Engineering Chemistry 1–CHARACTERISTICS and HARDNESS of Water

WATER TREATMENT

Water is our lifeline, played a key role not only in the history of countries, but in religion, mythology and art. Water has always been perceived as a gift from the Gods.So it rained from the heavens. Water provides the earth with the capacity of supporting life. An organism does not have to be told how important water is to their existence. An amphibian knows to lay its eggs in water or else there will be no new born. Even flies know to lay their eggs in fresh water. The only organism that does not understand the importance of water is humans especially in industrialized countries.

Although water covers more than 70% of the Earth, only 1% of the earth’s water is available as a source of drinking. Yet our society continues to contaminate this precious resource.

Water is known as a natural solvent. Before it reaches the consumer’s tap, it comes

into contact with many different substances including organic and disease – producing contaminants

that may be present in the water. Although disinfection is an important step in the treatment of potable water, they are used to prevent disease, can create byproducts which may pose significant health risks. Today, drinking water treatment at the point-of - use is no longer a luxury, it is a necessity.

Occurrence:

Water is the only substance that occurs at ordinary temperatures in all three states of

matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas. As a so33.3.33lid, ice, it forms glaciers, frozen lakes and rivers, snow, hail and frost. It is liquid as rain and dew, and it covers three- quarters of the earth’s surface in swamps, lakes, rivers and oceans. Water also occurs in the soil and beneath the earth’s surface as

a vast groundwater reservoir. As gas, or water vapour, it occurs as fog, steam and clouds.

Water purification:

Impurities are removed from water by seeming, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination or irradiation. Aeration removes odours and tastes caused by decomposing organic matter, industrial wastes and some gases. Various salts and metals cause hardness in water. Hardness may be removed by boiling, by adding sodium carbonate and lime or by filtering through natural or artificial zeolites. Water is also purified by processes such as desalination, reverse osmosis, electrolysis etc.,

Characteristics of water

Water hardness

Hardness = the amount of dissolved salts in water.

dH

ppm (or) mg / lit CaCO3

Soft

0.3

0-50

5

dH - hydrogen Power

pH = the concentration of hydrogen ions in water

CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

As per the suggestion given by World Health Organisation (WHO) and by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the following are the important characteristics of potable water.

1. It should be clear, colourless and odourless.

2. It should be cool and pleasant to taste.

3. It should be free from harmful bacteria and suspended impurities.

4. It should be free from dissolved gases like CO2, H2S, NH3, etc., and poisonous minerals like lead, arsenic, manganese, etc.,

5. Hardness should be less than 500 ppm.

6. Chloride ion content should be less than 250 ppm.

7. Fluoride ion content should be less than 1.5 ppm.

8. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content should be less than 500 ppm.

9. pH of the potable water should be 6.5 – 8.5.

Acidic

Neutral

Alkaline

pH=0-7

7

pH=7-14

Chemical Characteristics of water

The most important chemical characteristics of water are its acidity, alkalinity, hardness and corrosiveness. Chemical impurities can be either natural, man made (Industrial) or be deployed in raw water sources by enemy forces.

Some chemical impurities cause water to behave as either an acid or a base. Since either condition has an important bearing on the water treatment process, the pH value must be

determined. Generally the pH influences the corrosiveness of the water, chemical dosages necessary for proper disinfection and the ability to detect contaminants.

Hardness

Hardness is caused by the soluble salts of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, sodium, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates. The degree of hardness depends on the type and amount of impurities present in the water. Hardness also depends on the amount of carbon-di-oxide in solution. Carbon-di-oxide influences the solubility of the impurities that cause hardness.

The hardness caused by carbonates and bicarbonates is called carbonate hardness. The hardness caused by all others (chlorides, sulphates, nitrates) is called non-carbonated hardness.

Hard water

Water which does not produce lather with soap solution, but produces white

precipitate (scum) is called hard water.

In other words, water that contains mineral salts (an calcium and magnesium ions)

that limit the formation of lather with soap.

This is due to the presence of dissolved Ca and Mg salts.

3

Soft water

Water, which produces lather, readily with soap solution is called soft water. This is due to the absence of Ca and Mg salts.

Water that is not hard (ie., does not contain mineral salts that interfere with the formation of lather with soap).

Hardness of water

How to detect hardness?

Hardness of water can be detected in two ways.

· When the water is treated with soap solution, if it prevents lathering and forms white scum, the water contains hardness.

· Water containing hardness, gives wine red colour with Eriochrome Black –T indicator.

The total water hardness (including both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is read as parts per million (ppm) or weight / volume (mg/L) of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. Although water hardness usually measures only the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent, divalent metal ions), iron, aluminum and manganese may also be present at elevated levels in some geographical locations. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2).

Types of hardness

Depending upon the types of dissolved salts present in water, hardness of water can be classified into two types:

· Temporary Hardness

· Permanent Hardness

Temporary Hardness (or) Carbonate Hardness (CH) (or) Alkaline Hardness

Temporary hardness is caused by a combination of calcium and magnesium bicarbonate ions in the water. It can be removed by

· boiling water

· by the addition of lime (Ca(OH)2)

Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon coving.

Ca (HCO3)2 à CaCO3 ↓+ H2O + CO2

Mg (HCO3)2 + 2Ca(OH)2 à Mg (OH)2↓+ 2CaCO3↓ +2H2O

Permanent Hardness (or) Non – Carbonate Hardness (NCH) (or) Non – alkaline Hardness

Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. It is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulphates and /or chlorides which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, permanent hardness can be

removed using water – softener or ion-exchange column, where the calcium and magnesium ions

are exchanged with the sodium ions in the column. It can be removed by

· Lime – Soda process

· Zeolite process

CaCl2 + Na2 CO3 → CaCO3↓ +2Nacl

(Soda)

CaSO4 + Na2Ze →CaZe + Na2SO4

Zeolite =(Na2 Al2 Si2 O8. X H2O)

Hard water causes scaling, which is the left- over mineral deposits that are formed after the hard water had evaporated. This is also known as lime scale.

Total Hardness

The sum of temporary hardness and permanent hardness.

Table 1 :1 Molecular weights of some hardness producing salts.

Hardness

producing salt

Molecular

weight

Hardness producing salt

Molecular

weight

Ca(HCO3)2

162

MgSO4

120

Mg(HCO3)2

146

MgCO3

84

Mg(NO3)2

148

MgCl2

95

Ca(NO3)2

164

CaCl2

111

CaCO3

100

Ca2+

40

CaSO4

136

Mg2+

24

Expression of hardness in terms of equivalents of CaCO3

The concentration of hardness producing salts are usually expressed in terms of an equivalent amount of CaCO3. CaCO3 is chosen as a standard because,

i) Its molecular weight (100) and equivalent weight (50) is a whole number, so the

calculations in water analysis can be simplified.

1

ii) It is the most insoluble salt, that can be precipitated in water treatment. If the concentration of hardness producing salt is x mgs/lit. then

2

Example

If the concentration ( or) weight of CaSO4 is 43mgs/lit, then weight equivalent to

Units of Hardness

1. Parts per million (ppm)

It is defined as the number of parts of CaCO3 equivalent hardness per 106 parts of water.

2. Milligrams per litre (mg/lit)

It is defined as the number of milligrams of CaCO3 equivalent hardness per 1 litre of water.

3. Clarke’s degree (oCl)

It is defined as the number of parts of CaCO3 equivalent hardness per 70,000 parts of water.

4. French degree (oFr)

It is defined as the number of parts of CaCO3 equivalent hardness per 105 parts of water.

Relationship between various units

1ppm = 1 mg/lit = 0.10 Fr = 0.070 Cl

103 comments:

  1. Reverse Osmosis involves forcing water under pressure through a membrane whose pours are large enough for water to pass through but too small to allow other contaminants to pass through. countertop water filter system

    ReplyDelete
  2. It is somewhat fantastic, and yet check out the advice at this treat. water purifiers for faucet

    ReplyDelete
  3. This content is simply exciting and creative. I have been deciding on a institutional move and this has helped me with one aspect. whole home water filter

    ReplyDelete
  4. The Bio globe Singapore ensures to kill 99.9% harmful bacteria of the water. It can easily change tap water into fresh water, cold instant water dispensers; Biolytes bring only accommodation and incredible water for its family units.Our water purifier, which is known by the name Biolytes, is transported from Korea and endorsed by many water quality associations.

    ReplyDelete
  5. You understand your projects stand out of the crowd. There is something unique about them. It seems to me all of them are brilliant. οικιακά φίλτρα νερού

    ReplyDelete
  6. Nice to be visiting your blog once more, it has been months for me. Well this article that ive been waited for therefore long. i want this article to finish my assignment within the faculty, and it has same topic together with your article. Thanks, nice share. water filter

    ReplyDelete
  7. If you don"t mind proceed with this extraordinary work and I anticipate a greater amount of your magnificent blog entries whole house water filter

    ReplyDelete
  8. There are various classifications of water experts. countertop water filters

    ReplyDelete
  9. There are now many different LG refrigerator water filters in the market that could ensure the provision of safe cold drinking water for your family. Because of this, you won't have any difficulty in finding water filters or replacement cartridges that could fit the model of LG refrigerator that you have in your home. reverse osmosis systems

    ReplyDelete
  10. Unlike, sink filters that attach to the faucet head the under counter types are out of sight. under sink water filtration system

    ReplyDelete
  11. The complete knowledge is given by you and for more information please visit my blog Which Is The best RO Purifier in 2020.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Great job for publishing such a nice article. Your article isn’t only useful but it is additionally really informative. Thank you because you have been willing to share information about water treatment. San Antonio whole home water filtration

    ReplyDelete
  13. A decent o level chemistry tuition ought to have a sound information regarding the matter and ought to ideally have a Bachelors or Master's qualification in Chemistry. He ought to be clear in clarifying the ideas of the subject.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Superbly written article, if only all bloggers offered the same content as you, the internet would be a far better place.. Backlink

    ReplyDelete
  15. With all the shocking tales coming out these days about the water you drink, it is difficult to tell who to trust and what water is best for you. water treatment systems

    ReplyDelete
  16. Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained! agence de pub Strasbourg

    ReplyDelete
  17. Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info. agence digitale Alsace

    ReplyDelete
  18. Nice post. I'm impressed by this blog. There is so much information about this topic. Thanks for sharing an amazing article like this. please keep posting. Whole house water filtration

    ReplyDelete
  19. I recently found many useful information in your website especially this blog page. Among the lots of comments on your articles. Thanks for sharing. creare sito web

    ReplyDelete
  20. It is a fantastic post – immense clear and easy to understand. I am also holding out for the sharks too that made me laugh. best sites like fiverr

    ReplyDelete
  21. I needed to thank you for this incredible read!! I unquestionably adored each and every piece of it. I have you bookmarked your site to look at the new stuff you post. 4,6-Difluoroindole,

    ReplyDelete
  22. According to facts, up to 60% of the adult human body is made up of water. The distribution of water in our body is in a way that our brain and heart is composed of 73% water, lungs are 83% made up of water, 64% water is in the skin, 79% for muscles and kidneys and at last 31% of even our bones are also composed of water. importance of water

    ReplyDelete
  23. I will share it with my other friends as the information is really very useful. Keep sharing your excellent work.UV Light Machine For Hospitals In USA

    ReplyDelete
  24. Very well written article. It was an awesome article to read. Complete rich content and fully informative. I totally Loved it.water softener plant for home

    ReplyDelete
  25. Unclean and contaminated water is very much unsafe to drink as it can carry a lot of serious water borne diseases. Even with such awareness, there is still a notable huge number of cases of people contracting such diseases all over the world that are often traced back to unsafe drinking water. This case makes it even important for water filters to play their part on every household. order online

    ReplyDelete
  26. Consumers internet marketing you ought to related pursuit ahead of creation. It is very easy to jot down top-notch write-up in that possition. Branded Logo

    ReplyDelete
  27. A round of applause for your mind blowing article. Much thanks to you. Fantastic.

    ReplyDelete
  28. Blockages in the drainfiled may prompt whole substitution of sewage framework, which cost essentially high. https://congtyhutbephot.com/huyen-soc-son/

    ReplyDelete
  29. I am very much obliged to you for sharing this necessary knowledge. This information is very helpful for everyone. So please always share this kind of information. Thanks once again for sharing it. Smart water networks australia

    ReplyDelete
  30. Wow thanks for sharing this awesome info with us enjoyed every bit of it. Frizzlife water filter review

    ReplyDelete
  31. Great post, you have pointed out some fantastic points , I likewise think this s a very wonderful website. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  32. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers i99pro

    ReplyDelete
  33. Nice to be visiting your blog once more, it has been months for me. Well this article that ive been waited for therefore long. i want this article to finish my assignment within the faculty, and it has same topic together with your article. Thanks, nice share. 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  34. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  35. Yes i am totally agreed with this article and i just want say that this article is very nice and very informative article.I will make sure to be reading your blog more. You made a good point but I can't help but wonder, what about the other side? !!!!!!Thanks thong tac bon cau

    ReplyDelete
  36. I was reading your article and wondered if you had considered creating an ebook on this subject. Your writing would sell it fast. You have a lot of writing talent. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  37. Wow, excellent post. I'd like to draft like this too - taking time and real hard work to make a great article. This post has encouraged me to write some posts that I am going to write soon. source

    ReplyDelete
  38. I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to create such a great informative website. 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  39. You have performed a great job on this article. It’s very precise and highly qualitative. You have even managed to make it readable and easy to read. You have some real writing talent. Thank you so much. 무료릴게임

    ReplyDelete
  40. Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info. 먹튀검증업체

    ReplyDelete
  41. A great content material as well as great layout. Your website deserves all of the positive feedback it’s been getting. I will be back soon for further quality contents. 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  42. i am always looking for some free stuffs over the internet. there are also some companies which gives free samples. pii-email

    ReplyDelete
  43. Hi there! Nice stuff, do keep me posted when you post again something like this! สล็อต

    ReplyDelete
  44. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  45. The website is looking bit flashy and it catches the visitors eyes. Design is pretty simple and a good user friendly interface. 팔팔카

    ReplyDelete
  46. This is my first time i visit here and I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially it's discussion, thank you. 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  47. hi was just seeing if you minded a comment. i like your website and the thme you picked is super. I will be back. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  48. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. I was exactly searching for. Thanks for such post and please keep it up. Great work. 대전스웨디시

    ReplyDelete
  49. At Inovi, we’re committed to achieving the highest success rates while providing personalized care to our patients. Our Houston location offers expert care and is home to our state-of-the-art embryology lab. content

    ReplyDelete
  50. We place a great deal of attention on the values, principles, knowledge, relationships and abilities that allow for wealth creation. Our values-based model for wealth transition influences human, intellectual, social and structural capital to support and promote growing financial capital. https://www.rsjcpa.com/

    ReplyDelete
  51. Liposuction should never be considered an alternative to a healthy lifestyle, it is one of the steps that can get you to a better version of yourself through fat reduction. special info

    ReplyDelete
  52. I am incapable of reading articles online very often, but I’m happy I did today. It is very well written, and your points are well-expressed. I request you warmly, please, don’t ever stop writing. 현금바둑이

    ReplyDelete
  53. Good website! I truly love how it is easy on my eyes it is. I am wondering how I might be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your RSS which may do the trick? Have a great day! 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  54. In this article you could find is usually major, everthing allows a website to eye-catching internet site: water treatment systems

    ReplyDelete
  55. This is a wonderful article, Given so much info in it, These type of articles keeps the users interest in the website, and keep on sharing more.ice o lator

    ReplyDelete
  56. Impressive web site, Distinguished feedback that I can tackle. Im moving forward and may apply to my current job as a pet sitter, which is very enjoyable, but I need to additional expand. Regards. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  57. Keep up the good work , I read few posts on this web site and I conceive that your blog is very interesting and has sets of fantastic information. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  58. A great content material as well as great layout. Your website deserves all of the positive feedback it’s been getting. I will be back soon for further quality contents. 토토커뮤니티

    ReplyDelete
  59. Nice post! This is a very nice blog that I will definitively come back to more times this year! Thanks for informative post. 먹튀폴리스

    ReplyDelete
  60. I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  61. Yes i am totally agreed with this article and i just want say that this article is very nice and very informative article.I will make sure to be reading your blog more. You made a good point but I can't help but wonder, what about the other side? !!!!!!THANKS!!!!!! 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  62. Wow, this is fascinating reading. I am glad I found this and got to read it. Great job on this content. I liked it a lot. Thanks for the great and unique info. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  63. Fantastic blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Many thanks! 대전건마

    ReplyDelete
  64. I have read your blog it is very helpful for me. I want to say thanks to you. I have bookmark your site for future updates. 온라인바둑이

    ReplyDelete
  65. I can see that you are an expert at your field! I am launching a website soon, and your information will be very useful for me.. Thanks for all your help and wishing you all the success in your business. 바둑이게임

    ReplyDelete
  66. 바카라사이트
    This is my website and it has been very helpful. You are so cool! I don't think I've read anything like this before. Thanks for getting started.
    Here is my website. Please leave a comment on my site as well.

    ReplyDelete
  67. I can see that you are an expert at your field! I am launching a website soon, and your information will be very useful for me.. Thanks for all your help and wishing you all the success in your business.tap water tastes bad

    ReplyDelete
  68. Awesome and interesting article. Great things you've always shared with us. Thanks. Just continue composing this kind of post. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  69. Great things you’ve always shared with us. Just keep writing this kind of posts.The time which was wasted in traveling for tuition now it can be used for studies.Thanks 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  70. Only strive to mention one's content can be as incredible. This clarity with your post is superb! Thanks a lot, hundreds of along with you should go on the pleasurable get the job done. 꽁머니 사이트 추천

    ReplyDelete
  71. There are two interrelated ideas that any property holder ought to be comfortable with: water harm fix and decay fix. Water harm can be characterized mostly by its starting point.Water damage restoration
    Water damage Repair, Baltimore

    ReplyDelete
  72. Thank you so much for such a well-written article. It’s full of insightful information. Your point of view is the best among many without fail.For certain, It is one of the best blogs in my opinion. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  73. Subsequently it is a subject of request which can under no circumstances be disregarded". mint projekt

    ReplyDelete
  74. I can see that you are an expert at your field! I am launching a website soon, and your information will be very useful for me.. Thanks for all your help and wishing you all the success in your business. 먹튀사이트

    ReplyDelete
  75. Water harm can be characterized mostly by its starting point. Generally, it very well may be followed from a releasing hose, a flood from the kitchen sink or the clothes washer, in-divider pipes that have separated, latrine stops up, rooftops that break, dividers that structure dampness from the inside and surprisingly normally happening marvels like flood, snow, or weighty downpours. Water damage restoration
    Water damage Repair, Baltimore

    ReplyDelete
  76. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here... Visa-medicală-India

    ReplyDelete
  77. Great post, you have pointed out some fantastic points , I likewise think this s a very wonderful website. jostoto

    ReplyDelete
  78. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here... Виза в Индию онлайн

    ReplyDelete
  79. Thank You for the special article. Keep writing. The Government of Turkey grants the Turkish visa online. And now you can easily know about the factors related to the turkey e visa.

    ReplyDelete
  80. Just as important as making sure you and your partner are compatible is making sure you and your job are. Certain personalities naturally excel in specific areas. John Holland, a career psychologist, has identified six groups of working people. 4f-mph buy usa

    ReplyDelete
  81. Any special occasion that you are going to celebrate in your home demands enough ice for drinks and recipes to wow your guests and this can be tackled very easily by placing an Ice Machine at your home.ice tube machine

    ReplyDelete
  82. I felt very happy while reading this site. This was really very informative site for me. I really liked it. This was really a cordial post. Thanks a lot!. AMERICA VISA ONLINE

    ReplyDelete
  83. Chemistry 101 characterizes an answer as a homogeneous combination of at least two substances that exists in a solitary stage, like the fluid stage. 5 meo dipt synthesis

    ReplyDelete
  84. There is no doubt, only the online service gives you many advantages in choosing a car for rent in Dubai https://renty.ae/cars/jeep-wrangler Moreover, you have the opportunity to order a car in advance and even specify a pick-up point and drop-off point.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. We are a leading car rental company in Dubai that provides all types of vehicles at affordable prices. We have a wide range of cars to suit your needs and budget. Our cars are in good condition and well maintained.
      rentalcarsuae.com

      Delete
  85. You can utilize them to clean your home windows and you can then utilize your own cleaning abilities for more modest washing assignments at your home.
    https://www.westseattlewindowcleaner.com/window-cleaning-seattle-low-cost-and-high-quality

    ReplyDelete
  86. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Great work Rejuvenation

    ReplyDelete
  87. I think your website has a lot of useful knowledge. I'm so thankful for this website.
    I hope that you continue to share a lot of knowledge.
    This is my website.
    힌게임머니상

    ReplyDelete
  88. I truly like you're composing style, incredible data, thankyou for posting. SEO Colorado Springs

    ReplyDelete
  89. Thanks for the blog loaded with so many information. Stopping by your blog helped me to get what I was looking for. BioHazard Cleanup

    ReplyDelete
  90. I have bookmarked your blog, the articles are way better than other similar blogs.. thanks for a great blog!+B203:B223 Smoke Removal

    ReplyDelete
  91. I just thought it may be an idea to post incase anyone else was having problems researching but I am a little unsure if I am allowed to put names and addresses on here. threema forum

    ReplyDelete
  92. Water damage repairs are necessary to ensure that the structure of the house is safeguarded and protected from deterioration. As we all know, Water damage is a big concern for many homeowners. water damage companies west vancouver

    ReplyDelete
  93. For true fans of this thread I will address is a free online! electrum two factor authentication

    ReplyDelete
  94. Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting?I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work. osaka togel

    ReplyDelete
  95. air quality meter online As being a Newbie, We’re permanently exploring online for articles which can be of help to me. Many thanks

    ReplyDelete
  96. Very good topic, similar texts are I do not know if they are as good as your work out. Black satta king

    ReplyDelete