Anna University, Chennai





UNIT-I Ques 1) Define Human Resource Development.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Development

HRD is an effort to develop capabilities and competencies among employees as well as create organizational environment conducive to the employees development.

According to Swanson and Holton, ‘’Human Resource Development is a process for developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development and personnel t raining and development for the purpose of improving performance’’.

Ques 2) Write down any Two Features of HRD. Ans: Two Features of HRD

i) Planned and Systematic Approach: HRD is a planned and systematic approach to t he development of people. HRD is a system consisting of several interdependent and interrelated subsystems.

ii) Continuous Process: HRD is a continuous and dynamic process which believes in the need for continuous development of personnel to face the innumerable challenges in the functioning of an organization.

Basis of




i) Objective

Its objective is to develop competitive advantage based on human resources.

Its objective is to develop human resources matching with organizational culture and provide inputs for the effective performance of various HRM functions.

ii) Status

It is viewed as a set of independent sub-functions.

It is seen as a subsystem of a larger system, i.e., the organization, It is assumed to be made up of mutually dependent parts.

Ques 3) List any Two Differences between HRM and HRD. Ans: Two Differences between HRM and HRD

Ques 4) Define the term SHRD.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of SHRD

Strategic Human Resource Development (SHRD) is concerned with development of a learning organization and the provision of learning, development, and training opportunities order to improve individual, team and organizational performance.

According to Garavan, SHRD is ‘’Concerned with the management of employee learning for the long-term keeping in mind the explicit corporate and business strategies’’.

Ques: 5) What are the Benefits of SHRD?

Ans: Benefits of Strategic Human Resource Development

i) Greater extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction. ii) Greater customer and client satisfaction.

iii) Shorter learning ties and more effective use of resource and less wastage of materials.

iv) The creation of a learning organization that is flexible and responsible in

coping with present and future demands’’.

Ques 6) Define Need Assessment.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Need Assessment

Needs assessment is a process by which an organization’s HRD needs are identified and articulated. It is the starting point of the HRD and training process. According to Kaufman et al., ‘’Need asessment can be defined as a process for identifying and prioritizing gaps between current and desired results

Ques 7) What is Strategic/Organizational Analysis? Ans: Meaning of Strategic/Organizational Analysis

Strategic/Organizational analysis involves a review of key organizational activities such as, long- and short-term business goals, major environmental changes and existing human resource development, and performance management systems. Organizational analysis examines organizational goals, available resources, and the organizational environment to determine where training should be directed.

Ques 8) What do you mean by Person Analysis? Ans: Meaning of Person Analysis

A person analysis involves deciding which employees actually need to participate in training programs. The information needed to make this decision can come from a variety of sources. Regardless of the source of the information, it is very important to make sure that training is what is needed to address any gaps between an individual's performance and desired outcomes.

Ques 9) What do you mean by JIT? Ans: Meaning of JIT

JIT is a technique of training the employees by using the actual work site as a proper setting to instruct employees while at the same time engaging in productive work. JIT is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized and conducted at the employee's worksite. If is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipments and facilities.

Ques 10) What are the Steps in Implementing HRD Programs? Ans: Steps in Implementing HRD Programs

i) Choosing Delivery System: Effective and innovative methods of training and development should be utilized to deliver the learning materials,

ii) Communicating Training and Development Programs: Trainers should use appropriate channels of communication to elicit participation in the program by the trainees.

iii) Implementation: Trainer must make all arrangements necessary for the seamless conduction of the training and development program.

Ques 11) Research Design is Critical to HRD Evaluation. Comment. Ans: Research Design is Critical to HRD Evaluation

A research design is simply the framework or plan for a study that is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data. Research design is critical to HRD evaluation as it specifies the expected results of the evaluation study, the methods of data collection, and how the data will be analyzed. Awareness of research design

issues and possible designs alternatives can help managers and HRD professionals do a better job of conducting evaluations and critiquing the results of evaluation studies.

Ques 12) What is Strategic Capability? Ans: Strategic Capability

Strategic capabilities refer to the capabilities of the members of the organization that enable the formation and deployment of strategy in pursuit of a sustainable advantage.

Working within the strategic management framework, capable people who are woven into effective processes, inspired by the business design construct, and compelled by purpose to create the competencies of the business organization that produces advantage.

Ques 13) Define the term Benchmarking. Ans: Meaning of Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding, and adapting outstanding practices from organizations anywhere in the world to help organization to improve its performance. "Benchmarking is a highly respected practice in the business world. It is an activity that looks outward to find best practice and high performance and then measures actual business operations against those goals."

Ques 14) What is HRD Audit? Ans: Meaning of HRD Audit

HRD audit is a recent phenomenon. The audit here means taking a holistic view of evaluating the current state of HRD affairs in the organization. It generally focuses on the existence of development and learning culture as well as HR sub- systems prevailing in the organization in a proactive manner. It helps analyzing an organization where it stands in terms of its effectiveness of its HRD practices and brings out die areas requiring focus and improvements.

Ques 15) What are the Limitations of HRD Audit? Ans: Limitations of HRD Audit

i) Top management can influence HR audit.

ii) Failure of implementation of corrective action based on the feedback.

iii) Victimize the HR department and remove some HR staff, due to negative audit feedback.

iv) HRD audit does not give evaluation of individuals but focuses on units and systems.

UNIT-II Ques 1) What do you mean by E-HRM? Ans: Meaning and Definition of E-HRM

E-HRM aims to leveraging of technology to deliver HR solutions that brings about convergence in human capital, processes, data and tools as a catalyst towards achieving business strategies.

According to Ruel et al., "E-HRM as a way of implementing HR strategies, policies, and practices in organizations through a conscious and directed support and/or with the full use of web-technology-based channels".

Ques 2) What are the various Types of E-HRM? Ans: Types of E-HRM

i) Operational E-HRM: It is concerned with administrative function like payroll, employee personal data, etc,

ii) Relational E-HRM: It is concerned with supportive business process by the means of training, recruitment, performance management and so forth.

iii) Transformational E-HRM: It is concerned with strategic HR activities such as knowledge management, strategic re-orientation, etc.

Ques 3) Define the term E-Employee Profile. Ans: Meaning of E-Employee Profile

E-employee profile is self access to database to view or update particulars, list compensation packages, skills, qualifications and other information related to the job. E-employee profile maintenance lies with the individual employee, the manager and the database manager. In other words, E-employee profile provides a central point of access to the employee contact information and provides a comprehensive employee database solution, simplifying HR management and team building by providing an employee skills, organization chart and even pictures.

Ques 4) What is E-Recruitment? Ans: Meaning of E-Recruitment

It is also called internet recruitment, or online recruitment. E-recruitment simplifies this process by providing a sophisticated web-based solution that manages the process of recruitment from start to finish, ft ranges from the applicant interface for advertising vacancies and making job applications, to the back office processes, which allow a liaison between Human Resources (HR) and line managers to set up a talent pool! or database of potential recruits.

Ques 5) Mention Two Advantages of E-Recruitment, Ans: Two Advantages of E-Recruitment

i) Generating Talent Pool; Helps in generating talent pool for future vacancies, and a data base for research, policy formulation and/or policy review.

ii) Improve Corporate linage: Web presence and use of internet for recruitment helps in improving the image of company in the mind of prospective and talented candidates.

Ques 6) What are the various Challenges in E-Test? Ans: Challenges in E-Test

i) Security and using test centers for Web-based testing.

ii) Measuring complex skills and problem-solving tasks on the Web. iii) Integrating modern item selection and test assembly algorithms, iv) Storing and processing ail relevant examinee response data.

v) The large-scale distribution of "high-bandwidth" tests (e.g., multimedia, high- density audio-video, or images).

Ques 7) Define the term E-Learning.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of E-Learning

Virtual learning is defined as the delivery of learning through electronic mediation which bridges the gap caused when the instructor and student are separated in either time or place. The range of electronic mediation includes voice, video, data, and print through such formats as radio, television, web-based programming, and streaming audio and video, as well as a variety of recording technologies.

According to Bank of America Securities, "E-learning is the convergence of learning and the internet".

Ques 8) What are the Benefits of Virtual Orientation? Ans: Benefits of Virtual Orientation

i) Facilitates Online Problem-Solving: Virtual orientation provide link of the boss or the concerned individual to employees if their questions remain unanswered and it also increases their search capacity.

ii) Improved Employee Connection to the Organization: It helps employees to focus on the topics of their particular interest and increases the employee connection to the organization.

iii) Flexibility and Convenience: Information is always upto date as policy changes can be entered immediately on the website or intranet.

Ques 9) What is E-Training? Ans: Meaning of E-Training

E-training is equivalent to e-learning in terms of the use of technology but it refers to the acquisition of practical knowledge, skills, or competencies used in carrying out specific tasks. While the content and instructional design structure in e- training might be focused on the skills or competencies needed for the identified tasks, there is no difference between the technology tool set available for e-learning and e-training.

Ques 10) What are the Features of E-performance Management? Ans: Features of E-Performance Management

E-performance management provides the following features:

i) Job- or individual-centered performance contracts;

ii) Uploading of performance criteria;

iii) Secure online appraisal with password;

iv) Automatic .e-mail notification of completed appraisal to employee and manager; and

v) Workflow system to monitor appraisal progress

Ques 11) What is HRIS?

Ans: Meaning and Definition of HRIS

Human resource information system (HRIS) is a systematic procedure for collecting, storing, maintaining, and retrieving data needed by an organization about its human resources and various activities that are relevant for their management.

According to Nel et at, "HRIS is a computerized system that collects, stores, analyzes, distributes and retrieves information about employees and their jobs".

Ques 12) What are the Objectives of HRIS? Ans: Objectives of HRIS

i) To enhance the ability of the human resource management to leverage and absorb new and emerging opportunities and challenges in the business horizons.

ii) To ensure efficient collection, storage, and distribution of HR-related information in a paperless work environment.

iii) To create an HR information hub for the whole organization, this facilitates effective people-to-people and people-to-information contacts.

Ques 13) What are HR Portals? Ans: Meaning of HR Portals

A human resource portal (or HR portal) is a set of applications that provides users with a single gateway to customized and personalized information. This portal can be limited to a company intranet or it can extend to the internet or include both. Using these portals, employees can collect information related to benefits, compensation, training opportunities, knowledge management, and continuous learning, to name a few. Human resource portals allow the development of web- based human resource self-service.

Ques 14) Mention Two Benefits of HR Portal. Ans: Two Benefits of HR Portal

i) Reduce Tangible Cost: It also includes tangible costs, such as reduction in call center staffing, reduction in interactive, voice response traffic and cost, and saving in paper and production.

ii) Locate Employees and Clients: HR portals can help locate those employees with particular expertise for new product development. They can also help easily to locate suppliers and clients.

Ques 15) What are the. Disadvantages of Employee Online Survey? Ans: Disadvantages of Employee Online Survey

i) Limited use: Online survey useful only for organizations using computers and others technologies. It can be used only for highly literate employees.

ii) Possible Cooperation Problems: Although online surveys in many fields can attain response rates equal to or slightly higher than that of traditional modes, Employees today can be constantly bombarded by messages and can easily delete advances.

iii) No Interviewer: A lack of a trained interviewer to clarify and probe can possibly lead to less reliable data.

UNIT-III Ques 1) Define the term International HRM.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of International HRM

International Human Resource Management (IHRM) is about the worldwide management of human resources. It examines the way in which international organizations manage their human resources across these different national contexts.

According to Morgan, "International Human Resource Management is the interplay among these three dimensions - human resource activities, types of employees, and countries of operation".

Ques 2) Mention the Features of IHRM. Ans: Features of IHRM

Some important features of IHRM are as follows:

i) IHRM involves employment of the right people at the right positions, irrespective of geographic locations,

ii) It requires the development of a diversified range of skills for employees, especially for those who need to work beyond national boundaries,

iii) It requires the creation of centralized reporting relationships around the world for faster information sharing.

Ques 3) Mention the Objectives of IHRM. Ans: Objectives of IHRM

Some of the important objectives of IHRM are:

i) To reduce the risk of international human resource. ii) To avoid cultural risks.

iii) To avoid regional disparities.

iv) To manage diversified human capital.

v) To remain competitive throughout the world.

Ques 4) What are the Reasons for Emergence of IHRM? Ans: Reasons for Emergence of IHRM

Reasons for emergence of IHRM are as follows:

i) Rapid growth of internationalization and global competition. ii) Need of effective management.

iii) Need for international managers.

iv) Traditional hierarchical organizational structures are becoming redundant. v) Developing different organizational cultures.

Ques 5) What do you mean by Cross-Cultural Training? Ans: Meaning and Definition of Cross-Cultural Training

Cross-cultural training involves all the methods like lectures, simulation, etc., used to make the person familiar with a different culture. The term cross-cultural training hence is broad enough to include differences in areas like language abilities, business etiquettes, beliefs and values, social system, negotiating styles, etc., of any culture.

According to Tung, "Cross-cultural training can be defined as any intervention aimed at increasing an individual's capability to cope with and work in foreign environment".

Ques 6) What are the main Objectives of CCT? Ans: Main Objectives of CCT

i) Bridging the cultural gaps between the host and the parent organization.

ii) Recognizing that orientation/induction challenges are different for the parent and the host unit,

iii) Ensuring that organizational success is critical in achievement of the global objectives.

Ques 7) What is Global Leadership? Ans: Meaning of Global Leadership

Global leadership development is a key human resource issue in the future success of multinational companies. A shortage of global leaders is becoming an increasing problem for multinational companies, constraining the implementation of global strategies and leading to lower bottom-line results. Leadership is widely recognized as being very important in the study of international management, but relatively little effort has been made to systematically study and compare leadership approaches throughout the world.

Ques 8) Who are Expatriates?

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Expatriates

Expatriates are employees that are non-citizens of the country in which they are working. They have to work in unfamiliar surroundings, make cultural adjustments, and face certain challenges regarding new job.

According to Aycan and Kartungo, "Expatriates can be defined as the employees of business and government organizations who are sent by their organization to a related unit in a country which is different from their own, to accomplish a job or organization-related goal for a pre-designated temporary time".

Ques 9) What are the Trends in Expatriate Training & Development? Ans: Trends in Expatriate Training and Development

i) Rather than providing only pre-departure cross-cultural training, more firms are providing continuing; in-country cross-cultural training during the early stages of the overseas assignment.

ii) Employers are using returning managers as resources to cultivate the "global mindsets" of their home-office staff.

iii) Employers increasingly use software and the Internet for cross-cultural training.

Ques 10) What are the Stages in Expatriate Training? Ans: Stages in Expatriate Training

i) Pre-Move Training: This refers to training the employees who are shortlisted for foreign assignments.

ii) Continual Training: This is just a continuation of pre-move training.

iii) Repatriation Training: Once the expatriates complete the foreign assignment and are ready to return to their home country, a brief training is provided to refresh the employees' memory about the home-country workers, workplaces and work practices.

Ques 11) What do you understand by Repatriation? Ans: Meaning of Repatriation

Repatriation is the process of returning a person back to one's place of origin or citizenship. Repatriation is often described a surprisingly more difficult than moving overseas. Returning home may evoke mixed feelings on the part of the expatriate and the family. Their concerns are both professional and personal. Even in two years, dramatic changes may have occurred not only at home but also in the way the individual and the family perceive the foreign environment. At worst, reverse culture shock may emerge.

Ques 12) Define the International Performance Management. Ans: Meaning of International Performance Management

Performance management is a set of regular, ongoing human resource activities carried-out by managers and supervisors relative to their subordinates to enhance and maintain employee performance towards the achievement of desired performance objectives, especially in international business, performance management can serve as an effective human resource control mechanism for implementing MNC strategy and carrying-out important objectives despite significant distance and cultural barriers.

Ques 13) Define the term Outsourcing. Ans: Meaning of Outsourcing

Outsourcing is a made-up word that combines the three terms outside, sourcing and using. The term of outsourcing describes the procurement of resources from external suppliers that were generated within the sourcing organization. Outsourcing is contracting with another company or person to do a particular function. Almost every organization outsources in some way. Typically, the function being outsourced is considered non-core to the business.

Ques 14) Mention Two Advantages of BPO. Ans: Two Advantages of BPO

i) Cost Reductions: Cost reduction is done through process improvements, re-engineering and use of technologies that reduce and bring administrative and other costs under control.

ii) Concentration on Core Business: With the day-to-day back office operations taken care of, the management is free to concentrate more on the core business of the company.

Ques 15) What is International Compensation? Ans: Meaning of International Compensation

International compensation can be defined as the provision of monetary and nonmonetary rewards, including base salary, benefits, and perquisites, long- and short-term incentives, valued by employees in accordance with their relative contributions to MNC performance. Its broad HRM purpose is to attract, retain, and motivate those personnel required throughout the MNC currently and in the future. Job evaluation is the means by which internal relativities and compensable factors, those elements such as skills, physical and mental demands, and responsibilities that comprise an individual's work role in the MNC and contribute to its performance, are determined.

Ques 1) Define the term Career.


Ans: Meaning and Definition of Career

Career is the general course or progression of one's working life or one's professional achievements. It means a person's progress or general course of action through life or through a phase of life, as in some profession or undertaking.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, "A career as a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning in a person's life".

Ques 2) What are the various Career Stages? Ans: Various Career Stages

There are five stages which are as follows:

1) Exploration: This is the career stage that usually ends in one's mid-twenties as one makes the transition from college to work.

2) Establishment: This is the career stage, where one begins the search for work and picks up the first job.

3) Mid-Career: Mid-career is a stage that is typically reached between the age of

35 and 50.

4) Late Career: This is the stage where one relaxes a bit and plays the part of an elder states person.

5) Decline: During this period, a person's attention may turn to retirement.

Ques 3) What do you understand by Roles? Ans: Meaning and Definition of Roles

A role is the pattern of actions expected of a person in activities involving others. Role reflects a person's position in the social system, with its accompanying rights and obligations, power and responsibility. In order to be able to interact with one another, people need some way of anticipating others' behavior. Role performs this function in the social system.

According to Koor, "Roles are defined as the expectations for how a person should behave or the persons' actual behavior while in a particular position".

Ques 4) Mention Two Characteristics of Career Planning. Ans: Two Characteristics of Career Planning

1) Developmental Process: Career planning is a process of developing human resources rather than an event. It is not an end in itself but a means of managing people to obtain optimum results.

2) Participative Process: Career planning is a participative process and under it job assignments are based on merit alone. This helps to improve employee morale and productivity.

Ques 5) Define the term Career Development.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Career Development

Career development essentially means the process of increasing an employee's potential for advancement and career change. It can also be defined as a systematic process of guiding the movement of human resources of an enterprise through different hierarchical positions.

According to Pietrofesa and Splete, "Career Development is an on-going process that occurs over the life span; includes home, school, and community experiences".

Ques 6) Mention few Benefits of Career Enrichment. Ans: Benefits of Career Enrichment

1) Helps in bridging the gap between where the person is and where he wants to be in future in his career,

2) Identifying the right direction at work and assist in making it meaningful, focused, and energized,

3) Selecting the role which best suits the capability of the person depending upon his skills and knowledge,

4) Helps employees in contributing their best in productivity of an organization.

5) Engages employees in work that fulfills their life goals most effectively,

Ques 7) What are Career Plateaus?

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Career Plateaus

A career plateau is a point in a career where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very low. Career plateau is not a new phenomenon, but there is a worrying situation about the rate at which it is becoming increasingly widespread in various organizations.

According to Ferrence, Stoner and Warren, "A career plateau has been defined as the point in a career where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very low".

Ques 8) Mention the Four Career Development Models. Ans: Four Career Development Models

Developmental models of careers differ on a number of different dimensions. Basically there are four types of models which are as follows:

1) Life span model

2) Individual differences model

3) Directional pattern model and

4) Organization based model.

Ques 9) What do you mean by Competency? Ans: Meaning and Definition of Competency

A competency can be defined as a specific, identifiable, definable, and measurable knowledge, skill, ability, and/or other deployment-related characteristic (e.g., attitude, behavior, physical ability) which a human resource may possess and which is necessary for, or material to, the performance of an activity within a specific business context".

According to Mirabile, "Competency is knowledge, skill, ability, or characteristic associated with high performance on a job".

Ques 10) What is the Role of HR Manager in Career Management? Ans: Role of HR Manager in Career Management

The role of HR manager is to:

1) Provide information or advice about training and development opportunities;

2) Provide specialized services such as testing to determine employees' values, interests, and skills;

3) Helps to prepare employees for job searches; and

4) Offer counseling on career-related problems.

Ques 11) What is the Purpose of Competency Development? Ans: Purpose of Competency Development

1) The organization provides opportunities for individuals to develop their capabilities in its workforce competencies.

2) Individuals develop their knowledge, skills, and process abilities in the organization's workforce competencies.

3) The organization uses the capabilities of its workforce as resources for developing the workforce competencies of others.

4) Competency development practices are institutionalized to ensure they are performed as defined organizational processes.

Ques 12) Define the term Competency Mapping.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Competency Mapping

Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies through the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment, career and succession planning) of the organization.

According to Garrette, "Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role".

Ques 13) What is Single Job Competency Model? Ans,: Meaning of Single Job Competency Model

This is a traditional, time tested and commonly used method. A position that is most important and being performed well will be identified from a class of positions


Data will be obtained observing its incumbent while performing the job, discussing with him/her and other related departments, past records, decisions taken

by that person, formal job description, etc. The data so obtained will be used to build competency model for that particular position.

Ques 14) Define Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP). Ans: Meaning of Employee Stock Purchase Plan

Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP) means a plan under which the company offers shares to employees as part of a public issue or otherwise. A company-run program in which participating employees can purchase company shares at a discounted price (below the fair value). Employees contribute to the plan through payroll deductions, which buildup between the offering date and the purchase date. At the purchase date, the company uses the accumulated funds to purchase shares in the company on behalf of the participating employees. The amount of the discount depends on the specific plan but can be as much as 15% lower than the market price.

Ques 15) What are the Components of Competency-Based Pay? Ans: Components of Competency-Based Pay

CBP plans usually contain a:

1) System that defines specific skills and a process for tying a person's pay to his or her skill,

2) Training system that lets employees seek and acquire skills,

3) Formal competency testing system, and

4) Work design that lets employees move among jobs to permit work assignment flexibility. "


Ques 1) What do you mean by Employee Coaching? Ans: Meaning and Definition of Employee Coaching

Coaching is a process of instructing, directing, or prompting. It involves the acquisition of knowledge or skills for the purpose of improving performance, personal development, or both. It can also be defined is an activity of guiding a manager by a senior one.

According to Downey, "Coaching is the art of facilitating the performance, learning and development of another".

Ques 2) Mention Two Characteristics of Coaching. Ans: Two Characteristics of Coaching

i) Secondary Learning: Coaching is a secondary learning as the employee is expected to learn the primary skills through training.

ii) Continuous Process: Training is time-bound activity, but coaching is a continuous process that will happen as long as there is a supervisor- employee relationship;

Ques 3) What is the Role of HR in Coaching? Ans: Role of HR in Coaching

Role of HR in coaching is given as follows:

i) HR practitioners need to understand when coaching is an appropriate and effective intervention in relation to other learning and development options.

ii) They need to be clear about what the different types of coaching and diagnostic tools/models are, and when each is appropriate,

iii) They need to understand how to select appropriately qualified coaches and then match them to both the organizational culture and to the needs of particular individuals.





Focus on potential

Focus on the skills and performance on current job


Agenda defined by the needs of the protege.

Agenda defined by the coach.


Emphasis on feedback and reflection by the protege.

Emphasis on feedback for the learner.


Typically a long-term relationship which may continue throughout life

Addresses a short-term need

Ques 4) What is the Difference between Mentoring and Coaching? Ans: Difference between Mentoring and Coaching

Ques 5) Define the term Counseling.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Counseling

Counseling is a collaborative process in which a unique, confidential helping relationship is developed between a counselor and a willing client. In this relationship, the professional counselor acts as a facilitator to help the client to understand more accurately him/herself and the world around him/her.

According to Smith, "Counseling is a process in which the counselor assists the counselee to make interpretations of facts relating to a choice, plan, or adjustments which he needs to make".

Ques 6) Mention Two Goals of Counseling. Ans: Two Goals of Counseling

i) Improving Awareness: To facilitate awareness. This is achieved by keeping the focus on the client, acknowledging feelings, experience, and behavior. By exploring feelings and behavior and future options.

ii) Improving Personal Effectiveness: Another goal of counseling is that of improving personal effectiveness. This is closely related to the preservation of good mental health and securing desirable behavioral change(s).

Ques 7) What is Directive Counseling? Ans: Meaning of Directive Counseling

Directive counseling is the process of hearing a person's emotional problems, deciding what he should do, and then telling and motivating him to do it. Under directive counseling, the counselor performs all the functions of counseling except reorientation. If the directive counselor listens to the employee's problems carefully and makes the counselee realize that his advice is worthwhile, directive counseling can be successful.

Ques 8) Mention Two Counseling Skills. Ans: Two Counseling Skills

i) Clarify the Problem: People who have a clear idea of what is wrong in their lives are more likely to discover solutions. One should try to understand the problem from the person's point of view.

ii) Focus on Feelings: Feelings are neither right nor wrong. By focusing on feelings, one can encourage the outpouring of emotion that is the basis for catharsis. Passing judgment on what is said just makes people defensive.

Ques 9) What do you mean by Mental Health? Ans: Meaning and Definition of Mental Health

Mental health, also known as emotional health, shows the degree to which people feel comfortable about themselves, right about other people, and are able to meet the demands of life.

According to World Health Organization, "Mental health is a state of well- being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community".

Ques 10) What do you mean by Trusteeship Theory of Labor Welfare? Ans: Meaning of Trusteeship Theory of Labor Welfare

It is also called the paternalistic theory of labor welfare. According to this the industrialist or employer holds the total industrial estate, properties, and profits accruing from them in a trust. In other words, the employer should hold the industrial assets for himself, for the benefit of his workers, and also for society. The main emphasis of this "theory is that employers should provide funds on an ongoing basis for the well-being of their employees.

Ques 11) Define the term Stress.

Ans: Meaning and Definition of Stress

Stress obviously involves interaction of the person and the environment. Stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological, and/or behavioral deviations for organizational participants.

According to Fred Luthans, "Stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and/or behavioral deviations for organizational participants".

Ques 12) What is the Need of Self Management? Ans: Need of Self-Management

Self management is needed because:

i) Employees want greater security in a changing and unpredictable world;

ii) Employees are looking for long-term quality solutions, sustainable profits, and cost savings;

iii) Employees do not want to feel like they are in constant "survival mode" when maximizing the profits and minimizing the costs for the organization;

iv) The perception of rapid change in the world requires employees to find innovative ways to deal with change.

Ques 13) What is Emotional Intelligence? Ans: Meaning of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability of a person to use emotions as a guiding tool for interpersonal effectiveness in his or her social environment. While interacting with members of the social environment, emotionally intelligent people produce win- win relationships and outcomes for themselves and others. Such people develop a magnetic field of emotional attraction around them and often are the owners of an ever-increasing network of social relationships and emotional support structures.

Ques 14) Define the term Emotional Literacy. Ans: Meaning of Emotional Literacy

Emotional literacy is the ability to recognize, understand, and appropriately express our emotions. Just as verbal literacy is the basic building-block for reading and writing, emotional literacy is the basis for perceiving and communicating emotions. Emotional literacy is a term that was used first by Steiner. Emotional literacy can contribute to health, to positive relationships, to success, and to quality of life.

Ques 15) Mention Two Advantages of Emotional Intelligence. Ans: Two Advantages of Emotional Intelligence

i) Better Empathy Skills: Empathy is a core El skill in communication. Without the ability to feel how the other person might be feeling, the persons are unlikely to have a close relationship or influence others effectively. They will always feel that they do not really understand them - and they will be right.

ii) Acting with Integrity: Integrity is another core of EI ability. It means being integrated, behaving in a way that is consistent with his core beliefs, being true to himself and honest with others.

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