IT1401 – WEB TECHNOLOGY Two Marks Questions With Answers

Anna University, Chennai





1. Define Internet?

The internet is the world’s largest IP-based network. It is an amorphous group of computers in many different countries on all seven continents that talk to each other using the IP protocol.

2. Define Protocol?

A protocol is a precise set of rules defining how components communicate, addresses, how data is split into packets

3. List out the basic Internet Protocols.


4. What are the two major protocols for accessing email from servers?

HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol and SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer


5. Define HTTP Protocol.

HTTP is a form of stateless communication protocol which gives a detailed specification of how web client and server should communicate and the basic structure followed is known as Request-Response model.

6. What is the structure of HTTP Request Message?

- Start line (Request method, Request URI portion of web address, HTTP Version)

- Header fields

- Blank line

- Message Body

7. Write the structure of HTTP Response Message.

Status line Header fields Blank line Message Body

8. List out the available HTTP methods.


9. Define Web Clients.

A Web Client is software that accesses a web server by sending an HTTP

request message and processing the resulting HTTP response.

10. What is the Use of MIME? (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension)

MIME is a way to encode different kinds of data, such as sound and text, to be transmitted over a 7-bit ASCII connection. It also lets the recipient know what kind of data has been sent, so that it can be displayed properly. MIME was originally designed to facilitate multimedia email and to provide an encoding that could get binary data past the most train Damaged mail transfer programs.

MIME is an open standard for sending multipart, multimedia data through Internet email. MIME was originally intended for email, it has become a widely used technique to describe a file’s contents so that client software can tell the difference between different kinds of data.

11. What are Web Servers?

A Web Server is software that accepts HTTP requests from web clients and returns an appropriate resource in the HTTP response.

12. What is HTML?

Hypertext is ordinary text that has been designed with extra features such as formatting, images, multimedia and links to other documents. Markup is the process of taking ordinary text and adding extra symbols. Each of the symbols used for markup in HTML is a command that tells a browser how to display the text. HTML is the technical term for the format used to create normal web pages.

13. Write The Format Of Html Program.



<TITLE> This is the Title </TITLE>



…. Type the body of the program .



14. What are HTML forms?

An HTML form is used to allow a user to input data on a web page and the element used is form element and its main attributes are action and method. Its format is

<form action = method = “get”> <form>

15. Discuss about comments in HTML.

A comment in HTML, like comments in other computer languages, is something that is intended to be read by the programmers but to be ignored by the software processing the document. A comment begins with the string of characters <!—which must contain no white space. A comment ends with the string --> again with no white space.

<!-- Single line Comment Multi line Comments -->

16. What are the types of list supported by HTML?

There are three types of list supported by HTML.

Unordered – A bullet list

Ordered – a number list

17. What Do You Mean By Column Spanning and Row Spanning?

Row spanning is used to merge (combine) two or more rows. Column spanning is used to merge (combine) two or more columns.

18. Define URI. (APRIL/MAY 2011)

Uniform Resources Identifier (URI) is an identifier that is intended to be associated with a particular resource on World Wide Web.

19. What is #PCDATA?

The keyword #PCDATA (―Parsed Character Data‖) used in defining the character data and mixed content types represent any string of characters excluding less-than and ampersand, which are included because they represent the start characters for markup.

20. Define Protocol.

A protocol is a formal set of rules that must be followed in order to communicate.

21. List the predefined MIME content types.









22. What do mean by search engine?

It is a program or web page that enables you to search an Internet site for a specific keywords or words.

23. How do search engine work?

When you enter a keyword, the search engine examines its online database and presents to you a listing of sites that, in theory , match your search criteria.

24. List the elements of WWW.

• Client & server

• Web languages & protocols

• Web pages

• Home page

• Web browsers

• Web sites

25. Mention The Various Java Script Object Models.

• Math Object

• String Object

• Date Object

• Boolean and Number Object

• Document Object

• Window Object

26. Define Function In Java Script.

Function is a part of a program or in other words function is a module in java program which can be called or invoked any number of times from the main program.

Function can be called any number of times but it can accept any input values or parameters, however it can return only one output at a time.

27. Define MIME.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an open standard for sending multipart, multimedia data through Internet email.

28. List the predefined MIME content types.

1. Text

2. Multipart

3. Message

4. Image

5. Audio

6. Video

7. Model

8. Application


1. What is DHTML?

The combination of HTML plus JavaScript and the DOM is referred to as Dynamic HTML (DHTML), and an HTML document that contains scripting is called a dynamic document.

2. Explain Event object.

In the DOM event model, when an event occurs, an instance of a host object named Event is created. This instance contains information about the event, including the type of event and a reference to the document node corresponding to the markup element that generated the event which is called the event target. The Event instance properties type and target provides this information.

3. List out some common window object methods.

alert(String) confirm(String) prompt(String, String) open(String, String) close() focus(),blur()


4. List any two keyboard events.

OnKeypress onKeyUp OnKeyDown

5. List any two mouse events.

OnMouseUp OnMouseDown onMouseOver onClick

6. What does data binding mean?

Data binding is DHTML feature that lets you easily bind individual elements in your document to data from another source such as database or comma delimited text file.

7. What does DHTML refer?

DHTML refers to collection of technologies, which makes HTML

documents more dynamic and interactive.

8. Define Event Onclick with example

It fires When the user clicks an element.



<h1 onclick="this.innerHTML='Ooops!'">

Click on this text</h1>



9. Define Event onload.

It fires whenever an element finishes loading successfully.(i.e., all its children's are loaded.)

10. List the Tracking Events.

Tracking events are,

1. onmousemove

2. onmouseup

3. onmousedown

11. Define onmousemove.

It fires whenever the user moves the mouse over the web page.

12. Define onmousedown.

It fires whenever the users click the mouse button on the web page.

13. Define onmouseup.

It fires whenever the users release the mouse button on the web page.

14. Define onmouseover.

It fires when the user moves the mouse pointer into the object.

15. Define onmouseout.

It fires when the user moves the mouse pointer outside the boundaries of the object.

16. List the Form processing events.





17. Define Onfocus.

- It fires when an element gains focus.

- i.e., when the user clicks a form field or uses the tab key to move between form elements.

18. Define Onblur.

It fires when an element loses focus, which occurs when another control gains the focus.

19. Define onsubmit.

These events fire when a form is submitted respectively.

20. Define onreset.

These events fire when a form is reset respectively.

21. Define Mask Filter.

It allows creating an effect in which an elements background is a solid color and its foreground is transparent, so the image or color behind it show through.

22. Define Invert Filter.

- It applies a negative image effect.

- Dark areas become light & light area becomes dark.

23. Define Gray Filter.

It applies a grayscale image effect, in which all color stripped from the image and all that remains brightness data

24. Define X-ray Filter.


It applies an X-ray effect, which basically is an inversion of the grayscale

25. What is Direction property and List the Direction.

It determines in which direction the shadow effect is applied.

8 directions:

1. 0 (up)

2. 45 (above-right)

3. 90 (right)

4. 135 (below-right)

5. 180 (below)

6. 225 (below-left)

7. 270 (left)

8. 315 (above-left)

26. List the TDC Parameters.






27. List the TDC properties.






6)moveLast() (or) movePrevious()



1. Define Multimedia.

Multimedia uses computers to present text, audio, video, animation, interactive features, and still images in various ways and combinations made possible through the advancement of technology.

2. Define SMIL

SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language), is a language that allows Web site creators to be able to easily define and synchronize multimedia elements (video, sound, still images) for Web presentation and interaction.

3. Define SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics that has support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1999.

4. Define E-Business

Electronic business, or e-business, may be defined as the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and services between businesses, groups and individuals and can be seen as one of the essential activities of any business.

5. Define E-Commerce.

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, is a type of industry where buying and selling of product or service is conducted over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems.

6. Define Web Server

Web server can refer to either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that helps to deliver web content that can be accessed through the Internet

7. List the img element properties.

1. Dynsrc

2. loop

3. width

4. Start

5. height

8. List the Audio and Video formats.

Audio formats:

MP3 ( MPEG Layer 3)

MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface) WAV ( Widows Waveform)

AIFF ( Audio Interchange File Format) Video formats:

MPEG ( Moving Pictures Expert Group) Real One player

AVI ( Audio Video Interleave)

MJPEG ( Motion Joint Pictures Expert Group)

9. List the bgsound element properties.

1. src

2. loop

3. balance

4. volume

10. Write a program for Adding Video with the img Element’s dynsrc


<img dynsrc=“car.avi” start=“mouseover” width=“200” height=“145”

loop=“-1”> </img>


1. What do you mean by JDBC?

JDBC Part of the Java Development Kit which defines an application- programming interface for Java for standard SQL access to databases from Java programs.

2. Define ODBC.

It is a standard for accessing different database systems. There are interfaces for Visual Basic, Visual C++, SQL and the ODBC driver pack contains drivers for the Access, Paradox, dBase, Text, Excel and Retrieve databases.

3. What are XML Parsers?


XML Parsers are used to check whether the document is well formed and

4. How is XML parsing done with SAX? (NOV/DEC2011)

A SAX parser is a mechanism for transforming an XML text document into stream of events corresponding to the markup and character data contained in the original document.

5. Explain Event-oriented parsing.

In this parsing, Parser interacts with an application as its reads an XML document when certain events occur and this approach is used by SAX (Simple API for XML) based parsers.

6. What are the types of XML Parsers?

There are two types

Validating Parsers

Non-Validating Parsers

7. What is well-formed document?

An HTML or XML document is said to be well formed when it contains elements with proper tagging and no syntactic errors.

9. What is DTD?

A Document Type Declaration enables an XML parser to verify whether an XML document is valid, i.e. its elements contain the proper attributes in the proper sequence.

10. What is XML Namespace? (APRIL/MAY 2011)

An XML namespace is a collection of element and attribute names. Each namespace has a unique name that provides a means for document authors to unambiguously refer to elements with the same name in order to prevent collisions.

11. What is the use of XML declaration?

XML declaration is a special tag used to specify the version of XML used to write the document and optionally some additional meta-information about the document such as the character set/encoding used. For e.g the syntax of XML declaration is

<? XML VERSION=”1.0”?>

12. What is the purpose of XSLT? (NOV/DEC2011)

The XSLT stands for XSL Transformations and XSL stands for extensible Style sheet Language.

The XSLT is used for defining the XML document transformation and presentations.

13. What are XML Schemas?

XML Schemas are part of the XML vocabulary and its addresses the standard for XML document validation by including a definition of a collection of standard data types which are used to describe data structures.

14. What are built-in data types for XML Schema?

The data types defined by the XML Schema specification itself are called its built-in data types.

For e.g : xsd:integer, xsd:decimal, xsd:string, xsd:boolean, xsd:float etc..,

15. What Do You Mean by DTD IN XML?

DTD means Document Type Definition.

DTD file is similar to CSS file, because DTD also contains only styles. DTD contains various styles which are to be applied in XML document.

Like .CSS file .DTD file also should be linked with XML program.

Styles in XML program should be save with .xsl (Xml Style Sheet

Language) extension.

16. Define XML.

XML is a meta-markup language that provides a format for describing structured data. This facilitates more structured declarations of content and more meaningful search results across multiple platforms.

17. Define DTD.

A DTD is a set of rules that specifies how to use XML markup. It contains specifications for each element, including what the element’s attributes are, what values the attributes can take on and what elements can be contained in others.

18. Define ASP.

Active Server Pages (ASP) is a server-side scripting technology that can be used to create dynamic and interactive web applications.

19. What are the ASP objects?

1.Application -It manages your web application.

2.Session -It manages and tracks individual user sessions.

3.Server -It controls behavior of your web server

4.Response -It transmits information from the web server to web browser

5.Request -It retrieves information from the browser for processing at the server.

20. What is global.asa file?

The global.asa file is a Active Server Application file you can track and manage the application and session events, variables and objects. When you start the application the server will load the global.asa file into memory.

21. Define response object and list its methods.

The response object transmits information from the web server to browser. Methods are:









1. Define servlet.

A servlet is a java class that a web server instantiates when the server is started. A particular method is called in this instance when the server receives certain HTTP requests.

2. What are servlet life cycle methods?

The methods of servlet life cycle are

• INIT()



3. What are servlet listener classes?

Listener classes is used to initialize a web application consisting of multiple servlets rather than a single servlet and can be created and registered with the server so that they will be called when certain event occurs, including life-cycle events.

4. What are the functions of doGet() and doPost() methods?

doGet()-Browser will append the query string it constructs to the form’s action URL and performs an HTTP GET using the resulting URL.

DOPOST() – Same query string will be constructed , but it will be passed to the server via the body of the HTTP request rather than as part of the URL.

5. How the session is terminated?

By default the time interval for a session is 20 minutes.

The session can also be forced to terminate by calling invalidate()


The time interval for the session can be set using setMaxInactiveInterval()


6. Explain cookies. (APRIL/MAY 2008), (APRIL/MAY 2010)

Cookies are some little information that can be left on your computer by the other computer when we access an internet.

7. Define cookie.

A cookie is a name-value pair that a web server sends to a client machine as part of an HTTP response, specifically through the Set-cookie header field.

8. Explain the difference between get request and post request type. (APRIL/MAY 2008)

The HTML specifications technically define the difference between "GET" and "POST" so that former means that form data is to be encoded (by a browser) into a URL while the latter means that the form data is to appear within a message body.

9. List out the methods of Cookie class.

Cookie, getName(), getValue(), setMaxAge()

10. What is JSP?

JSP, an extension of servlet technology simplifies the delivery of dynamic web content.

They enable web application programmers to create dynamic content by

reusing predefined components and by interacting with components using server side scripting.

JSP programmers can reuse JavaBeans and create custom tag libraries that encapsulate complex, dynamic functionality

11. What are JSP scripting components?

JSP scripting components include Scriptlets, comments, expressions, declarations and escape sequences.

12. List out the scope of Implicit Objects

Implicit objects have four scopes: application, page, request and session.

o The JSP and servlet container application owns object with application scope. Any servlet or JSP can manipulate such objects.

o Objects with page scope exist only in the page that defines them.

Each page has its own instances of the page-scope implicit


o Objects with request scope exist for the duration of the request. Objects with session scope exist for the client’s entire browsing session.

13. What are JSP Standard Actions?

JSP standard actions provide JSP implementers with access to several of the most common tasks performed in a JSP, such as including content from other resources, forwarding requests to other resources and interacting with JavaBeans. JSP containers process actions at request time.

Actions are delimited by

<jsp:action> and </jsp:action>, where action is the standard action name.

14. What is the use of <jsp: useBean> Action?

Action <jsp: useBean> enables a JSP to manipulate a Java object. This action creates a Java object or locates an existing object for use in the JSP. If attributes class and beanName are not specified, the JSP container attempts to locate an existing object of the type specified in attribute type.

15. What are the ASP objects?

1. Application - It manages your web application.

2. Session - It manages and tracks individual user sessions.

3. Server - It controls behavior of your web server

4. Response - It transmits information from the web server to web browser 5.Request -It retrieves information from the browser for processing at the server.

16. What is global.asa file?

The global.asa file is a Active Server Application file you can track and manage the application and session events, variables and objects. When you start the application the server will load the global.asa file into memory.

17. Define JSP.

Java Server Pages (JSP) is simple technology used to generate dynamic

HTML on the server side.

18. Define Directives.

Directives are JSP elements that provide global information about an entire JSP page.

19. Write down the various attributes for the page directives in JSP.

The page directive defines information that will be globally available for that Java Server Page,






6.content type

20. Define DTD.

A Document Type Definition (DTD) defines the legal building blocks of an XML document. It defines the document structure with a list of legal elements and attributes.

A DTD can be declared inline inside an XML document, or as an external reference