FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING AND PROGRAMMING
1. Define cache memory?
A small memory between CPU and main memory is called cache. The speed is equal to the CPU.Cache memory acts as a high speed buffer between CPU and Main memory.
2. Define ROM?
ROM is a non-volatile memory that contains permanent data.
3. Define booting and what are the types of booting?
The process of loading an operating system program into the computer memory is called the booting.The types of booting are cold booting and warm booting.
4. What are the basic operations of computer?
· Controlling and
5. What are the characteristics of computer?
· Storage and
· Cost reduction
6. Define data and information.
Data: Raw material for information processing
Information: The processed data is called information.
7. What are the different types of ROM?
· Masked ROM,
· Flash ROM
8. List out the operations of CPU.
CPU performs all the calculations, co-ordinates all the units of the computer, interprets the instruction and stores the data’s.
9. Define computer.
Computer is a fast operating device which processes the input data into desired information.
10. Define RAM?
RAM is a volatile memory that contains temporary data that can be accessed at high speed.
1. Define system software.
A set of program that governs the operation of a computer system and makes the hardware works. It controls the internal operations of the computer.
2. What is software?
Software is a set of instruction or program, which are useful for performing a task.
3. Define operating system?
A collection of program used to control the entire operation of the computer. It co-ordinates the hardware and software.
4. What are the various phases Software Development Steps?
5. What is a Requirement Phase?
The process of collecting the required data for the design is called the requirement phase.
6. What is a Design phase?
The process of representing the collected data in a high level programming language is called designing.
7. What is application software?
Software which is used to solve a specific task is called application software.
8. What is meant by Information technology?
IT refers to the creation, gathering, processing, storage and delivery of information.
9. Define chat?
Online conversation in which you are immediately able to send message back and forth to another is called chat.
10. What is meant by software piracy?
Software piracy is the illegal distribution of any software.
1. What is Algorithm?
Algorithm means the logic of a program. It is a step by step description of a program.
2. List out the way how algorithm may be represented?
· Normal English
· Flow chart
· Decision table
3. What is a decision table?
A decision table is a table containing the selection of condition to be tested and how those conditions should be nested to arrive at the proper action.
4. Define compiler.
It is a program used to convert the high level language program into machine language.
5. Define Assembler.
It is a program used to convert the assembly language program into machine language.
6. Define Interpreter.
It is a program used to convert the high level language program into machine language line by line.
7. What are the types of programming language?
· Machine language
· Assembly language
· High level language
8. Define flow chart.
Flow chart is the pictorial representation of a program.
9. List out the basic design structure?
· Sequence structure
· Selection structure
· Loop structure
10. List out the any three advantages of flowchart.
· Better communication
· Effective synthesis
· Effective analysis
1. What is meant by global variable?
The variable that is used in more than one function throughout the program are called global variables and declared outside of all the function.
2. Define logical and data errors
Logical errors: These are the errors, in which the conditional and control statements cannot end their match after some sequential execution.
Data errors: These are the errors, in which input data given, is not in syntax as specified in the input statement.
3. List out the characteristics of a program.
4. What is meant by tokens?
The tokens are usually referred as individual text and punctuation in the passage of text. The C language program can contain the individual units called the C tokens.
5. What are Keywords?
Keywords are reserved words that have standard and pre-defined meaning in C .These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose.
6. What are the types of input statements available in C?
· Formatted I/O statements
· Unformatted I/O statements
7. Define getchar () function.
The getchar () function reads a single character from a standard input device. This function do not requires any arguments.
8. What is meant by local variable?
The variables which are defined inside a function block or inside a compound statement of a function sub-program are called local variables.
9. Define constant.
The items whose values cannot be changed during the execution of program are called constants.
10. Define statements.
Statements can be defined as set of declarations or sequence of action. Statement causes the program to perform some action.
1. Define do-while loop.
It is a repetitive control structure and executes the body of the loop once irrespective of the condition then it checks the condition and continues the execution until the condition become false.
2. What is meant by break statement?
The break statement is used to terminate the loop. When the keyword break is used inside any loop, the control automatically get transferred to the first statement after the loop.
3. What is meant by continue statement?
Continue statement is used to transfer the control back to the beginning of the loop, before executing the rest of the statements inside the loop.
4. Define goto statement.
The goto statement transfers the control unconditionally from one place to another place in the program.
5. What is meant by user defined function?
The function defined by the user according to their requirements is called user defined function.
6. Define call by value.
When the value is passed directly to the function it is called call by value. In call by value only a copy of the variable is only passed so any changes made to the variable does not reflects in the calling function.
7. Define call by reference.
When the address of the value is passed to the function it is called call by reference. In call by reference since the address of the value is passed any changes made to the value reflects in the calling function.
8. What is meant by recursion and name two application?
This is where a function repeatedly calls itself to perform calculations. Typical applications are games and Sorting trees and lists.
9. Define one – dimensional array.
The collection of data item can be stored under a one variable name using only one subscript , such a variable is called one – dimensional array.
10. Give any two features of pointers.
· Pointer reduces the length and complexity of the program
· Pointers are efficient way of handling data associated with arrays.