FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING & COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Computer Software –Types of Software – Software Development Steps – Internet
Evolution - Basic Internet Terminology – Getting connected to Internet Applications.
1. Define Computer Software?
Software is a set of programs or collection of programs that is executed by the Computer’s
CPU to function it in a desired way.
2. What is meant by Installation and Assembling?
Installation –It is the process of loading the software package into the computer.
Assembling – It is the process of mounting different computer peripherals into one, to make the computer to function properly.
3. Define Hardware.
Hardware is the physical components of the computer.
4. What are the types of Software?
1. Application software.
2. System software.
5. Define OS.
An operating system is a set of programs, which are used to control and co-ordinate the computer system.
6. What are the basic functions of an OS?
• Process Management.
• Memory Management.
• File Management.
• Device Management.
• Security Management.
• User Interface.
7. What are the types of Operating System?
• Single user operating system.
• Multi-user operating system.
• Time sharing operating system.
• Virtual storage operating system.
• Real time operating system.
• Multiprocessing operating system.
• Virtual machine operating system.
8. Define Multiprocessing?
Multiprocessing is the process of executing a single job by using multiple CPU’s.
9. What are language translators?
The language translators are the programs which come under system software category. They are Compilers, Interpreters and Assembler.
10. What are a Compiler, Assembler and Interpreter?
Compiler: It is a program which is used to convert the high level language program into machine language.
Assembler: It is a program which is used to convert the assembly level language program into machine language.
Interpreter: It is a program; it takes one statement of a high level language program, translates it into machine language instruction and then immediately executes the resulting machine language instruction.
11. What is Device Driver?
A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects.
12. What is the purpose of a Device Driver?
A device driver simplifies programming by acting as a translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. Programmers can write the higher-level application code independently of whatever specific hardware device it will ultimately control, because code and device can interface in a standard way, regardless of the software superstructure or of underlying hardware. Every version of a device, such as a printer, requires its own hardware-specific specialized commands.
13. What is a linker?
Many programming languages allow you to write different pieces of code, called modules, separately. This simplifies the programming task because you can break a large program into small, more manageable pieces.
Modules has to be put together. This is the job of the linker.
14. What is a loader?
In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for one of the essential stages in the process of starting a program, loading programs, that is, starting up programs by reading the contents of executable files (executables- files containing program text) into memory, then carrying out other required preparatory tasks, after which the program code is finally allowed to run and is started when the operating system passes control to the loaded program code.
15. What is Booting?
loader typically loads the main operating system for the computer.
16. What is application software?
An application software is a set of programs, that allows the computer to perform a specific
data processing for the user.
17. How can you obtain required software?
• Buying Pre-defined software.
• Buying customized software.
• Developing the software.
• Downloading from the Internet.
18. What are the categories of application software?
• Customized Application Software.
• General Application Software.
19. Define the System.
System is a group of interrelated components working together towards a common goal.
20. Specify the personnel’s, who are responsible for system design and implementation.
• System Personnel.
• System Analyst.
• System Designer.
21. What is system development cycle?
System development cycle is the sequence of events considered by the system developers to build the new system or to replace the old one.
22. What are the phases of Software Development Cycle?
• Requirement Analysis.
• Feasibility study.
• System Analysis and Design.
• Coding / Development.
23. What is Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document?
The Software Required Specification (SRS) Document is produced at the end of
Requirement Analysis stage, which specifies all requirements of the customer.
24. What is meant by Testing?
Testing is the process of executing the proposed software with sample or test data and put into regular use.
25. How the system can be tested?
• Unit Testing.
• Integration Testing.
• System Testing.
• User Acceptance Test and Installation Testing.
26. What is Design?
The Design is the process of specifying the detailed operation of the system.
27. Classify the Design phase.
• High-Level Design (System Design)
• Low-Level Design (Detailed Design)
28. What is meant by Coding?
Coding is the process of writing program in a programming language.
29. What is Implementation & Maintenance?
Implementation is the process of putting the system into regular use.
Maintenance is the process of enhancing the system after installation.
30. What is Internet?
Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks linked by copper wires, fiber optic cables and wireless connections etc,
31. Define protocol?
In computing, a protocol is a set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing endpoints. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behavior of a hardware connection.
32. What is Web?
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources linked by
hyperlinks and URL’s.
33. What is ARPANET?
It is acrimony for Advanced Research Project Agency NET, created by Department of
34. What is a Web page?
A webpage or web page is a document or resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a computer screen. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links.
35. Define Website?
A website is a collection of WebPages, images, videos or other digital assets that is based on one or more web servers, usually accessible through the Internet.
36. What is an IP?
IP stands for Internet Protocol, which is the language, that computer used to
communicate over the Internet.
37. Name some of the services of Internet or Internet applications? (JAN 2009)
• Remote Access.
• File Sharing.
• Voice Telephony.
• File Transfer Protocol.
• Internet Relay Chat.
• Video Conferencing.
38. What is HTTP?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Its use for retrieving inter-linked resources, called hypertext documents, led to the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1990.
There are two major versions, HTTP/1.0 that uses a separate connection for every document and HTTP/1.1 that can reuse the same connection to download, for instance, images for the just served page. Hence HTTP/1.1 may be faster as it takes time to set up the connections.
39. What is TCP/IP?
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
40. Define URL?
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. In popular usage and in many technical documents and verbal discussions it is often incorrectly used as a synonym for URI. In popular language, a URI is also referred to as a Web address.
41. Define ISP?
An Internet service provider (ISP, also called Internet access provider, or IAP) is a company that offers its customer’s access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol datagram’s, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.
ISPs may provide other services such as remotely storing data files on behalf of their customers, as well as other services unique to each particular ISP.
42. Define Home page?
The homepage (often written as home page) is the URL or local file that automatically loads when a web browser starts or when the browser's "home" button is pressed. One can turn this feature off and on, as well as specify a URL for the page to be loaded. The term is also used to refer to the front page, web server directory index, or main web page of a website of a group, company, organization, or individual.
43. Define Web Browser?
A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users to easily navigate their browsers to related resources.
44. Differentiate Application and System Software. (JAN / FEB 2009)
Used to perform specific data
processing or computational tasks to the user.
System software is the code that controls
It runs on top of the operating system
and performs a number of tasks for the computer system.
It forms the foundation and takes care of
the most basic tasks of the computer system.
Example: Operating System
45. Difference between web page and website. (JAN 2009/JAN 2010)
A web page is one screen full of
information (from a web site) that may contain links to other pages in the web
site or links to external information.
A website is a collection of one or more
web pages designed to convey information on a particular subject or
theme to a web user.
Every webpage should contain a Page
Title in the head section. A web page may contain text, animation or
Website will have a domain name.
Example: A company will have a web site providing structured information
about the company
Web page is an single entity.
Web site can have more than one web
46. Differentiate machine language and high level language. (JAN 2010)
High level Language
Represented in numbers.
Human readable form.
Directly executed by the Central
Should be translated into machine code
by compiler / interpreter.
Example: ADD A, B where A and B
are operands and ADD is an opcode.
Example: C, C++
47. Difference between Compiler and Interpreter. (JAN 2010)
Executes source code into target or
Executes source code directly or to an
Compilers convert once the source
Interpreter converts every time the
Languages for compiler conversion: C,
Languages for interpreter conversion:
48. What is IP Address? (JAN 2009)
Internet protocol address is the address of a device attached to an IP network (TCP/IP
network). Every client, server and network device is assigned an IP address, and every IP packet traversing an IP network contains a source IP address and a destination IP address.
49. Name any four application software packages. (JAN 2009)
50. What is soft loading? (JAN 2009)
A soft reboot (also known as a warm reboot) is restarting a computer under software
control, without removing power or (directly) triggering a reset line. It usually, though not always, refers to an orderly shutdown and restarting of the machine.
The Control-Alt-Delete key combination is used to allow the soft rebooting the system.
51. What are the steps involved in booting? (JAN 2009) First, the Power On Self Tests (POST) is conducted. These tests verify that the system is
operating correctly and will display an error message and/or output a series of beeps known as beep codes depending on the BIOS manufacturer.
Second, is initialization in which the BIOS look for the video card built in BIOS program and runs it. The BIOS then looks for other devices' ROMs to see if any of them have BIOSes and they are executed as well.
Third, is to initiate the boot process. The BIOS looks for boot information that is contained in file called the master boot record (MBR) at the first sector on the disk. If it is
searching a floppy disk, it looks at the same address on the floppy disk for a volume boot sector. Once an acceptable boot record is found the operating system is loaded which takes over control of the computer.
52. What is the difference between text and graphical browsers? (JAN 2010)
Based on GUI.
Links are based on text entry.
Links are present as icons or images.
Allow users to display and interact
only with text on the web pages.
Allow users to display and interact with
various images, present on the web pages.
Example: Lynx web browser
Example: Internet Explorer, Netscape