technical content of standardization work. It ensures continuity and consistency of technical content for the benefit of users.

It is a document that describes the process, progress, and results of technical or scientific research problem.

11)State the importance of vocubalary choice for efficiently drafting a technical report

· An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and communication on technical report.

· Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension

· Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary

· A technical report may be judged by others based on the usage of vocabulary in it.

12) What are the different methods of collecting data for a report ?

· Questionnaires

· Interviews

· Focus group interviews

· Observation

· Case studies

· Critical incidents

· Portfolios

13)What is a Questionnaire ?

Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced.

It can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing or a telephone survey.

14)What are the objectives of Report writing ?

i) Measure executive performance ii) Help in combating changes

iii) Gives information about all the details of the organisation iv) Controlling and coordinating

v) Record keeping

vi) Recommends action

15)Mention the importance of Report writing

· Conveyor of information

· Help management to review and evaluate office operations

· Tool for measuring performance

· Reports help in making desirable changes

· Reports help in measuring the effectiveness of the organizations

16)Process of Report writing

1. Investigating the sources of information

2. Taking notes

3. Analyzing the data

4. Making an outline

5. Writing the report

17)Write the mechanics or techniques of writing a report

1) Assemble the material

2) Plan the report

3) Draft the report

4) Edit the report

18)What are the basic and subsidiary parts of a report ? Basic parts:

a) Executive summary b) Introduction

c) Discussion

d) Recommendation e) Appendix Subsidiary parts:

a) Cover

b) Title page

c) Table of contents

d) Bibliograhy/References e) Glossary

19)When is a report said to be coherent and cohesive ?

A piece of report is coherent if it is clearly organized and has logical sequence of ideas.

A report is cohesive if the sentences are well structured, well linked together and there is no unnecessary repitition.

20)What are the types of Visual Aids ?

1) Tables

2) Graphs

3) Charts

4) Photographs

5) Maps

21)Explain executive summary

The executive summary is designed to be read by people who will not have time to read the whole report .

It provides the reader with an overview of the report‟s essential information.

The Executive summary should briefly oultine the subject matter, the scope of investigation, the method of analysis, the important findings and important issues in the organisation, the conclusions and recommendations.

22)What is Recommendation writing ?

The recommendation section of the report contains specific ways to resolve the referral questions by addressing the evaluation‟s key findings.

In this section, evaluators suggest strategies and interventions that are designed to facilitate change and result in improved outcomes for the individual.

23)List out the characteristics of recommendations. i) Specific

ii) Measurable iii) Achievable

iv) Result-oriented v) Time-bound

24)What are the factors that influence specificity of the recommendations ?

1) Evaluator‟s training and background

2) Individual‟s needs and goals for the individual

3) Prior treatments and interventions

4) Setting

5) Availability of resources and services

6) Cost of services

7) Availability of personnel to implement services.

8) Intensity and duration of services

9) Severity of the problem

25)What is „Definition‟ ? What are the four parts of Definition ?

Definition is a concise statement of the most significant constituents or features of an object or idea.

Principal parts of Definition:

i) The term ii) The verb iii) The class

iv) The differentia

26)What is an Appraisal report ?

It is a written explanation of a property‟s value, including the data and reasoning used to derive that value. If a report is given orally, the appraiser needs to keep written accounts of the discussion and how he derived the value estimate.

27)Explain performance appraisal.

Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the workspot, including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance.

It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development.

28)Mention the features of Performance Appraisal

1) Systematic process

2) It tries to findout how well the emloyee is performing

3) The appraisal is carried out periodically

4) Performance appraisal is not a past-oriented activity

5) Performance appraisal is not job evaluation

6) Performance appraisal is not limited to „calling the fouls‟

7) Performance appraisal may be formal or informal

29)Objectives of performance appraisal

1) Feedback

2) Compensation decisions

3) Data base

4) Personal development

5) Training and development programme

6) Promotion decisions

7) Improves supervision

30)What are the steps in Performance appraisal ?

i) Job analysis, job description and job specification ii) Establishing standards of performance

iii) Communicating performance standards to employees iv) Measuring actual performance

v) Comparing actual performance with standards and discussing the appraisal with employees

vi) Initiating corrective action, if any

31)Factors affecting Performance appraisal

1) Organizational leadership

2) Organizational structure

3) Environmental constraints

4) Interdependence of subsystems

33)Explain Product Appraisal

A product appraisal is an automatic assessment of the effect of a product on one‟s well- being. There are four main types of Product appraisal

i) The relation of a product to one‟s goals

ii) The sensorial appeal of the product

iii) The legitimacy of an action represented by the product iv) The novelty of the product