BA9266 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOUR WELFARE Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai




UNIT - 1

1. Industrial Relation

ü Complex of interrelations among workers, managers and government.

2. Collective Bargaining

ü Negotiation, consultation and exchange of information.

ü Mutually acceptable to all parties

3. Participative Management

· Workers participation in decision making and other top management activities.

4. Employer’s Organization

Ø Formal groups of employers set-up to strengthen their position.

5. Psychological Approach to Industrial relation

· View on the perception and attitude of the focal participants.

6. Gandhian Approach to Industrial relation

· Based on non-violent, communism, trusteeship.

· Laid stress on the importance of Job enrichment.

7. Indicators of Poor Industrial Relations

Ø Absenteeism

Ø Employee Turnover

Ø Lockouts

Ø Grievances

8. Trade Union

· Continuous association of wage earners

· To maintain and improve the working conditions

9. Reformist Union

ü Aims at preservation of the capitalist economy

ü Maintenance of competitive production

10. Business Union

Ø Built around congenial employee-employer Cooperation

Ø Craft conscious rather than class conscious.

11. Uplift Unions

Ø Aspire to elevate the moral, intellectual and social life of workers.

Ø Concentrate on health, education, insurance and benefits.

Ø Non-craft conscious

12. Revolutionary Unions

· Aims at replacing the present system with the new.

· Installing socialist or communistic systems.

13. Political Unions

ü Gain power through political action to protect workers interest.

ü Minimization of wage differentials.

14. Anarchist Unions

· To destroy the existing economic system by revolutionary means.

15. Predatory Unions

· Ruthless pursuit of the matter in hand by whatever means seem most-appropriate at the time, regardless of ethical codes.

16. Hold-Up Union

ü Appears to be conservative from outside.

ü Found in large industrial centers

17. Guerrilla Union

· Works on secret and violent methods.

· Operates always directly against its employers.

18. Craft Union

· Formation of workers belongs to same craft, occupation.

· Otherwise known as Horizontal Union.

19. Staff Union

· Consists of both craft and industrial union.

· To recruits members like clerks, supervisions, draughtsman, managers etc.,

20. Picketing

· Action taken by unionists to prevent employees from attending work after a strike has been called.

21. Boycott

Ø Rejection by workers of specific activities, products or services provided by management.

22. Code of Conduct

Ø Standard of expected ethical behavior for company’s employees.

Ø Set of conventional principles and expectations.

UNIT – 2

1. Industrial Disputes

· Disagreement in Industrial relations in form of strikes between employers and employees.

2. Elements of Industrial Disputes

Ø Employers and Employees

Ø Employers and Workmen

Ø Workmen and Workmen

3. Interest Disputes

· Determination of new wage level

· Interpretation and application of existing standards

4. Rights Disputes

Ø Otherwise known as Grievance Disputes.

Ø Grievances may be regarding retrenchment, dismissal, payment of wages.

5. Recognition Disputes

· It arises when the management of an undertaking or employer’s organization

refuses to recognize a trade union for the purpose of collective bargaining.

6. Strikes

Ø Collective stoppage of work by a group of workers

Ø To enforce the demand

7. Stay away strike

Ø Workmen stay away the work place.

8. Stay in strike

· Workmen stay at the work place

9. Token or Protest strike

Ø Workers do not work for an hour or a day

10. Gherao strike

Ø Physical blockade of a target either by encirclement

11. Sympathetic strike

Ø Go on strike for the purpose of directly aiding or supporting others.

12. Lockouts

· Temporarily closing down or shutting down the undertaking

13. Conciliation

· Third party settling the disputes among the workers and employers through mutually satisfying agreement.

14. Arbitration

Ø Process of settling disputes through the third party named as arbitrator

15. Voluntary Arbitration

Ø Arbitrator is appointed by both the parties through mutual consent.

16. Compulsory Arbitration

Ø Arbitrator is appointed by the enforcement of government.

17. Adjudication

Ø Settling the disputes through the following parties appointed by government

=>Labor court

=>Industrial Tribunals

=>National Tribunals

18. Industrial Peace

Ø State of absence of industrial unrest

Ø Existence of harmonious relations between labor and management.

19. Conciliation Officer

Ø Appointed either by central or state government.

Ø For settling the disputes between the employees and management.

UNIT – 3

1. Labor Welfare

Ø State of well being, happiness, satisfaction and development of the human resources.

2. Police Theory of Labor Welfare.

· The state has to intervene to provide minimum standard of welfare to the working class.

3. Philanthropic Theory of Labor Welfare

· Man’s love for mankind.

· Man strives to remove the sufferings of others and promote well-being.

4. Trusteeship Theory of Labor Welfare

· Otherwise known as Paternalistic theory of labor welfare.

· Employer hold industrial asset for the benefit of himself and workers.

5. Functional Theory of Labor Welfare

· Otherwise known as Efficiency theory.

· Labor Welfare focuses on developing the efficiency and productivity of labor.

6. Statutory Welfare

Ø Welfare activities enforced by government of law

7. Voluntary Welfare

Ø Employers undertake welfare activities for their workers on a voluntary basis.

8. Mutual Welfare

Ø It is a corporate enterprise undertaken by the workers themselves.

9. Intra-Mural Welfare Activities

Ø Welfare activities undertaken inside the factories.(Eg: medical facilities)

10. Extra-Mural Welfare Activities

Ø Welfare activities undertaken outside the factories.(Eg: Recreation)

11. Labor Welfare Fund

Ø Introduced by Government

Ø To ensure assistance to unorganized labors

12. Workers’ Education

· Providing training to workers and their representatives

· Lays stress on Group advancement

13. Workers’ Education Scheme

· Sponsored by Ministry of Labor, Government of India

· Providing workers’ education at National, Regional, Unit and Village levels.

14. Workers’ Training Scheme

· To change attitude of the unskilled labors

· To improve the efficiency and productivity level.

15. Craftsmen’s Training Program

· Established in 1950 by 50 Industrial Training Institutes

· Initiated by DGET

· For imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet skilled manpower.

UNIT – 4

1. Industrial Safety

· Freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss.

· Protection of workers from danger of industrial accidents.

2. Industrial Accidents

· An unplanned, unexpected and uncontrolled event

· Arise in the course of employment in a factory.

3. Incidence Rate

Ø Incidence Rate = Number of recordable injuries * 1millon

Number of employee exposure hours

4. Severity Rate

Ø Severity Rate = Total hours charged*1million

Number of employee hours worked

5. Frequency Rate

Ø Frequency Rate = Number of disabling injuries*1 million

Number of employee hours worked

6. Causes of Accidents

Ø Unsafe condition in the working environment

Ø Unsafe Acts

Ø Carelessness in handling dangerous materials

7. Prevention of Accidents

Ø Use of safety Devices

Ø Safety committees

Ø Safety Training

8. Industrial Health

Ø State of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

Ø Absence of diseases

9. Need of Industrial Health

· Reduces absenteeism and labor turnover rate.

· Reduces indiscipline

· Improve motivation and morale.

10. Causes of bad health

· Defective Nutrition

· Illiteracy

· Unsanitary

11. Industrial Hygiene

ü Science or Art of prevention, recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards.

12. Principles of Industrial Hygiene

ü Hazards should be measured quantitatively

ü Continuous surveillance

ü Occupational exposure limited

13. Hygiene Education

ü Setting-up a comprehensive educational program about the cause and preventive measures.

14. Occupational Hazard

Ø Something that can cause harm.

Ø Which may cause occupational diseases.

15. Chemical Hazards

Ø Generate from chemicals and gases

16. Biological Hazards

Ø Hazards in the form of Bacteria, Viruses, fungi.

17. Psychological Hazards

Ø Hazards in the form of Stress and anxiety arousing conditions.

18. Occupational Diseases

Ø Illness condition produced in work environment over a period of time.

Ø Systematic infection and leads to decrease in job efficiency.

19. Psychological problems

· Pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms.

· Otherwise known as affective disorders.

20. Depression

· State of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts,

behavior, feelings and physical well-being.

21. Schizophrenia

· It is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disease.

22. Industrial Hygienists

· He is a person having a college or university degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics.

23. Counseling

· It is a process in which a unique, confidential helping relationship is developed between a counselor and a willing client.

24. Direct Counseling

· Process of hearing a person’s emotional problems directly.

25.Functions of Counseling

· Reassurance

· Advice

· Clarified thinking

26. Goal of Counseling

ü Improving awareness

ü Improving personal effectiveness

ü Helps in change

ü Decision-making

27. Participants of Counseling

ü Client

ü Counselor

ü Relative Participants

UNIT – 5

1. Child Labor

ü Employment of children (below age of 14) at regular and sustained labor.

2.Reasons for Child Labor

ü Poverty

ü Natural Calamities

ü Overpopulation

ü Gap in Law Enactment and Enforcement

3.Appropriate Government

ü It means relation to an establishment under the control of the Central Government or State government.

4. Child

ü Child means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age.

5. Day

ü Day means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at mid-night.

6. Establishment

· Establishment includes a shop, commercial establishment, workshop, farm, residential hotel, restaurant, eating house.

7. Family

· Family in relation to an occupier means the individual, the wife or husband, as the case may be, of such individual and their children.

8. Occupier

· Occupier means the person, who has the ultimate control over the affairs of the establishment or workshop.

9. Port Authority

· Port Authority means any authority administering a port.

10. Week

· Week means a period of seven days beginning at midnight on Saturday night or such other night as may be approved in writing for a particular area by the inspector.

11. Workshop

· Workshop means any premises (including the precincts thereof) wherein any industrial process is carried on, but does not include any premises to which the provisions of Sec 67 of the Factories Act, 1948, for the time being.

12. Contract Labor

· Worker is hired in connection with the work of an establishment by or through a contractor.

13. Contractor

Ø Person who undertakes to produce a given result for the establishment.

14. Controlled Industry

Ø Any Industry control of which by the Union has been declared by any Central Act to be expedient in the public interest.

15. Workman

Ø Any person employed in or in connection with the work of any establishment to do any skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled work.

16. Construction labor

Ø Any person who work in underground construction, such as in tunnels or in demolition sites.

17. Beneficiary

Ø A building worker registered under Sec 12.

18. Board

Ø A Building and Other Construction Workers’ Welfare Board constituted under

Sec 18(1).

19. Chief Inspector

Ø Inspection of Building and Construction appointed under Sec 42(2).

20. Agricultural Labor

Ø Persons involved in cultivation works and under the rural economy.

21. Disabled Labor

Ø People with limiting health problems and temporary disabilities.

22. BPO

Ø Business Process Outsourcing

Ø A company hires people to offer services to its clients abroad.

23. Functions of BPOs






Data entry


Department outsourcing

Technical support

24. KPO




Knowledge Process Outsourcing

Focuses on Knowledge and information related activities and demands highly skilled personnel.

25. Functions of KPO

Ø Research and development

Ø Financial consultancy and services

Ø Advanced web applications

26. Social Security

Ø The security that society furnishes through appropriate organization against certain risk to which its members are perennially exposed.

27. Objectives of Social Security

Ø To provide Income security

Ø To provide Assistance

28. Social Insurance

Ø It is a government-sponsored insurance program

Ø Mitigate risks by providing income support in the event of illness, disability, work injury.