FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING & COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
PROBLEM SOLVING AND OFFICE AUTOMATION
1. Explain the steps involved in developing a program with neat diagram? (FEB2009)
Brief about planning the computer program?
The Programming Process – Purpose
1. Understand the problem
v Read the problem statement
v Question users
v Inputs required
v Outputs required
v Special formulas
v Talk to users
2. Plan the logic
(a) Visual Design Tools
v Input record chart
v Printer spacing chart
v Hierarchy chart
(b) Verbal Design Tools
v Narrative Description
3. Code the program
v Select an appropriate programming language
v Convert flowchart and/or Pseudocode instructions into programming language statements
4. Test the program
1. Syntax errors
2. Runtime errors
3. Logic errors
4. Test Data Set
5. Implement the program
Buy hardware Publish software Train users
6. Maintain the program
Up to 85% of IT department budget
2. Explain flowchart in detail? (FEB 2009/FEB 2010) Definitions:
A flowchart is a schematic representation of an algorithm or a stepwise process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with
arrows. Flowcharts are used in designing or documenting a process or program.
A flow chart, or flow diagram, is a graphical representation of a process or system that details the sequencing of steps required to create output. A flowchart is a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order.
The benefits of flowcharts are as follows:
a. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned.
b. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart, problem can be analyzed in more effective way.
c. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation, which is needed for various purposes.
d. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase.
e. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process.
f. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part.
Logic Flowcharts are easy to understand. They provide a graphical representation of actions to be taken.
Logic Flowcharts are well suited for representing logic where there is intermingling among many actions.
Logic Flowcharts may encourage the use of GoTo statements leading to software design that is unstructured with logic that is difficult to decipher.
Without an automated tool, it is time-consuming to maintain Logic Flowcharts. Logic Flowcharts may be used during detailed logic design to specify a module.
However, the presence of decision boxes may encourage the use of GoTo statements, resulting in software that is not structured. For this reason, Logic Flowcharts may be better used during Structural Design.
LIMITATIONS OF USING FLOWCHARTS
Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case, flowchart becomes complex and clumsy.
Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-
Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem.
The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done.
GUIDELINES FOR DRAWING A FLOWCHART
a. In drawing a proper flowchart, all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order.
b. The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. There should not be any room for ambiguity in understanding the flowchart.
c. The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom.
d. Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol.
e. Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines, one for each possible answer, should leave the decision symbol.
f. Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol.
g. Write within standard symbols briefly. As necessary, you can use the annotation symbol to describe data or computational steps more clearly.
h. If the flowchart becomes complex, it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. Avoid the intersection of flow lines if you want to make it more effective and better way of communication.
i. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish.
j. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data.
3. Describe in detail about algorithm? Give example (MAY 2009)
An algorithm is a description of a procedure which terminates with a result. Simple algorithms can be implemented within a function.
Properties of an algorithm
There should not be any uncertainty about which instruction to execute next. The algorithm should conclude after a finite number of steps.
The algorithm should be general.
Biggest among two numbers Addition of N numbers Finding Factorial of a number Finding Fibonacci series.
4. Elaborate pseudo code with example. (MAY 2009\FEB 2009) Guidelines
Statements should be in simple English
Must produce a solution for the specified problem
It should be concise
Each instruction should be written in separate line and express one action. Capitalize keywords such as READ, PRINT and so on.
Instruction should be written from top to bottom, with one entry and one exit. Should allow easy transition from design to coding in programming language.
Easy to develop a program from pseudo code than flowchart. Easy to translate into programming language.
It is compact.
No visual representation of program logic
No accepted standards for writing pseudo codes. Cannot be compiled or executed.
No real form or syntax rules.
Finding a number is prime or not
5. Discuss about the program control structure and program paradigms in detail.
Program structures that affect the order in which statements are executed or that affect statements are executed are called control structures.
1. Sequence control structure
Instructions has to follow one another in a logical progression is sequence control structure.
Addition of two numbers
2. Selection Control Structure
Selection control structure allows the program to make a chance between alternate paths, when it is true or false.
Largest of two numbers
3. Repetition Control Structure
Directs the system to loop back to a previous statement in the program, repeating the same sequence over and again, usually with a new data. When a sequence of statements is repeated against a condition, it is said to a loop.
Example: Search a number in array
6. Explain in detail about the word processing package. (OR)
Explain 8 formatting features in word processing package. (JAN 2009/MAY 2009)
(3) Bullets and Numbering (4) Boarders and Shading (5) Tabs
(6) Change case
(7) Auto format
7. Describe about spreadsheet packages. (OR)
Explain the formatting features in spreadsheet package. (JAN 2009/MAY 2009)
(4) Auto format
(6) Conditional formatting
8. Discuss about the graphics package along with its various features in detail. (OR)
Explain 8 formatting features in graphics package. (JAN 2009/MAY 2009)
(2) Bullets and Numbering
(4) Line spacing (5) Change case (6) Replace fonts
(7) Slide Design
(8) Slide Layout
9. Briefly explain about the personal assistant package.